ORNAMENTAL PLANTS OF HORTICULTURE VALUE
Selection of perennials
No two writers may give the same recommendations as to which plants
should be taken from the wild. The plants described below represent
only the authorís selection and are mostly perennials. Herbaceous plants
predominate in the flora of the FSU consists of more than 80% of the flora
(Rabotnov, 1971). No concise account of the native ornamental herbaceous
plants of the FSU exists. Avrorinís (1977) two-volume Ornamental
Herbaceous Plants is valuable and it was taken into consideration,
however it covers only the monocots. Descriptions of ornamental dicots
can rarely be found and mostly in local publications. Botanists from all
over the FSU have been studied wild plants in nature and in cultivation
in different botanical gardens. The authors have select plant species
and described those who merit special attention. Some of these book became
classical. Nobody can learn ornamental plants from Caucasus without
Serdiukov publications (1960), the Altaian ornamentals without a book
written by Luchnik (1951), the Far Eastern promising plants without
Skripka (1960) and Egorova (1977) publications, nobody can judge who
these plants grow in cultivation in another climate without Karpisonovaís
(1985) book. These and other important publications are given below as
Among 200 genera endemic to the FSU most are herbaceous plants, many
with ornamental value, unknown in cultivation. Therefore, published plant
descriptions mainly consider perennials. In contrast, there are about
three thousands woody species in the flora. Many are widely distributed
with some endemic to the FSU. Several workers have investigated the trees
and shrubs of Russia and the references can be seen among recommended
literature. The most completed work was joint project and seven-volume
Trees and shrubs of the USSR (1949-1965) describes the woody species
and cultivars introduced to the FSU. The editor of these publications, S.
Sokolov (1965) gave the number 2,883 species of woody plants (including
semi-woody shrubs) native to the FSU. Unknown to cultivation, a short list
of the more horticulturally interesting trees and shrubs is given here,
after perennial descriptions, and it indicates taxa that grow under extreme
Short descriptions of plants are arranged alphabetically by genera and
species. The following list is of interest to scientists, plantsmen,
experienced gardeners, landscape architects, and anyone interested in the
introduction of new plants. All the plants included in the list have
ornamental value and all have been cultivated in St. Petersburg at the
Komarov Botanical Garden or elsewhere at other botanical gardens of the FSU;
many have been studied by the author in the field. About 50 species from
the FSU have been tested in the Miswest USA, mainly at the Chicago Botanic
Garden. The seeds were collected in the Russian Far East, in the southern
Siberia (Altay), in the
Caucasus (Georgia). Plants belong
to the different life forms and have shown different tolerance to the climate.
Taprooted and rhizome plants do well in Chicago climate, among them evergreen
Bergenia and deciduous Aconitum and Geranium. Some
plants change their rhythm, thus Sanguisorba overwinter with green
leaves, while in Siberia it is a decidouous plant. Most of the described
species can be grown in USDA zone 4 regions, unless otherwise indicated.
Species not mentioned by Bailey at al. (1976) in Hortus Third are
noted as "new to cultivation", and many are. Geographical names follow
the Times Atlas (1992), whenever possible. Latin scientific names
follow Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov, 1995)
and in most cases correspond to those in "The New Royal Horticultural
Society Dictionary of Gardening" (Huxley et al., 1992). When they differ,
synonyms are given whenever possible, especially for the generic splits
common in Russian literature, but unknown to gardeners in the West.
Authorities for names of taxa follow Brummitt and Powell (1992), with just
a few exceptions concomitantly with Latin transliterations of names (Charadze,
not Kharadze) and accepted by Russians (Kom. not Komarov, Makino not Mak.,
Siebold not Sieb.).
Brief descriptions follow and include:
- Latin name of the genus.
- English (if any) name of the genus.
- Family name.
- Brief notes on the genus, and as it are represented in
the flora of the FSU.
- Latin name of the species.
- Geographical distribution and habitat.
- Short description of the plant, including growth stages,
propagation methods and site requirements. All
measurements were taken from plants under cultivation.
The following abbreviations are employed:
V - vegetative (growing) season
Fl - flowering season
Fr - fruiting season
P - propagation
Z - most appropriate USDA hardiness zone
New - new to cultivation
The accompanying Recommended Literature provides further information for
ornamental species native to the FSU.
List of families and genera
- Berberidaceae (inc. Podophyllaceae)
- Liliaceae (s.l.)
- Papaveraceae (incl. Fumariaceae)