ORNAMENTAL PLANTS OF HORTICULTURE VALUE
Selection of perennials
Nearly 300 species confined to the Northern Hemisphere. Of 150
species of Campanula mentioned in the Flora of the USSR,
86 are endemic to the FSU. These endemic taxa are mainly concentrated
in the Caucasus, especially in western locations. They also range
across the mountains of Central Asia, Siberia, the Far East and the
European part of Russia. Campanula plants can be found in
diverse habitats: woods, meadows, among rocks frequently in the alpine
and subalpine zones and occasionally in steppes and semi-deserts. All
but two species are perennials, and the annuals are C. erinus L.
and C. propinqua Fisch. et C. A. Mey. Some Campanula are
monocarpic (C. mirabilis Albov) or biennials (C. crispa
Lam., C. lyrata Lam.). They vary greatly in habit. In height
they range from small alpine plants to tall subalpine plants of about
2 m. Inflorescences may be thyrsoid, racemose or capitate; some species
have solitary flowers. Bellflowers are very useful in gardens of various
styles, including both well-known plants and new ones. Many species are
well suited to rock gardens.
C. albovii Kolak.
Caucasus (western regions). In subalpine meadows.
Rootstock underground, creeping. Leaves long-petiolate (15-20 cm),
lanceolate, crenate. Flower-stalk slender, 50-70 cm, branched, with 3
to 7(9) flowers in 2 cm long, lax racemes. Flowers funnel form, dark
blue or violet. V -early spring to mid autumn, although some leaves
may persist through the winter. Fl - mid spring or early summer (May
or June in St. Petersburg). Fr - three weeks after flowering. P -
by seed. Grows well in semi-shaded sites. Z 4. New.
C. alliariifolia Willd.
Caucasus and also in Asia Minor. Among rocks in forest zone.
Taprooted plant with leafy shoots reaching 50-70 cm. Basal leaves
triangular-cordate with petioles 15-20 cm. Basal stem leaves smaller,
with shorter petioles, upper leaves sessile, much reduced, all with
white tomentum. Flowers light violet or white, large (3-3.5 cm long)
in one-sided cymose inflorescence. V - early spring to late autumn.
Fl - early summer (June in St. Petersburg) for 2-3 weeks, a few
flowers during July and August. Fr - a month after flowering. P -
by seed or by division. Prefers sunny places. Good for group
planting. Z 4.
The closely related C. dolomitica E. Busch differs in
its shorter shoots and larger yellow flowers. It occurs in the Great
Caucasus Range. Biology and growth reqirements are the same as for
C. alliariifolia. Z 4. New.
C. aucheri A. DC.
Caucasus (central regions, Transcaucasus), Balkan Peninsula,
Anatolia and northern Iran. In alpine belt on stabilized talus slopes
and in rock crevices.
Mat-forming perennial with leaves crowded in rosettes, green
throughout the year. Shoots loosely leafy, 10-15 cm. Flowers
solitary, blue-violet, 3-4 cm long. V - starts early spring just
after snow melting. Fl - mid spring (May in St. Petersburg) for
2-3 weeks. Fr - three weeks later. P - by seed, flower the year
after sowing. A light sunny position and well-drained soil are
required. Z 4.
Other beautiful Caucasian species related to C. aucheri, include
C. anomala Fom. (stems 10-15 cm, flowers 4-5 cm long,
new to cultivation); C. bellidifolia Adams (stems
10-12 cm, flowers 3-4cm long);
C. biebersteiniana Roem. et Schult. (stems 10-15 cm,
flowers 3-4 cm long, new to cultivation); and C. saxifraga
Bieb. (stems 10 cm, flowers 3-4 cm long). All species occur in the
alpine zone and are well suited to the rock garden. Z (4) 5.
C. choziatowskyi Fomin
Caucasus (Armenia). On cliffs and rocky slopes.
Clump-forming perennial with a creeping rootstock producing
numerous stems. Racems pendulous, with branching reaching 30 cm,
sometimes 60 cm. Flowers numerous, 1.5 cm long, deep azure blue with
an especially graceful form. Corolla tubular at base with a pale blue
stripe, while the calyx flares outward, so that the flower resembles
a blue cup sitting in a green saucer. V - early spring to late autumn.
Leaves may persist under snow protection. Fl - in early or mid-summer
(June-July in St. Petersburg). Fr - 3 weeks after flowering. P - by
seed. Flowers in the second year after sowing. Prefers rocky soil,
does well on a dry stone wall. Z 5. New.
There are a number of other species related to C. choziatowskyi that
occur in the Caucasus, barely known in cultivation. Of most interest
are C. elegantissima Grossh. (stems procumbent, 10-15 cm,
flowers numerous, 2-3 cm long, new to cultivation); C.
kemulariae Fomin (stems procumbent, 15-25 cm, flowers 2-3 cm
long); and C. ossetica Bieb. (stems arching, 20-40 cm
long, flowers numerous, 2-3 cm long, new.to cultivation). All plants
suitable for the rock garden and dry walls. All do well in Z 5;
C. kemulariae can grow in zone 4. Both C. elegantissima
and C ossetica are new reports for gardening.
C. hieracioides Kolak.
Caucasus (western region, in the gorge of the Gega River). In
Rhizome short. Leafy stem slightly geniculate, 20-30 cm, mostly
unbranched. Leaves sessile, ovate-lanceolate, serrate. Flowers
rather large (2.5-3.5 cm), blue, clustered at top of stem. V -
early spring to autumn. Fl - late spring (May in St. Petersburg) for
2-3 weeks. Fr - July. P - is relatively easy by seed. Flowers in
the first year after sowing. Winters underground, cold resistant.
Grows best in partial shade. Z 5 (4). New.
C. komarovii Maleev
Caucasus (northwestern regions, along the Black Sea coast between
the cities of Gelendzhik and Novorossiysk). In dry meadows and on
A short-lived plant, developing a rosette of leaves in the first
year. Leafy stem tall (up to 50-70 cm), branched. Leaves 2-4 cm x
05.1.5 cm, pubescent. Flowers very large, up to 4-5 cm long, with
bright violet-blue corolla. V - early spring to late autumn. Basal
leaves persist during the winter. Fl - early summer, abundantly for
three weeks with a few flowers appearing sporadically in later months.
Fr - a month later. P - by seed. This wild plant can compete in its
attractiveness with any garden plant due to large flowers and long
blooming. Grows in full sun and dry soil. Suffers from excess moisture.
C. mirabilis Albov
Caucasus (western region, in the valley of the Bzyb River). On
rocky lime stone slopes.
Monocarpic with a thick deep tap-root. Leaves congested and numerous
at the base, forming a rosette, leathery, oblong-spathulate. Flowering
stem 50-70 cm, leafy, branched. Flowers the top of the main stem and
along the numerous axillary branches. Flowers large, broadly
campanulate, pale lilac or blue. Forms with white flowers, and
yellow-margined leaves are known. Flowers in the wild after 2-3 years
of vegetative growth. In cultivation in southern FSU regions it will
flower the year after sowing. V - evergreen plant. In a cold climate
suffers without snow protection in the winter and especially in spring
from late frosts. Fl - in wild August, September, sometimes October.
Can flower for two or even three months and one plant in cultivation
can produce ca. 450-460 flowers. Prefers a somewhat shaded place on
limestone-derived, well drained soil, suffers when exposed to direct
sun light in the southern regions. P - by seed. Z 5. Probably the
most beautiful of all the species of Campanula. It was called
"The Queen of Abkhasian Flora" by Albov, the describer of the species.
C. sarmatica Ker-Gawl.
Caucasus (the Great Caucasus Range). In rocky and stony places and
Taprooted plant with flowering shoots reaching 50 cm. Basal leaves
oblong or ovate-oblong, petiole with blade up 10 cm long. Stem leaves
densely tomentose. Flowers blue or white, nearly 3-4 cm wide, in loose
unilateral raceme. V - early spring to late autumn. Fl - late spring
(end of May in St. Petersburg) for 2-3 weeks or longer. Fr - July.
P - by seed. Flowers the year after sowing. Prefers a sunny position,
well-drained soil. Z 4.
This species is closely related to C. collina Sims, well-known in
cultivation, and similar to it in habit (not to C. alliariifolia,
as stated in some reference books).
Among closely related species, two are of special interest:
C. annae Kolak., with large flowers to 4-5 cm long and
C. schistosa Kolak., stems 20-30 cm, flowers 4-5 cm long.
Z 5 (4). Both new.
C. turczaninovii Fed.
Siberian mountains and northern Mongolia. Tundra zone and coniferous
Taproot rather long, leaves clustered in a rosette. The flowering
stem 20-30 cm, seldom more. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 5-15 cm long.
Flowers 2-5, up to 4 cm long, located at top of stem. Corolla narrowly
funnel-shaped, deep blue. V - early spring to late autumn. Fl - early
summer (June in St. Petersburg) for 2-3 weeks. Fr - July. P - by seed.
Flowers the second year after sowing. Can grow in a semi-shaded
position. Z 4. New.
Among mat-forming plants, C. alpigena C. Koch,
C. andina Rupr., C. armazica Charadze,
C. chamissonis Fed., C. ciliata Steven,
C. fominii Grossh., C. kryophila Rupr.,
C. lasiocarpa Cham., C. radchensis Charadze,
C. sosnowskyi Charadze and C. tridentata
Schreb. should also be mentioned. All new except for C. chamissonis,
C. lasiocarpa, and C. tridentata. They are native to the
Caucasus or the Far East. All are very good for the rock garden.
Among tall-growing species (about 100 cm or more) C.
letschumensis Kem.-Nath., new and C. makaschvilii
E. Busch, both native to the Caucasus, are of gardening value. Good
for group planting. Z 5.