ORNAMENTAL PLANTS OF HORTICULTURE VALUE
Selection of perennials
Violets, pansy, viola
A large genus of about 500 species wordwide, of which 100 in the
FSU. One well-known species is V. altaica Ker-Gawl.,
native to Altay, Tien Shan, Dzungaro-Tarbagatay and
northwestern China. V. hirta L., of wide distribution,
is also in cultivation. Other species have been investigated.
Unfortunately, most of them are short-lived plants. The
following are among the long-lived.
V. langsdorffii Fisch.
Siberia (eastern regions), Far East (Kamchatka, Kuril Islands,
Sakhalin), Japan and Alaska. In meadows, in moist places.
Plant 20-30 cm. Rhizome creeping. Leaves broadly ovate,
long-petiolate (up to 25 cm long). Flowers violet, large,
2.5-3.5 cm diam. V - early spring to late autumn, some leaves
overwinter. Fl - May-June. Fr - July. P - by seed and easily
self-sown. Can grow in a moist partially shaded site. Z 4 (3).
V. mandshurica W. Becker
Far East (southern regions), Japan and China. In reedgrass
meadows on loose, woodland humus-rich soil.
Plant 6-10 cm. Rhizome short. Leaves long-petiolate, with
winged petiole, 2-7 cm long. Flowers large, 2.5-3.0 cm diam.,
dark violet. One plant bears 8-14 flowers. V - early spring to
late autumn, some leaves overwinter. Fl - April (in St. Petersburg
May) for 3-5 weeks. Fr - July-August. P - by seed and by cuttings,
also self-sown. Grows in semi-shade, on rich soil. Z 4.
V. oreades Bieb.
Crimea (mountain areas), Caucasus and northern Iran. On rocky
slopes and meadows in subalpine and alpine zones.
Rhizome many-branched. Stem 5-15 cm. Leaves in rosettes, ovate,
oblong-elliptic, long-petiolate, 7-10 x 3-15 mm. Flowers yellow or
violet, large, 2.5-3.5 cm diam. V - evergreen, new leaves early
spring to late autumn. Fl - May-July for 2 months. Fr -
July-September. P - by seed and cuttings. Very attractive, well
suited for flower beds and the rock garden. Z 6 (5). New.
The following are also of horticultural interest.
V. disjuncta W. Becker
Altay and Tarbagatay.
20-50 (-100) cm, with violet-yellow flowers. New.
V. variegata Fisch. ex Link
Southern Siberia and adjacent regions of the Far East, northern
China and Japan.
5-15 cm, flowers large, red-violet, leaves dark green, violet
beneath. P - easily by seed and cuttings.