ORNAMENTAL PLANTS OF HORTICULTURE VALUE
Selection of perennials
About 80 species from the Mediterranean through the Caucasus
and Central Asia to western China, 23 in the FSU, mainly in the
Caucasus and Central Asia. Some are well known in cultivation
(C. speciosus Bieb. adorns many gardens in Europe and in
the USA), others are poorly known (e.g. C. alatavicus
Regel et Semen., C. angustifolius Weston, C.
heuffelianus Herb., C. korolkowii Regel ex Maw,
C. scharojanii Rupr., C. vallicola Herb., etc.).
Among them spring (C. heuffelianus, bright violet) and
autumn (C. scharojanii, bright orange) flowering species.
Some of the species described below are totally unknown. All are
very good in the rock garden and flower beds for spring decoration.
Propagation by division (daughter corms) or by seed. Require
C. artvinensis (Philippow) Grossh.
Caucasus (western and southern Transcaucasus). On rocky slopes
and rocky cliffs and in gorges.
Plant 5-10 cm. Corm flat-globose, tunic smooth, with 2-3 rings.
Leaves glabrous, 2 mm wide. Flowers blue-violet, exterior striped
black-violet. V - early spring to late spring. Fl - mid spring
(May) in the wild, and (April, May) in St. Petersburg. Z 4. New.
C. autranii Albov
Caucasus (western Transcaucasus). Mountain meadows and limestone
Plant 10-20 cm. Corm globose, small, tunic membranous. Leaves
very narrow, glabrous, undeveloped at flowering time. Flowers bright
violet-buff to hell violet. Fl - September, October. Fr - usually
in spring. Z 4. New.
C. heuffelianus Herb. (C. bannaticus Heuffel)
Southwestern part of the FSU (Carpathians), mountain regions of
Western Europe. On steppe slopes, in meadows and clearings.
Plant 25-35 cm. Corm globose, 1.5 cm diam. Leaves 20-40 x 1-2 cm,
developed by flowering. Flowers 1-2, rare 3, large, up to 6 cm wide,
bright or pale violet, sometimes white. V - early spring to mid
summer. Fl - early spring, March, April. Fr - June. P - easily by
division and seed. Cold resistant. Requires rich moist soil. Very
well suited for spring decoration on lawns, the rock garden and flower
beds. Very attractive because of very large flowers. Z 4 (3).
C. korolkowii Regel ex Maw
Central Asia (mountains of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan). On shallow
gravelly soil in juniper stands.
Plant 10-20 cm. Corm globose, 2 cm diam., with parallel-fibered
tunic. Leaves 5-15, very narrow (1-2 mm wide), developed at flowering
time. Flowers yellow, large, 5-7 cm long, appear in early spring.
Fl -January, February in the wild, in St. Petersburg March-April for
20-30 days. Fr - May. Z 4.
C. michelsonii B. Fedtsch.
Central Asia (Kopet-Dag). Mainly found on rocky soil in alpine
Plant 10-20 cm. Corm pear-shaped, tunic membranous, with parallel
fibres. Leaves start to grow during flowering period, reaching 30 cm
x 2 mm. Flowers large, about 7.5 cm long, violet. Fl - early spring,
March in the wild, April in St. Petersburg. Z 5 (4). New.
C. pallasii Goldblatt
Crimea and the Mediterranean. On rocky slopes of hills, in steppe.
Plant 8-16 cm. Corm flat-globose, 2-3 cm diam., tunic coardely
netted, finely reticulate-fibrous. Leaves narrowly linear, 0.3-0.4 cm
wide, appearing in autumn and grow by spring. Flowers bright violet,
yellow in throat. Fl - September, October. Fr - early spring. Z 5