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Páramo Ecosystem
 (all localities)       Back to Home   

      The search function includes all páramo localities (gazetteer) for Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Peru. The locality names omit all Spanish articles such as El, La, Las, Los. The articles are given after the proper name, and when placed within parentheses their use is optional or varies. Localities with the same name are then designated as (1),(2), etc. The most commonly used name is detailed, while lesser used names are cross-referenced to the primary name. The highest known altitude is given next, followed by latitude and longitude (rounded off to the nearest minute), and country. The next two headings are called DIV 1 (i.e., primary political divisions such as department in Colombia and Peru, state in Venezuela, or province in Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador) and DIV 2 (i.e., secondary political divisions such as municipality in Colombia, district in Venezuela, canton in Costa Rica and Ecuador, or province in Peru), when these are known (DIV 2 was not used at all for Ecuador). If the páramo locality covers two or more political divisions within DIV 1, these divisions are separated by a slash (/). If the páramo locality covers two (or more) political divisions within DIV 2, the DIV 2 divisions are separated by an ampersand (&) and the DIV 1 by a slash (/). [Example 1: in Colombia, Cerro Agua Blanca overlaps the Municipality Puracé of the Departament Cauca and the Municipality La Argentina of the Department Huila; therefore, DIV 1 reads Cauca/Huila and DIV 2 reads Puracé/La Argentina. Example 2: in Colombia, Cerro Animas overlaps the Municipalities of La Cruz and El Tablón of the Department Nariño and the Municipality of Santa Rosa of the Department Cauca; therefore, DIV 1 reads Nariño/Cauca and DIV 2 reads La Cruz & El Tablón/Santa Rosa.] The last entry "Notes" usually gives more details about the geographical location, direction from a large or well-known city, connection with other nearby páramos, other spellings for the primary name, cross-references to other names, and comments.
      The primary sources of locality information for the páramo gazetteer (i.e., the names, altitudes, latitude and longitude, reference points in "Notes", etc.) were individual country maps (topographical, geopolitical, road maps, tourist maps, etc.), individual country gazetteers, label data from herbarium specimens, and literature references. The complete database includes detailed references for each individual entry, which are not included in this book but are available upon request. The main sources of data for each country are listed at the end of this chapter; the general literature references cited in the text are found in the bibliography at the end of the book.
      It was not always easy to determine the exact name, geographical position, or political division of a particular páramo. In several cases, especially in older maps, elevations, latitude/longitude readings, and sometimes DIV 2 names were different (for the same páramo) on different maps. Therefore, it must be remembered that some of the entries are approximate, although I have tried to keep political divisions current. I have used only proper names and not vague localities such as "shrub páramo between Loja and Zamora." When a páramo name could not be located (on a map) or confirmed (by literature or other sources), it is simply listed without further comment and the entry is incomplete. Finally, in the "NOTES" entry it was not always possible to give precise páramo localities that included reference to a well-known city or cities found on all maps; therefore, whenever possible, one or more cities are given in the entry and these, used together with the geographical coordinates, should help to pinpoint the locality in question. Undoubtedly there are many more local names that I have missed, and I very much welcome additions and corrections to the Gazetteer.

Bibliographic Sources for Locations of Páramos


Hanson, E. P. & N. Raymond (eds.). 1945. Index to maps of Hispanic America. Maps of Hispanic America. 1:1,000,000. American Geographical Society, Publication No. 5. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Costa Rica & Panama Colombia Venezuela Ecuador Peru

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