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The Cutting Edge
Volume X, Number 3, July 2003
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Aliscioni, S. S., L. M. Giussani, F. O. Zuloaga & E. A. Kellogg.
A molecular phylogeny of Panicum (Poaceae: Paniceae): tests of monophyly
and phylogenetic placement within the Panicoideae. Amer. J. Bot. 90:
The effort to break up Panicum s. l., a cosmopolitan
alliance of ca. 450 spp. never convincing as a natural genus, moves
forward haltingly. This contribution, based on molecular analysis of
the chloroplast ndhF gene, restricts Panicum to the five
sections (and ca. 100 spp.) comprising subg. Panicum. The
recognition of Dichanthelium, accepted in the Manual Poaceae
treatment, is supported, albeit with the removal of [Panicum] sect.
Cordovensia Parodi [with Dichanthelium cordovense (E. Fourn.)
Davidse and D. pantrichum (Hack.) Davidse in Costa Rica]. The genus
Steinchisma, previously not attributed to Costa Rica (see Zuloaga
et al., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 631-656. 1998), is also supported as
distinct from Panicum; however, it is here shown to include Panicum
laxum Sw., a sp. occurring in Costa Rica, and the combination Steinchisma
laxa (Sw.) Zuloaga is duly validated. Finally, the assignment of Panicum
maximum Jacq. to the genus Urochloa is reaffirmed [see
The Cutting Edge 9(1): 5-6, Jan. 2002]. Most of the remaining spp. in
Panicum s. l. (together with the spp. excluded from Dichanthelium)
are left unclassified in “incertae sedis“ groupings, pending
A most useful feature of this paper is an extensive listing of spp. according
to the groups here conceived (a complete list is said to be available via a
referenced URL, but the site is still under construction as of this writing).
For Costa Rica, it comes down to this: the genus Panicum, with 34 spp.
according to Francisco Morales's Manual treatment, will now have only
11 spp.; all the rest (with the exception of P. laxum and P. maximum)
are in a state of taxonomic limbo. The 11 Costa Rican spp. of Panicum s. str.
are as follows (grouped by section): sect. Panicum (Panicum
ghiesbreghtii E. Fourn., P. hirsutum Sw., P. hirticaule J.
Presl, P. hispidifolium Swallen, and P. parcum Hitchc. & Chase);
sect. Dichotomiflora (Hitchc.) Honda (P. aquaticum Poir., P.
elephantipes Nees ex Trin., and P. sublaeve Swallen); sect.
Rudgeana (Hitchc.) Zuloaga (P. cayennense Lam. and P. rudgei
Roem. & Schult.); and sect. Virgata Nees (P. altum Hitchc. & Chase).
Unrepresented in Costa Rica is Panicum sect. Urvilleana (Hitchc.)
Pilg. Numerous additional new combinations are made here, but no others that
pertain to Costa Rica.
Almeda, F. 2003. Chromosome cytology and taxonomy of the red
goblet-flowered species of Clidemia (Melastomataceae: Miconieae) in
Central and South America. Novon 13: 161-169
This colorfully named group of three spp., ranging from Costa Rica
to coastal Ecuador, is characterized by a reclining to scandent habit and
5-merous flowers with erect, red, cucullate petals, minute anther thecae, and
a trilocular ovary. Two of the spp. are known from Costa Rica: Clidemia
clandestina Almeda, here described as new, has been collected at 700-1400 m
elevation on the very wet Atlantic slope of the Cordilleras de Guanacaste, de
Tilarán, and de Talamanca, as well as in western Panama; C. utleyana Almeda
occurs in similar habitats on the Atlantic slope of the Cordilleras Central
and de Talamanca, thence southward to the Chocó region of Colombia. The
third sp., Clidemia garciabarrigae Wurdack, reaches the La Fortuna region
of western Panama, and thus could also turn up in Costa Rica. Features a key
to spp., lengthy descriptions of all three spp., representative specimen
citations, composite line drawings (except for C. utleyana), and karyotypes.
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2003. An update of the Angiosperm
Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants:
APG II. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 141: 399-436.
This contribution attempts to accommodate the considerable progress
in molecular sytematics that has occurred since (and partly in reponse to) the
first (1998) Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) classification [see
The Cutting Edge 6(1): 5-6, Jan. 1999], much of which has been reported
in these pages. Although “the basic structure [of the original
classification]...has been confirmed and strengthened,“ numerous
changes have had to be made, some involving back-pedaling from previous
molecular-based conclusions (and we thought this stuff was the final word!).
Newly lumped (or re-lumped) are Agapanthaceae (back, optionally, into
Alliaceae), Anthericaceae (into Agavaceae), Avicenniaceae (into Acanthaceae),
Buddlejaceae (into Scrophulariaceae s. str.), Cecropiaceae (into Urticaceae),
Celtidaceae (into Cannabaceae), Cochlospermaceae (back, optionally, into
Bixaceae), Convallariaceae (into Ruscaceae), Flacourtiaceae (into Salicaceae),
Memecylaceae (back, optionally, into Melastomataceae), Thismiaceae (back into
Burmanniaceae), and Tristichaceae (back into Podostemaceae). Now (or again)
accepted as distinct families are Achariaceae (from Flacourtiaceae, now
Salicaceae), Brunelliaceae (back from Cunoniaceae), Calceolariaceae (from
Scrophulariaceae), Cabombaceae (back, optionally, from Nymphaeaceae),
Cardiopteridaceae and Stemonuraceae [from Icacinaceae; see
The Cutting Edge 9(1): 6-7, Jan. 2002], Desfontainiaceae (back, optionally,
from Columelliaceae), Hypericaceae (from Clusiaceae), Lobeliaceae (optionally,
from Campanulaceae), Martyniaceae (from Pedaliaceae), Phrymaceae [from
Scrophulariaceae and Verbenaceae; see
The Cutting Edge 9(4): 4, Oct. 2002], and Phyllanthaceae (from
Many of the more startling or revolutionary innovations are found among
the expanded selection of “bracketed“ families, i.e.,
“families that could be included optionally in broader circumscriptions
with other related families.“ These include (in addition to the
examples already noted): Agavaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Laxmanniaceae, and
Ruscaceae, all optionally in Asparagaceae; Amaryllidaceae, optionally in
Alliaceae; Asphodelaceae and Hemerocallidaceae, optionally in
Xanthorrhoeaceae; Dichapetalaceae and Trigoniaceae, optionally in
Chrysobalanaceae; Erythroxylaceae, optionally in Rhizophoraceae;
Krameriaceae, optionally in Zygophyllaceae; Ternstroemiaceae, optionally
in Pentaphylacaceae; Pellicieraceae, optionally in Tetrameristaceae;
Quiinaceae, optionally in Ochnaceae; Turneraceae, optionally in
Passifloraceae; and Valerianaceae, optionally in Caprifoliaceae. Some
of these enlarged concepts are attractive, and we particularly lament
not having been able to consider the Alliaceae s. l. and Asparagaceae
s. l. options for the Manual.
Some miscellaneous closing observations of interest to us: Huertea,
formerly assigned to Staphyleaceae, is now grouped with a monospecific
Chinese genus in the unplaced family Tapisciaceae (this must have been done
by APG in 1998, but we failed to catch it); Peltanthera now appears
unequivocally assigned to Gesneriaceae; and the recent paper by Gustafsson
et al. [2002; see
The Cutting Edge 10(1): 5-6, Jan. 2003], showing Podostemaceae nested
within Clusiaceae, is not cited, and must have appeared too late to be
considered for the new classification [despite which Hypericaceae (but not
Calophyllaceae) is accepted as distinct from Clusiaceae]. The authors note
that much molecular work on angiosperm systematics remains to be done,
especially in elucidating the relationships among orders and larger groups.
Various smaller taxa also remain unplaced, including Balanophoraceae,
Metteniusa, and Rafflesiaceae, while others known to be para- or
polyphyletic (e.g., Portulacaceae and Phytolaccaceae, respectively) are
provisionally accepted, pending definitive resolutions.
Campos, J. A. 2003. Orquídeas del Valle Escondido.
Lankesteriana 7: 117-119.
The apparently private Reserva Valle Escondido is located on the
Atlantic slope of the Cordillera de Tilarán, at 300-550 m elevation,
between the Ríos Balsa and San Lorenzo, in association with an
ecotourism lodge. A mere 120 ha in area, it is even smaller than the Río
Palenque Science Center in Ecuador and, like that reserve, is covered mainly
in secondary forest. Despite this, a project to identify and illustrate the
orchids of the site has so far accounted for 172 spp., considerably more than
have been found at the Estación Biológica La Selva, more than 20
times as large and with extensive tracts of primary forest (though at a lower
elevation). The spp. are not enumerated here, though the number of spp. per
genus is recorded in a bar graph; most diverse is Maxillaria, followed
by Epidendrum then Pleurothallis s. l. The vouchers are, for
the most part, living plants maintained in a greenhouse.
Dressler, R. L. & W. E. Higgins. 2003. Guarianthe, a generic
name for the “Cattleya“ skinneri complex. Lankesteriana 7: 37-38.
Citing molecular analyses showing Cattleya to be polyphyletic, the
authors here formalize generic status for “one of the clearest
segregates,“ the Central American complex centered on Cattleya
skinneri Bateman (the Costa Rican national flower). Guarianthe
Dressler & W. E. Higgins, the new name chosen, derives from the Costa Rican
word “guaria,“ referring to these (and other) spp. Despite their
molecular rationalization, the authors admit that “bootstrap support
for [the C. skinneri group] is minimal.“ Thus their argument is
fundamentally a morphological one, and several characters separating
Guarianthe from Rhyncholaelia (its sister group in the molecular
analyses) are adduced. Curiously, however, no morphological support is
provided for the allegation that the C. skinneri alliance is “out of
place“ in Cattleya, and no morphological characters are given
to separate Guarianthe from Cattleya s. str. Four new
combinations are validated, of which at least two pertain to spp. occurring
in Costa Rica: Guarianthe patinii (Cogn.) Dressler & W. E. Higgins
(based on Cattleya patinii Cogn.) and G. skinneri (Bateman)
Dressler & W. E. Higgins; Guarianthe aurantiaca (Bateman ex Lindl.)
Dressler & W. E. Higgins [formerly Cattleya aurantiaca (Bateman ex
Lindl.) P. N. Don] may also conceivably be found in Costa Rica.
García-Peña, M. del R. & F. Chiang. 2003. Cunila
leucantha and C. polyantha (Lamiaceae), confused neotropical
species. Taxon 52: 129-132.
Confirming a notion first expressed by Joan W. Nowicke and
Carl C. Epling in their Flora of Panama Labiatae treatment (Ann. Missouri
Bot. Gard. 56: 83. 1969), the authors distinguish two spp. from widely
distributed Mesoamerican populations long known collectively as Cunila
polyantha Benth. As luck seems always to have it, the familiar name
turns out to apply to the more narrowly restricted sp., in this case a
central Mexican endemic. The more widespread entity, ranging from southern
Mexico to Panama, must now be called Cunila leucantha Kunth ex
Schltdl. & Cham. The latter name (actually the older of the two) is here
Kirby, S. 2003. Neotropical orchid eco-tourism: educational
experience of an orchid neophyte at the Bosque de Paz Biological Preserve,
Central Volcanic Range, Costa Rica. Lankesteriana 7: 121-124.
The private reserve mentioned in the title occupies ca. 1000 ha
near Bajos del Toro, in the basin of the Río Toro, on the Atlantic
slope of Volcán Poás. The elevational range extends from ca.
1300-2450 m. An unvouchered list of orchids from the site, based on
living specimens found on downfalls and relocated to conveniently situated
trees, totals 55 spp. (plus “several unidentified species“ of
Oncidium and “many other unidentified species“ of pleurothallids).
We would expect that, in such a large area with so great an altitudinal
range and in such a rich habitat, at least five times as many orchid spp.
will eventually be found.
Kirkbride, J. H., Jr. 2003. (1574) Proposal to conserve the name
Chloroleucon against Chloroleucum (Fabaceae). Taxon 52: 141-142.
Chloroleucum Britton & Rose ex Record has been dismissed as
a mere orthographic variant of Chloroleucon (Benth.) Britton & Rose,
the name currently in use for a genus of 10 spp., recently segregated from
The Cutting Edge 3(3): 3-4, Jul. 1996]. However, this author demonstrates
that the two names are actually separate, heterotypic nomenclatural entities,
both validly published; moreover, they are clearly to be regarded as homonyms,
and (you guessed it) Chloroleucum has priority. If this proposal were
to be rejected, 16 transfers (including varietal names) from Chloroleucon
to Chloroleucum would be required. Under the gun are two spp. occurring
in Costa Rica, presently known as Chloroleucon mangense (Jacq.) Britton
& Rose and C. eurycyclum Barneby & J. W. Grimes [see
The Cutting Edge 7(1): 4-5, Jan. 2000].
Königer, W. 2003. Luers methode-oder: Wie man einen lästigen
Konkurrenten ausschaltet/Luer's method-or how to get rid of a bothersome competitor.
Arcula 13: 314.
In which the author uses his own vanity-press journal to air personal
grievances with Manual Orchidaceae contributor Carlyle Luer. Miffed that
Luer has synonymized many of his new Masdevallia spp., Königer
proceeds (in the body of this issue) to reconsider the merits of these disputed
entities; needless to say, each comes out smelling like a rose. Added examples
purport to “show just how small a difference Luer himself considers
sufficient for publishing...a [Masdevallia] species.“ Fascinating reading,
for the tiny cadre of scandal-mongering orchidophiles with access to this
Morales, C. O. 2003. El botánico y artista Rafael Lucas
Rodríguez (1915-1981); reseña de su vida y su obra. Lankesteriana
This paper delivers exactly what is promised in the title, a short
biography of one of the most respected Costa Rican organismal biologists,
including photographs and an enumeration of his publications. Rafael Lucas
Rodríguez was born in San Ramón, a small town which, for some
reason, has produced more than its share of great biologists. He earned his
Ph.D. in 1954 at the University of California, Berkeley, under the late
Lincoln Constance, with an anatomical monograph of the arborescent genus
Myrrhidendron (Apiaceae). At the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), he
was quickly swept into administration (the destiny of most Ph.D.'s in small
countries), but left an indelible mark. He played a decisive role in the
creation of the Departamento de Biología in 1956, and was a founder of
the Revista de Biología Tropical and the Organization for Tropical Studies.
In 1969, he helped salvage Charles Lankester's botanical garden after
the latter's death, and was instrumental in getting the garden donated to
UCR in 1973. Don Rafael was also a wonderfully adept artist, who produced
(among other things) beautiful and detailed watercolors of selected orchid
spp. for his masterwork, Orquídeas del istmo centroamericano, which
(along with several other somewhat less ambitious projects) was never finished.
His bountiful legacy includes the 1092 watercolors completed for this work,
now the property of UCR, of which just 143 have been published (in the book
Géneros de orquídeas de Costa Rica; see under Warner,
Morales, J. F. 2003. Sinopsis del género Meliosma (Sabiaceae)
en Costa Rica y Panamá, con tres nuevas especies. Sida 20: 931-943.
This is a essentially a condensed version of Chico's recently revised
Manual draft treatment of Sabiaceae [see
The Cutting Edge 9(3): 2, Jul. 2002],
shorn of descriptions and in-country distribution details (except for new spp.),
but with added synonymy and typological information (and including four spp.
occurring in Panama, but not Costa Rica). Otherwise, the two versions differ
in no important respects; the total number of Meliosma spp. in Costa Rica
remains 14, including two that are new to science and here validated. The two
last-mentioned spp., both endemics as far as is known, are Meliosma
clandestina J. F. Morales and M. depressiva J. F. Morales, the former
occurring at 100-900 m in very wet forests of the Pacific slope, the latter
at 1300-1900 m, mainly on the Pacific slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca
(but also on the Atlantic slope, in the Río Reventazón drainage).
Meliosma clandestina has been confused with M. donnellsmithii
Urb. (from which it differs in its smaller leaves and fruits, but larger
flowers), while M. depressiva is compared with the more northern
M. grandifolia (Liebm.) Urb. and the more southern M. pittieriana
Steyerm. Both of the aforementioned new spp. are depicted in line drawings
by the author (as is a third new spp., Meliosma chiriquensis J. F.
Morales, known only from the La Fortuna region of western Panama, but
conceivably occurring in Costa Rica). Includes a key to all 18 spp. treated.
--. 2003. Nuevas combinaciones y un nuevo nombre en las
bromeliáceas de Costa Rica. Polibotánica 15: 100-103
With his Manual Bromeliaceae treatment on the eve of publication,
Chico here validates new combinations in the segregate genus Werauhia
The Cutting Edge 2(2): 6-7, Apr. 1995] for five spp. that he had
originally described in Vriesea. These are: Werauhia barii, W.
haberi, W. osaensis, W. tiquirensis, and W. vulcanicola, for all
of which “J. F. Morales“ is now both the parenthetical and
extraparenthetical authority. Additionally, Werauhia clandestina
J. F. Morales is proposed as a nomen novum for Vriesea simulans
J. F. Morales (1999), a later homonym of V. simulans Leme (1997);
unfortunately, as we understand it, Chico's new name is another instant
casualty, rendered superfluous by the slightly less-recent publication
(in a paper we have not yet seen) of Werauhia moralesii H. Luther.
It clearly wasn't Chico's destiny to name this sp., but at least he gets
it named for him!
--. 2003 New combinations in Werauhia (Bromeliaceae)
from Costa Rica. Lundiana 4: 65.
A Brazilian journal becomes the vehicle for the eleventh-hour
validation of two additional new Werauhia combinations, for spp.
treated as distinct in Chico's Manual account of Bromeliaceae. These
are: Werauhia macrantha (Mez & Wercklé) J. F. Morales and
W. macrochlamys (Mez & Wercklé) J. F. Morales, both originally
described in the genus Vriesea.
--. 2003 A new species of Paullinia (Sapindaceae) from Costa Rica.
Brittonia 55: 173-175.
Paullinia fournieri J. F. Morales commemorates famed
Costa Rican plant biologist Luis A. Fournier, who recently passed away
The Cutting Edge 9(3): 1, Jul. 2002]. The new sp. is endemic to Costa
Rica, where it occurs at 200-1000 m elevation on the Atlantic slope, in the
vicinity of San Ramón, and on the Pacific slope, in the Golfo Dulce
region. Some of the Costa Rican collections of P. fournieri were
originally determined as P. correae Croat (of eastern Panama and
northwestern Colombia), but the former sp. is distinct in having consistently
trifoliolate (vs. generally biternate) leaves, longer inflorescences,
pedicellate flowers, and obovoid (vs. subglobose), conspicuously stipitate
fruits. Illustrated with an excellent composite line drawing by Silvia
Ossenbach S., C., M. Ossenbach S. & F. Pupulin. 2003. Catálogo
preliminar de las Orchidaceae de la Zona Protectora Cerros de La Carpintera,
Costa Rica. Lankesteriana 7: 127-132.
The Cerros de La Carpintera occupy a minor stretch of the Continental
Divide connecting the Cordilleras Central and de Talamanca, their forested crest
(attaining ca. 1870 m elevation) forming the skyline to the southeast of San
José. Partly because of its proximity to major population centers, this
serranía is of historical importance as a type locality for many names
based on collections of Pittier and Tonduz, Curt and Alfred Brade, Standley,
Lankester, Stork, and others. Several spp. are believed endemic to these hills,
including the orchid Malaxis carpinterae (Schltr.) Ames. This
contribution recounts the history of orchid collecting in the Cerros de La
Carpintera, assesses the representation of collections in various major
institutions, and provides a checklist of 67 spp. of Orchidaceae known
(on the basis of historical collections) from the range. The authors expect
this list to be fleshed out considerably by future fieldwork in the area.
Ricketson, J. M. & J. J. Pipoly III. 2003. Revision of Ardisia
subgenus Auriculardisia (Myrsinaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 179-317.
The pantropical Ardisia, with “perhaps 500 species“
the largest genus of Myrsinaceae, has been taxonomically problematical at
both sp. and genus rank. Although “nearly 800 names“ have been
published for the Mesomerican region alone, the authors suspect that these
will reduce to ca. 120 spp. Over the years, numerous groups (mainly
neotropical) have been splintered off Ardisia s. l. as separate
genera, especially by the late Cyrus Lundell; however, the present
authors (working from “only preliminary cladograms“) recognize
most of these (if at all) at infrageneric rank, their principal category
being that of subgenus, of which seven are indigenous to or naturalized
in Mesoamerica. These authors (in reverse order) have previously revised
Ardisia subg. Graphardisia Mez [see
The Cutting Edge 6(1): 10, Jan. 1999] and the New World contingent of
erstwhile Ardisia spp. shunted to the formerly Old World genus
The Cutting Edge 7(4): 5-6, Oct. 2000]; treatments of the remaining
subgenera of Ardisia [including subg. Ardisia and subg.
Icacorea (Aubl.) Mez] are said to be in progress.
The present contribution demotes one of Lundell's splinter genera to
Ardisia subg. Auriculardisia (Lundell) Ricketson & Pipoly,
within which are included two other Lundellian genera, Amatlania
(as a section) and Valerioanthus. So constituted, subg. Auriculardisia
comprises 70 spp. ranging from Mexico to Peru and Venezuela, all characterized
by auriculate, asymmetrical calyx lobes with a subapical notch. Five sections
are recognized, all newly named, and all represented by at least one sp. in
Costa Rica. Altogether, 25 spp. of subg. Auriculardisia are attributed
to Costa Rica, of which one (Ardisia pellucida Oerst.) is represented
by two subspp. Numerous additional spp. are known from closely adjacent
regions and may be expected to turn up in Costa Rica, especially Ardisia
knappiae (Lundell) Ricketson & Pipoly (misspelled as knappii),
which has been found both in southernmost Nicaragua and westernmost Panama.
Fourteen spp. of subg. Auriculardisia are Costa Rican endemics, as
well as one of the subspp.; ten of these endemic spp. (and 15 of the 25
total) belong to sect. Palmanae Ricketson & Pipoly, the largest
section in the subgenus (with 47 spp.) and one that is characterized by
“very localized“ spp. Thirteen new spp. are described (four
from Costa Rica), as well as two new subspp. (one from Costa Rica), and
five new combinations (none pertinent to Costa Rica) are validated. The
Costa Rican novelties (all endemic) are as follows: Ardisia angucianensis
Ricketson & Pipoly, from Cerro Anguciana in the southern Fila Costeña;
A. generalensis Ricketson & Pipoly, from the northern Valle de El
General; A. talamancensis Ricketson & Pipoly, from the Atlantic
slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca at ca. 350 m elevation; A.
tortuguerensis Ricketson & Pipoly, from the Lomas de Sierpe, in the
interior of Parque Nacional Tortuguero; and A. pellucida subsp.
thomascroatii Ricketson & Pipoly, from the northern Fila Costeña.
Except for A. generalensis (collected twice), each of these Costa
Rican endemic taxa is known only by the type collection.
The Manual Myrsinaceae draft treatment by Francisco Morales [see
The Cutting Edge 7(1): 3, Jan. 2000] recognizes 22 spp. attributable
to Ardisia subg. Auriculardisia, a negligible difference
that would appear to be explicable on the basis of new taxa alone.
However, though the two accounts are in general overall agreement,
careful scrutiny reveals several disturbing discrepancies (none of which
we are qualified to arbitrate). Ardisia
J. F. Morales and A. quadrata (Lundell) J. F. Morales, accepted
as distinct spp. by Chico, are synonymized by Ricketson and Pipoly (R&P),
the former under A. palmana Donn. Sm., the latter under A.
nigropunctata Oerst. Ardisia apodophylla J. F. Morales is
lumped by R&P under A. conoidea Lundell, a name treated by Chico
as a synonym of A. wedelii Lundell. On the other hand, Ardisia
liesneri Lundell and the Panamanian A. coloradoana Lundell,
A. hammelii Lundell, and A. tysonii Lundell are all
accepted as distinct spp. by R&P, but synonymized by Chico (under
A. dunlapiana P. H. Allen, A. pleurobotrya Donn. Sm.,
A. wedelii, and A. blepharodes Lundell, respectively).
Perhaps the most confusing impasse involves Ardisia capitellata
Lundell and A. cartagoana Lundell, treated as separate spp. by
R&P, but lumped by Chico under the name Ardisia rufa Lundell-by
R&P considered a synonym of A. palmana! Finally, Ardisia hagenii
Lundell, restricted by R&P to Panama, is attributed to Costa Rica by Chico
on the basis of specimens presumably not seen by the former authors; the
name Ardisia toroana (Lundell) Pipoly & Ricketson, a synonym of
A. hagenii in the eyes of R&P, belongs instead under A. fimbrillifera
Lundell, in Chico's view. As for R&P's new spp.: the types of Ardisia
angucianensis, A. talamancensis, and A. tortuguerensis were
determined by Chico as A. rufa, A. sordida (Lundell) J. F. Morales,
and A. brenesii Standl., respectively. (It is worth noting that
A. sordida is now referred by R&P to the genus Hymenandra.)
We are unable establish how (or if) Chico dealt with material of A.
This is a rigorous taxonomic revision, featuring generous descriptions
at all ranks (including genus), a key to the sugenera of Ardisia
occurring in the Neotropics, a key to the sections of subg. Auriculardisia,
separate keys to the spp. and subspp. of each section, representative (mostly)
specimen citations, composite line drawings of most (if not all) spp. and
subspp., a section on excluded names, and an index to exsiccatae. The
introductory part includes discussions of taxonomic history, classification,
and morphology. Our particular use of this work was greatly hampered by the
lack of an index to scientific names; similarly, we would like to have seen
the section on excluded names expanded to account for the many names in
Auricularidisia (mostly of Lundell) now referred to other subgenera of
Salazar, G. A., M. W. Chase, M. A. Soto Arenas & M. Ingrouille. 2003.
Phylogenetics of Cranichideae with emphasis on Spiranthinae
(Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae): evidence from plastid and nuclear DNA sequences.
Amer. J. Bot. 90: 777-795.
This work is mainly concerned with subtribal classification and
generic relationships, subjects generally outside our interest. However,
we do glean that the genus Schiedeella, as currently circumscribed, is
Taylor, C. M. 2003. Rubiacearum americanarum magna hama pars
XIII. A new species of Schradera (Schradereae) from Mesoamerica.
Novon 13: 220-222.
Schradera (Rubiaceae) is a genus of subscandent epiphytes
now regarded as occurring in both the Neotropics and the Indo-Pacific region,
with about 30 spp. in the former area. Because of its habit, as well as its
habitat (in very wet forests of the Atlantic slope), Schradera has been
poorly collected and little understood in Central America. The new sp.,
Schradera obtusifolia C. M. Taylor, is segregrated from S.
costaricensis Dwyer, with which it shares obtuse to rounded leaf apices
(contrasting with the acuminate leaf apices of S. blumii Dwyer & M.
V. Hayden, the only other congener in the region). The new sp. differs
from S. costaricensis in having just 5-10 flowers per head (vs.
20-40) and corolla lobes as long as or longer than the tube (vs. ca. half
as long). Furthermore, S. obtusifolia has been collected only in
the Cordillera de Talamanca of easternmost Costa Rica and adjacent Panama,
while S. costaricensis is restricted to the Cordillera de Tilarán
(and thus becomes a Costa Rican endemic). Illustrated with a line drawing.
--. 2003 Rubiacearum americanarum magna hama pars XV.
New species and two new combinations in Notopleura (Psychotrieae) from
Central and South America. Novon 13: 228-260.
The big bucket is looking more like the Dogpatch Ham of botany.
Twenty-six new spp. are here described in Notopleura, a neotropical
genus, now swelled to ca. 100 spp., that was formerly included in
The Cutting Edge 8(4): 6-7, Oct. 2001]. Twenty-one of these novelties
belong to subg. Notopleura (for which four sp. groups are informally
recognized), comprising terrestrial, usually unbranched, terrestrial herbs
or shrubs, the remaining five to the much smaller subg. Viscagoga
(Baill.) C. M. Taylor, comprising usually branched epiphytes. Just five of
the 26 new spp. are attributed to Costa Rica, four in subg. Notopleura
and one in subg. Viscagoga (neither of the new combinations concerns us).
Belonging to the former group are: Notopleura amicitiae C. M. Taylor,
compared with N. aggregata (Standl.) C. M. Taylor and occurring at
1300-2200 m elevation on the Pacific slope of the eastern Cordillera de
Talamanca and into adjacent Panama; N. capitata C. M. Taylor, compared
to N. aggregata and N. tonduzii (Standl.) C. M. Taylor,
widespread (mainly on the Atlantic slope) from Nicaragua to western Panama
at 10-1700 m; N. costaricensis C. M. Taylor, a Costa Rican endemic
(mainly in the Monteverde region) that has been confused with N. dukei
(Dwyer) C. M. Taylor; and N. montana C. M. Taylor, compared to N.
macrophylla (Ruiz & Pav.) C. M. Taylor and restricted in Costa Rica to
the Pacific slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca (but widespread southward
and eastward to Colombia and Venezuela). Our newest member of subg.
Viscagoga is Notopleura elegans C. M. Taylor, compared to
N. guadalupensis (DC.) C. M. Taylor and N. pithecobia (Standl.)
C. M. Taylor and occurring at 900-2500 m in Costa Rica (all major cordilleras)
and western Panama. We deduce, from this and various other sources, that
the names Notopleura dukei and N. guadalupensis are no longer
to be used for Costa Rican plants, and that the square-stemmed herb common
at the Estación Biológica La Selva, where it is presently called
Notopleura aggregata (and, in the old days, Psychotria tonduzii
Standl.), will henceforth be known as N. capitata. All the new spp.
are illustrated with line drawings of habit, flowers and/or fruits. A very
useful appendix enumerates all the spp. of the genus, by subgenus.
Warner, J. 2003. La investigación en el
Jardín Botánico Lankester. Lankesteriana 7: 175-176.
In the past few years, the Jardín Botánico Lankester
has risen like a phoenix as one of the most active botanical research centers
in the Neotropics. Here, the author (director of the institution since 2001)
explains how this came to be. In his view, three developments were paramount:
first, the professional relationship between Dora Emilia Mora (director of
the garden from 1979 until hear death in 2001) with Robert L. Dressler
(FLA/MO), dating from 1984, which resulted in the establishment of an
orchidology course at the Universidad de Costa Rica and the publication of
Géneros de orquídeas de Costa Rica (a lavish folio volume showcasing
the scientifically accurate watercolors of the late Rafael Lucas
Rodríguez). Dora Emilia was further motivated to produce the first
modern checklist of Costa Rican orchids [see The Cutting Edge 1(3): 5-6, Jul.
The second important development was Dora Emilia's professional relationship
with John T. Atwood (SEL), beginning in 1987. As a result of this
collaboration, some 300 Costa Rican orchid spp. were described and illustrated
in the series Icones Plantarum Tropicarum, and subtribes Maxillariinae and
Oncidiinae were formally treated in a volume of Flora costaricensis
Cutting Edge 6(3): 4, Jul. 1999]. During this period, the orchid collection
at USJ was greatly enriched, and several Costa Rican students came of age
professionally as orchid specialists, most notably, Mario Blanco, Carlos O.
Morales, and Jorge Warner.
The third major development occurred in March, 2001, when the Universidad de
Costa Rica designated the Jardín as an Estación Experimental, giving
it the means to acquire new investigative resources. A research group quickly
coalesced around the leadership of Italian orchidologist Franco Pupulin;
this group, including Mario Blanco and Carlos Morales, has propelled the
institution to its present heights. In just a few years, numerous botanical
inventories of poorly known sites have been carried out, the first vouchered
checklist of Costa Rican orchids was published [see
The Cutting Edge 9(4): 10-11, Oct. 2002], and the international scientific
journal Lankesteriana (now in its seventh volume) was created (just to mention
a few high points). As detailed in companion papers in this same issue, the
Jardín has also initiated an Internet data-base (Schug, Lankesteriana
7: 21-24. 2003) and is involved in an effort to digitize all the Costa Rican
orchid types at AMES (Pupulin & Romero-González, Lankesteriana 7: 11-16).
Wilmot-Dear, C. M., I. Friis & T. I. Kravtsova. 2003. A new species
of Boehmeria (Urticaceae), B. burgeriana Wilmot-Dear, Friis & Kravtsova,
endemic to Costa Rica. Kew Bull. 58: 213-218.
Well, the new name may be cumbersome, but it ain't half so bad as
“species of uncertain position“ or “species of uncertain
identity,“ the only means of referring to this mysterious entity for
more than a quarter century. The former moniker was conferred by Flora
costaricensis author William Burger [see, e.g., Fieldiana, Bot. 40: 282-283.
1977], to whom the new sp. is appropriately dedicated, the latter by the
first two authors of this paper in a 1996 revision [see
The Cutting Edge 4(2): 8, Apr. 1997]. All the uncertainty stems from
the apparently 2- or 3-locular fruits of this sp. (which otherwise fits
neatly into Boehmeria) in a family with universally unilocular
fruits. Burger, while noting the overall resemblance to Boehmeria
and conjecturing that the plurilocular condition was due to the fusion
of adjacent female flowers, nevertheless declined to classify this sp.;
the present authors, touching the same bases (and with very little
additional evidence), take the plunge. So the jury may still be out on
this (we'd especially like to see a cladistic analysis), but at least we
have a means to file our specimens and access the associated data.
Boehmeria burgeriana is endemic to Costa Rica, where it is
scattered in rain and cloud forest habitats at 900-1600 m elevation on
the Atlantic slopes of the Cordilleras de Tilarán (Monteverde region),
Central (Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo), and de Talamanca (near Cachí
and Tapantí). Just seven collections are cited (but several others at
MO and Costa Rican herbaria were not seen). Features a composite line
drawing, SEM micrographs of fruit sections, and a distribution map.