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Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica

Main | Family List (MO) | Family List (INBio) | Cutting Edge
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The Cutting Edge

Volume X, Number 3, July 2003

News and Notes | Recent Treatments | Leaps and Bounds | Germane Literature | Season's Pick

Aliscioni, S. S., L. M. Giussani, F. O. Zuloaga & E. A. Kellogg. A molecular phylogeny of Panicum (Poaceae: Paniceae): tests of monophyly and phylogenetic placement within the Panicoideae. Amer. J. Bot. 90: 796-821

The effort to break up Panicum s. l., a cosmopolitan alliance of ca. 450 spp. never convincing as a natural genus, moves forward haltingly. This contribution, based on molecular analysis of the chloroplast ndhF gene, restricts Panicum to the five sections (and ca. 100 spp.) comprising subg. Panicum. The recognition of Dichanthelium, accepted in the Manual Poaceae treatment, is supported, albeit with the removal of [Panicum] sect. Cordovensia Parodi [with Dichanthelium cordovense (E. Fourn.) Davidse and D. pantrichum (Hack.) Davidse in Costa Rica]. The genus Steinchisma, previously not attributed to Costa Rica (see Zuloaga et al., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 631-656. 1998), is also supported as distinct from Panicum; however, it is here shown to include Panicum laxum Sw., a sp. occurring in Costa Rica, and the combination Steinchisma laxa (Sw.) Zuloaga is duly validated. Finally, the assignment of Panicum maximum Jacq. to the genus Urochloa is reaffirmed [see The Cutting Edge 9(1): 5-6, Jan. 2002]. Most of the remaining spp. in Panicum s. l. (together with the spp. excluded from Dichanthelium) are left unclassified in “incertae sedis“ groupings, pending further investigation.

A most useful feature of this paper is an extensive listing of spp. according to the groups here conceived (a complete list is said to be available via a referenced URL, but the site is still under construction as of this writing). For Costa Rica, it comes down to this: the genus Panicum, with 34 spp. according to Francisco Morales's Manual treatment, will now have only 11 spp.; all the rest (with the exception of P. laxum and P. maximum) are in a state of taxonomic limbo. The 11 Costa Rican spp. of Panicum s. str. are as follows (grouped by section): sect. Panicum (Panicum ghiesbreghtii E. Fourn., P. hirsutum Sw., P. hirticaule J. Presl, P. hispidifolium Swallen, and P. parcum Hitchc. & Chase); sect. Dichotomiflora (Hitchc.) Honda (P. aquaticum Poir., P. elephantipes Nees ex Trin., and P. sublaeve Swallen); sect. Rudgeana (Hitchc.) Zuloaga (P. cayennense Lam. and P. rudgei Roem. & Schult.); and sect. Virgata Nees (P. altum Hitchc. & Chase). Unrepresented in Costa Rica is Panicum sect. Urvilleana (Hitchc.) Pilg. Numerous additional new combinations are made here, but no others that pertain to Costa Rica.

Almeda, F. 2003. Chromosome cytology and taxonomy of the red goblet-flowered species of Clidemia (Melastomataceae: Miconieae) in Central and South America. Novon 13: 161-169

This colorfully named group of three spp., ranging from Costa Rica to coastal Ecuador, is characterized by a reclining to scandent habit and 5-merous flowers with erect, red, cucullate petals, minute anther thecae, and a trilocular ovary. Two of the spp. are known from Costa Rica: Clidemia clandestina Almeda, here described as new, has been collected at 700-1400 m elevation on the very wet Atlantic slope of the Cordilleras de Guanacaste, de Tilarán, and de Talamanca, as well as in western Panama; C. utleyana Almeda occurs in similar habitats on the Atlantic slope of the Cordilleras Central and de Talamanca, thence southward to the Chocó region of Colombia. The third sp., Clidemia garciabarrigae Wurdack, reaches the La Fortuna region of western Panama, and thus could also turn up in Costa Rica. Features a key to spp., lengthy descriptions of all three spp., representative specimen citations, composite line drawings (except for C. utleyana), and karyotypes.

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 141: 399-436.

This contribution attempts to accommodate the considerable progress in molecular sytematics that has occurred since (and partly in reponse to) the first (1998) Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) classification [see The Cutting Edge 6(1): 5-6, Jan. 1999], much of which has been reported in these pages. Although “the basic structure [of the original classification]...has been confirmed and strengthened,“ numerous changes have had to be made, some involving back-pedaling from previous molecular-based conclusions (and we thought this stuff was the final word!). Newly lumped (or re-lumped) are Agapanthaceae (back, optionally, into Alliaceae), Anthericaceae (into Agavaceae), Avicenniaceae (into Acanthaceae), Buddlejaceae (into Scrophulariaceae s. str.), Cecropiaceae (into Urticaceae), Celtidaceae (into Cannabaceae), Cochlospermaceae (back, optionally, into Bixaceae), Convallariaceae (into Ruscaceae), Flacourtiaceae (into Salicaceae), Memecylaceae (back, optionally, into Melastomataceae), Thismiaceae (back into Burmanniaceae), and Tristichaceae (back into Podostemaceae). Now (or again) accepted as distinct families are Achariaceae (from Flacourtiaceae, now Salicaceae), Brunelliaceae (back from Cunoniaceae), Calceolariaceae (from Scrophulariaceae), Cabombaceae (back, optionally, from Nymphaeaceae), Cardiopteridaceae and Stemonuraceae [from Icacinaceae; see The Cutting Edge 9(1): 6-7, Jan. 2002], Desfontainiaceae (back, optionally, from Columelliaceae), Hypericaceae (from Clusiaceae), Lobeliaceae (optionally, from Campanulaceae), Martyniaceae (from Pedaliaceae), Phrymaceae [from Scrophulariaceae and Verbenaceae; see The Cutting Edge 9(4): 4, Oct. 2002], and Phyllanthaceae (from Euphorbiaceae).

Many of the more startling or revolutionary innovations are found among the expanded selection of “bracketed“ families, i.e., “families that could be included optionally in broader circumscriptions with other related families.“ These include (in addition to the examples already noted): Agavaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Laxmanniaceae, and Ruscaceae, all optionally in Asparagaceae; Amaryllidaceae, optionally in Alliaceae; Asphodelaceae and Hemerocallidaceae, optionally in Xanthorrhoeaceae; Dichapetalaceae and Trigoniaceae, optionally in Chrysobalanaceae; Erythroxylaceae, optionally in Rhizophoraceae; Krameriaceae, optionally in Zygophyllaceae; Ternstroemiaceae, optionally in Pentaphylacaceae; Pellicieraceae, optionally in Tetrameristaceae; Quiinaceae, optionally in Ochnaceae; Turneraceae, optionally in Passifloraceae; and Valerianaceae, optionally in Caprifoliaceae. Some of these enlarged concepts are attractive, and we particularly lament not having been able to consider the Alliaceae s. l. and Asparagaceae s. l. options for the Manual.

Some miscellaneous closing observations of interest to us: Huertea, formerly assigned to Staphyleaceae, is now grouped with a monospecific Chinese genus in the unplaced family Tapisciaceae (this must have been done by APG in 1998, but we failed to catch it); Peltanthera now appears unequivocally assigned to Gesneriaceae; and the recent paper by Gustafsson et al. [2002; see The Cutting Edge 10(1): 5-6, Jan. 2003], showing Podostemaceae nested within Clusiaceae, is not cited, and must have appeared too late to be considered for the new classification [despite which Hypericaceae (but not Calophyllaceae) is accepted as distinct from Clusiaceae]. The authors note that much molecular work on angiosperm systematics remains to be done, especially in elucidating the relationships among orders and larger groups. Various smaller taxa also remain unplaced, including Balanophoraceae, Metteniusa, and Rafflesiaceae, while others known to be para- or polyphyletic (e.g., Portulacaceae and Phytolaccaceae, respectively) are provisionally accepted, pending definitive resolutions.

Campos, J. A. 2003. Orquídeas del Valle Escondido. Lankesteriana 7: 117-119.

The apparently private Reserva Valle Escondido is located on the Atlantic slope of the Cordillera de Tilarán, at 300-550 m elevation, between the Ríos Balsa and San Lorenzo, in association with an ecotourism lodge. A mere 120 ha in area, it is even smaller than the Río Palenque Science Center in Ecuador and, like that reserve, is covered mainly in secondary forest. Despite this, a project to identify and illustrate the orchids of the site has so far accounted for 172 spp., considerably more than have been found at the Estación Biológica La Selva, more than 20 times as large and with extensive tracts of primary forest (though at a lower elevation). The spp. are not enumerated here, though the number of spp. per genus is recorded in a bar graph; most diverse is Maxillaria, followed by Epidendrum then Pleurothallis s. l. The vouchers are, for the most part, living plants maintained in a greenhouse.

Dressler, R. L. & W. E. Higgins. 2003. Guarianthe, a generic name for the “Cattleya“ skinneri complex. Lankesteriana 7: 37-38.

Citing molecular analyses showing Cattleya to be polyphyletic, the authors here formalize generic status for “one of the clearest segregates,“ the Central American complex centered on Cattleya skinneri Bateman (the Costa Rican national flower). Guarianthe Dressler & W. E. Higgins, the new name chosen, derives from the Costa Rican word “guaria,“ referring to these (and other) spp. Despite their molecular rationalization, the authors admit that “bootstrap support for [the C. skinneri group] is minimal.“ Thus their argument is fundamentally a morphological one, and several characters separating Guarianthe from Rhyncholaelia (its sister group in the molecular analyses) are adduced. Curiously, however, no morphological support is provided for the allegation that the C. skinneri alliance is “out of place“ in Cattleya, and no morphological characters are given to separate Guarianthe from Cattleya s. str. Four new combinations are validated, of which at least two pertain to spp. occurring in Costa Rica: Guarianthe patinii (Cogn.) Dressler & W. E. Higgins (based on Cattleya patinii Cogn.) and G. skinneri (Bateman) Dressler & W. E. Higgins; Guarianthe aurantiaca (Bateman ex Lindl.) Dressler & W. E. Higgins [formerly Cattleya aurantiaca (Bateman ex Lindl.) P. N. Don] may also conceivably be found in Costa Rica.

García-Peña, M. del R. & F. Chiang. 2003. Cunila leucantha and C. polyantha (Lamiaceae), confused neotropical species. Taxon 52: 129-132.

Confirming a notion first expressed by Joan W. Nowicke and Carl C. Epling in their Flora of Panama Labiatae treatment (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 56: 83. 1969), the authors distinguish two spp. from widely distributed Mesoamerican populations long known collectively as Cunila polyantha Benth. As luck seems always to have it, the familiar name turns out to apply to the more narrowly restricted sp., in this case a central Mexican endemic. The more widespread entity, ranging from southern Mexico to Panama, must now be called Cunila leucantha Kunth ex Schltdl. & Cham. The latter name (actually the older of the two) is here lectotypified.

Kirby, S. 2003. Neotropical orchid eco-tourism: educational experience of an orchid neophyte at the Bosque de Paz Biological Preserve, Central Volcanic Range, Costa Rica. Lankesteriana 7: 121-124.

The private reserve mentioned in the title occupies ca. 1000 ha near Bajos del Toro, in the basin of the Río Toro, on the Atlantic slope of Volcán Poás. The elevational range extends from ca. 1300-2450 m. An unvouchered list of orchids from the site, based on living specimens found on downfalls and relocated to conveniently situated trees, totals 55 spp. (plus “several unidentified species“ of Oncidium and “many other unidentified species“ of pleurothallids). We would expect that, in such a large area with so great an altitudinal range and in such a rich habitat, at least five times as many orchid spp. will eventually be found.

Kirkbride, J. H., Jr. 2003. (1574) Proposal to conserve the name Chloroleucon against Chloroleucum (Fabaceae). Taxon 52: 141-142.

Chloroleucum Britton & Rose ex Record has been dismissed as a mere orthographic variant of Chloroleucon (Benth.) Britton & Rose, the name currently in use for a genus of 10 spp., recently segregated from Pithecellobium [see The Cutting Edge 3(3): 3-4, Jul. 1996]. However, this author demonstrates that the two names are actually separate, heterotypic nomenclatural entities, both validly published; moreover, they are clearly to be regarded as homonyms, and (you guessed it) Chloroleucum has priority. If this proposal were to be rejected, 16 transfers (including varietal names) from Chloroleucon to Chloroleucum would be required. Under the gun are two spp. occurring in Costa Rica, presently known as Chloroleucon mangense (Jacq.) Britton & Rose and C. eurycyclum Barneby & J. W. Grimes [see The Cutting Edge 7(1): 4-5, Jan. 2000].

Königer, W. 2003. Luers methode-oder: Wie man einen lästigen Konkurrenten ausschaltet/Luer's method-or how to get rid of a bothersome competitor. Arcula 13: 314.

In which the author uses his own vanity-press journal to air personal grievances with Manual Orchidaceae contributor Carlyle Luer. Miffed that Luer has synonymized many of his new Masdevallia spp., Königer proceeds (in the body of this issue) to reconsider the merits of these disputed entities; needless to say, each comes out smelling like a rose. Added examples purport to “show just how small a difference Luer himself considers sufficient for publishing...a [Masdevallia] species.“ Fascinating reading, for the tiny cadre of scandal-mongering orchidophiles with access to this obscure serial.

Morales, C. O. 2003. El botánico y artista Rafael Lucas Rodríguez (1915-1981); reseña de su vida y su obra. Lankesteriana 7: 159-164.

This paper delivers exactly what is promised in the title, a short biography of one of the most respected Costa Rican organismal biologists, including photographs and an enumeration of his publications. Rafael Lucas Rodríguez was born in San Ramón, a small town which, for some reason, has produced more than its share of great biologists. He earned his Ph.D. in 1954 at the University of California, Berkeley, under the late Lincoln Constance, with an anatomical monograph of the arborescent genus Myrrhidendron (Apiaceae). At the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), he was quickly swept into administration (the destiny of most Ph.D.'s in small countries), but left an indelible mark. He played a decisive role in the creation of the Departamento de Biología in 1956, and was a founder of the Revista de Biología Tropical and the Organization for Tropical Studies. In 1969, he helped salvage Charles Lankester's botanical garden after the latter's death, and was instrumental in getting the garden donated to UCR in 1973. Don Rafael was also a wonderfully adept artist, who produced (among other things) beautiful and detailed watercolors of selected orchid spp. for his masterwork, Orquídeas del istmo centroamericano, which (along with several other somewhat less ambitious projects) was never finished. His bountiful legacy includes the 1092 watercolors completed for this work, now the property of UCR, of which just 143 have been published (in the book Géneros de orquídeas de Costa Rica; see under Warner, this column).

Morales, J. F. 2003. Sinopsis del género Meliosma (Sabiaceae) en Costa Rica y Panamá, con tres nuevas especies. Sida 20: 931-943.

This is a essentially a condensed version of Chico's recently revised Manual draft treatment of Sabiaceae [see The Cutting Edge 9(3): 2, Jul. 2002], shorn of descriptions and in-country distribution details (except for new spp.), but with added synonymy and typological information (and including four spp. occurring in Panama, but not Costa Rica). Otherwise, the two versions differ in no important respects; the total number of Meliosma spp. in Costa Rica remains 14, including two that are new to science and here validated. The two last-mentioned spp., both endemics as far as is known, are Meliosma clandestina J. F. Morales and M. depressiva J. F. Morales, the former occurring at 100-900 m in very wet forests of the Pacific slope, the latter at 1300-1900 m, mainly on the Pacific slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca (but also on the Atlantic slope, in the Río Reventazón drainage). Meliosma clandestina has been confused with M. donnellsmithii Urb. (from which it differs in its smaller leaves and fruits, but larger flowers), while M. depressiva is compared with the more northern M. grandifolia (Liebm.) Urb. and the more southern M. pittieriana Steyerm. Both of the aforementioned new spp. are depicted in line drawings by the author (as is a third new spp., Meliosma chiriquensis J. F. Morales, known only from the La Fortuna region of western Panama, but conceivably occurring in Costa Rica). Includes a key to all 18 spp. treated.

--. 2003. Nuevas combinaciones y un nuevo nombre en las bromeliáceas de Costa Rica. Polibotánica 15: 100-103

With his Manual Bromeliaceae treatment on the eve of publication, Chico here validates new combinations in the segregate genus Werauhia [see The Cutting Edge 2(2): 6-7, Apr. 1995] for five spp. that he had originally described in Vriesea. These are: Werauhia barii, W. haberi, W. osaensis, W. tiquirensis, and W. vulcanicola, for all of which “J. F. Morales“ is now both the parenthetical and extraparenthetical authority. Additionally, Werauhia clandestina J. F. Morales is proposed as a nomen novum for Vriesea simulans J. F. Morales (1999), a later homonym of V. simulans Leme (1997); unfortunately, as we understand it, Chico's new name is another instant casualty, rendered superfluous by the slightly less-recent publication (in a paper we have not yet seen) of Werauhia moralesii H. Luther. It clearly wasn't Chico's destiny to name this sp., but at least he gets it named for him!

--. 2003 New combinations in Werauhia (Bromeliaceae) from Costa Rica. Lundiana 4: 65.

A Brazilian journal becomes the vehicle for the eleventh-hour validation of two additional new Werauhia combinations, for spp. treated as distinct in Chico's Manual account of Bromeliaceae. These are: Werauhia macrantha (Mez & Wercklé) J. F. Morales and W. macrochlamys (Mez & Wercklé) J. F. Morales, both originally described in the genus Vriesea.

--. 2003 A new species of Paullinia (Sapindaceae) from Costa Rica. Brittonia 55: 173-175.

Paullinia fournieri J. F. Morales commemorates famed Costa Rican plant biologist Luis A. Fournier, who recently passed away [see The Cutting Edge 9(3): 1, Jul. 2002]. The new sp. is endemic to Costa Rica, where it occurs at 200-1000 m elevation on the Atlantic slope, in the vicinity of San Ramón, and on the Pacific slope, in the Golfo Dulce region. Some of the Costa Rican collections of P. fournieri were originally determined as P. correae Croat (of eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia), but the former sp. is distinct in having consistently trifoliolate (vs. generally biternate) leaves, longer inflorescences, pedicellate flowers, and obovoid (vs. subglobose), conspicuously stipitate fruits. Illustrated with an excellent composite line drawing by Silvia Troyo.

Ossenbach S., C., M. Ossenbach S. & F. Pupulin. 2003. Catálogo preliminar de las Orchidaceae de la Zona Protectora Cerros de La Carpintera, Costa Rica. Lankesteriana 7: 127-132.

The Cerros de La Carpintera occupy a minor stretch of the Continental Divide connecting the Cordilleras Central and de Talamanca, their forested crest (attaining ca. 1870 m elevation) forming the skyline to the southeast of San José. Partly because of its proximity to major population centers, this serranía is of historical importance as a type locality for many names based on collections of Pittier and Tonduz, Curt and Alfred Brade, Standley, Lankester, Stork, and others. Several spp. are believed endemic to these hills, including the orchid Malaxis carpinterae (Schltr.) Ames. This contribution recounts the history of orchid collecting in the Cerros de La Carpintera, assesses the representation of collections in various major institutions, and provides a checklist of 67 spp. of Orchidaceae known (on the basis of historical collections) from the range. The authors expect this list to be fleshed out considerably by future fieldwork in the area.

Ricketson, J. M. & J. J. Pipoly III. 2003. Revision of Ardisia subgenus Auriculardisia (Myrsinaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 179-317.

The pantropical Ardisia, with “perhaps 500 species“ the largest genus of Myrsinaceae, has been taxonomically problematical at both sp. and genus rank. Although “nearly 800 names“ have been published for the Mesomerican region alone, the authors suspect that these will reduce to ca. 120 spp. Over the years, numerous groups (mainly neotropical) have been splintered off Ardisia s. l. as separate genera, especially by the late Cyrus Lundell; however, the present authors (working from “only preliminary cladograms“) recognize most of these (if at all) at infrageneric rank, their principal category being that of subgenus, of which seven are indigenous to or naturalized in Mesoamerica. These authors (in reverse order) have previously revised Ardisia subg. Graphardisia Mez [see The Cutting Edge 6(1): 10, Jan. 1999] and the New World contingent of erstwhile Ardisia spp. shunted to the formerly Old World genus Hymenandra [see The Cutting Edge 7(4): 5-6, Oct. 2000]; treatments of the remaining subgenera of Ardisia [including subg. Ardisia and subg. Icacorea (Aubl.) Mez] are said to be in progress.

The present contribution demotes one of Lundell's splinter genera to Ardisia subg. Auriculardisia (Lundell) Ricketson & Pipoly, within which are included two other Lundellian genera, Amatlania (as a section) and Valerioanthus. So constituted, subg. Auriculardisia comprises 70 spp. ranging from Mexico to Peru and Venezuela, all characterized by auriculate, asymmetrical calyx lobes with a subapical notch. Five sections are recognized, all newly named, and all represented by at least one sp. in Costa Rica. Altogether, 25 spp. of subg. Auriculardisia are attributed to Costa Rica, of which one (Ardisia pellucida Oerst.) is represented by two subspp. Numerous additional spp. are known from closely adjacent regions and may be expected to turn up in Costa Rica, especially Ardisia knappiae (Lundell) Ricketson & Pipoly (misspelled as knappii), which has been found both in southernmost Nicaragua and westernmost Panama. Fourteen spp. of subg. Auriculardisia are Costa Rican endemics, as well as one of the subspp.; ten of these endemic spp. (and 15 of the 25 total) belong to sect. Palmanae Ricketson & Pipoly, the largest section in the subgenus (with 47 spp.) and one that is characterized by “very localized“ spp. Thirteen new spp. are described (four from Costa Rica), as well as two new subspp. (one from Costa Rica), and five new combinations (none pertinent to Costa Rica) are validated. The Costa Rican novelties (all endemic) are as follows: Ardisia angucianensis Ricketson & Pipoly, from Cerro Anguciana in the southern Fila Costeña; A. generalensis Ricketson & Pipoly, from the northern Valle de El General; A. talamancensis Ricketson & Pipoly, from the Atlantic slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca at ca. 350 m elevation; A. tortuguerensis Ricketson & Pipoly, from the Lomas de Sierpe, in the interior of Parque Nacional Tortuguero; and A. pellucida subsp. thomascroatii Ricketson & Pipoly, from the northern Fila Costeña. Except for A. generalensis (collected twice), each of these Costa Rican endemic taxa is known only by the type collection.

The Manual Myrsinaceae draft treatment by Francisco Morales [see The Cutting Edge 7(1): 3, Jan. 2000] recognizes 22 spp. attributable to Ardisia subg. Auriculardisia, a negligible difference that would appear to be explicable on the basis of new taxa alone. However, though the two accounts are in general overall agreement, careful scrutiny reveals several disturbing discrepancies (none of which we are qualified to arbitrate). Ardisia eurubiginosa (Lundell) J. F. Morales and A. quadrata (Lundell) J. F. Morales, accepted as distinct spp. by Chico, are synonymized by Ricketson and Pipoly (R&P), the former under A. palmana Donn. Sm., the latter under A. nigropunctata Oerst. Ardisia apodophylla J. F. Morales is lumped by R&P under A. conoidea Lundell, a name treated by Chico as a synonym of A. wedelii Lundell. On the other hand, Ardisia liesneri Lundell and the Panamanian A. coloradoana Lundell, A. hammelii Lundell, and A. tysonii Lundell are all accepted as distinct spp. by R&P, but synonymized by Chico (under A. dunlapiana P. H. Allen, A. pleurobotrya Donn. Sm., A. wedelii, and A. blepharodes Lundell, respectively). Perhaps the most confusing impasse involves Ardisia capitellata Lundell and A. cartagoana Lundell, treated as separate spp. by R&P, but lumped by Chico under the name Ardisia rufa Lundell-by R&P considered a synonym of A. palmana! Finally, Ardisia hagenii Lundell, restricted by R&P to Panama, is attributed to Costa Rica by Chico on the basis of specimens presumably not seen by the former authors; the name Ardisia toroana (Lundell) Pipoly & Ricketson, a synonym of A. hagenii in the eyes of R&P, belongs instead under A. fimbrillifera Lundell, in Chico's view. As for R&P's new spp.: the types of Ardisia angucianensis, A. talamancensis, and A. tortuguerensis were determined by Chico as A. rufa, A. sordida (Lundell) J. F. Morales, and A. brenesii Standl., respectively. (It is worth noting that A. sordida is now referred by R&P to the genus Hymenandra.) We are unable establish how (or if) Chico dealt with material of A. generalensis.

This is a rigorous taxonomic revision, featuring generous descriptions at all ranks (including genus), a key to the sugenera of Ardisia occurring in the Neotropics, a key to the sections of subg. Auriculardisia, separate keys to the spp. and subspp. of each section, representative (mostly) specimen citations, composite line drawings of most (if not all) spp. and subspp., a section on excluded names, and an index to exsiccatae. The introductory part includes discussions of taxonomic history, classification, and morphology. Our particular use of this work was greatly hampered by the lack of an index to scientific names; similarly, we would like to have seen the section on excluded names expanded to account for the many names in Auricularidisia (mostly of Lundell) now referred to other subgenera of Ardisia.

Salazar, G. A., M. W. Chase, M. A. Soto Arenas & M. Ingrouille. 2003. Phylogenetics of Cranichideae with emphasis on Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae): evidence from plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 90: 777-795.

This work is mainly concerned with subtribal classification and generic relationships, subjects generally outside our interest. However, we do glean that the genus Schiedeella, as currently circumscribed, is polyphyletic.

Taylor, C. M. 2003. Rubiacearum americanarum magna hama pars XIII. A new species of Schradera (Schradereae) from Mesoamerica. Novon 13: 220-222.

Schradera (Rubiaceae) is a genus of subscandent epiphytes now regarded as occurring in both the Neotropics and the Indo-Pacific region, with about 30 spp. in the former area. Because of its habit, as well as its habitat (in very wet forests of the Atlantic slope), Schradera has been poorly collected and little understood in Central America. The new sp., Schradera obtusifolia C. M. Taylor, is segregrated from S. costaricensis Dwyer, with which it shares obtuse to rounded leaf apices (contrasting with the acuminate leaf apices of S. blumii Dwyer & M. V. Hayden, the only other congener in the region). The new sp. differs from S. costaricensis in having just 5-10 flowers per head (vs. 20-40) and corolla lobes as long as or longer than the tube (vs. ca. half as long). Furthermore, S. obtusifolia has been collected only in the Cordillera de Talamanca of easternmost Costa Rica and adjacent Panama, while S. costaricensis is restricted to the Cordillera de Tilarán (and thus becomes a Costa Rican endemic). Illustrated with a line drawing.

--. 2003 Rubiacearum americanarum magna hama pars XV. New species and two new combinations in Notopleura (Psychotrieae) from Central and South America. Novon 13: 228-260.

The big bucket is looking more like the Dogpatch Ham of botany. Twenty-six new spp. are here described in Notopleura, a neotropical genus, now swelled to ca. 100 spp., that was formerly included in Psychotria [see The Cutting Edge 8(4): 6-7, Oct. 2001]. Twenty-one of these novelties belong to subg. Notopleura (for which four sp. groups are informally recognized), comprising terrestrial, usually unbranched, terrestrial herbs or shrubs, the remaining five to the much smaller subg. Viscagoga (Baill.) C. M. Taylor, comprising usually branched epiphytes. Just five of the 26 new spp. are attributed to Costa Rica, four in subg. Notopleura and one in subg. Viscagoga (neither of the new combinations concerns us). Belonging to the former group are: Notopleura amicitiae C. M. Taylor, compared with N. aggregata (Standl.) C. M. Taylor and occurring at 1300-2200 m elevation on the Pacific slope of the eastern Cordillera de Talamanca and into adjacent Panama; N. capitata C. M. Taylor, compared to N. aggregata and N. tonduzii (Standl.) C. M. Taylor, widespread (mainly on the Atlantic slope) from Nicaragua to western Panama at 10-1700 m; N. costaricensis C. M. Taylor, a Costa Rican endemic (mainly in the Monteverde region) that has been confused with N. dukei (Dwyer) C. M. Taylor; and N. montana C. M. Taylor, compared to N. macrophylla (Ruiz & Pav.) C. M. Taylor and restricted in Costa Rica to the Pacific slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca (but widespread southward and eastward to Colombia and Venezuela). Our newest member of subg. Viscagoga is Notopleura elegans C. M. Taylor, compared to N. guadalupensis (DC.) C. M. Taylor and N. pithecobia (Standl.) C. M. Taylor and occurring at 900-2500 m in Costa Rica (all major cordilleras) and western Panama. We deduce, from this and various other sources, that the names Notopleura dukei and N. guadalupensis are no longer to be used for Costa Rican plants, and that the square-stemmed herb common at the Estación Biológica La Selva, where it is presently called Notopleura aggregata (and, in the old days, Psychotria tonduzii Standl.), will henceforth be known as N. capitata. All the new spp. are illustrated with line drawings of habit, flowers and/or fruits. A very useful appendix enumerates all the spp. of the genus, by subgenus.

Warner, J. 2003. La investigación en el Jardín Botánico Lankester. Lankesteriana 7: 175-176.

In the past few years, the Jardín Botánico Lankester has risen like a phoenix as one of the most active botanical research centers in the Neotropics. Here, the author (director of the institution since 2001) explains how this came to be. In his view, three developments were paramount: first, the professional relationship between Dora Emilia Mora (director of the garden from 1979 until hear death in 2001) with Robert L. Dressler (FLA/MO), dating from 1984, which resulted in the establishment of an orchidology course at the Universidad de Costa Rica and the publication of Géneros de orquídeas de Costa Rica (a lavish folio volume showcasing the scientifically accurate watercolors of the late Rafael Lucas Rodríguez). Dora Emilia was further motivated to produce the first modern checklist of Costa Rican orchids [see The Cutting Edge 1(3): 5-6, Jul. 1994].

The second important development was Dora Emilia's professional relationship with John T. Atwood (SEL), beginning in 1987. As a result of this collaboration, some 300 Costa Rican orchid spp. were described and illustrated in the series Icones Plantarum Tropicarum, and subtribes Maxillariinae and Oncidiinae were formally treated in a volume of Flora costaricensis [see The Cutting Edge 6(3): 4, Jul. 1999]. During this period, the orchid collection at USJ was greatly enriched, and several Costa Rican students came of age professionally as orchid specialists, most notably, Mario Blanco, Carlos O. Morales, and Jorge Warner.

The third major development occurred in March, 2001, when the Universidad de Costa Rica designated the Jardín as an Estación Experimental, giving it the means to acquire new investigative resources. A research group quickly coalesced around the leadership of Italian orchidologist Franco Pupulin; this group, including Mario Blanco and Carlos Morales, has propelled the institution to its present heights. In just a few years, numerous botanical inventories of poorly known sites have been carried out, the first vouchered checklist of Costa Rican orchids was published [see The Cutting Edge 9(4): 10-11, Oct. 2002], and the international scientific journal Lankesteriana (now in its seventh volume) was created (just to mention a few high points). As detailed in companion papers in this same issue, the Jardín has also initiated an Internet data-base (Schug, Lankesteriana 7: 21-24. 2003) and is involved in an effort to digitize all the Costa Rican orchid types at AMES (Pupulin & Romero-González, Lankesteriana 7: 11-16).

Wilmot-Dear, C. M., I. Friis & T. I. Kravtsova. 2003. A new species of Boehmeria (Urticaceae), B. burgeriana Wilmot-Dear, Friis & Kravtsova, endemic to Costa Rica. Kew Bull. 58: 213-218.

Well, the new name may be cumbersome, but it ain't half so bad as “species of uncertain position“ or “species of uncertain identity,“ the only means of referring to this mysterious entity for more than a quarter century. The former moniker was conferred by Flora costaricensis author William Burger [see, e.g., Fieldiana, Bot. 40: 282-283. 1977], to whom the new sp. is appropriately dedicated, the latter by the first two authors of this paper in a 1996 revision [see The Cutting Edge 4(2): 8, Apr. 1997]. All the uncertainty stems from the apparently 2- or 3-locular fruits of this sp. (which otherwise fits neatly into Boehmeria) in a family with universally unilocular fruits. Burger, while noting the overall resemblance to Boehmeria and conjecturing that the plurilocular condition was due to the fusion of adjacent female flowers, nevertheless declined to classify this sp.; the present authors, touching the same bases (and with very little additional evidence), take the plunge. So the jury may still be out on this (we'd especially like to see a cladistic analysis), but at least we have a means to file our specimens and access the associated data.

Boehmeria burgeriana is endemic to Costa Rica, where it is scattered in rain and cloud forest habitats at 900-1600 m elevation on the Atlantic slopes of the Cordilleras de Tilarán (Monteverde region), Central (Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo), and de Talamanca (near Cachí and Tapantí). Just seven collections are cited (but several others at MO and Costa Rican herbaria were not seen). Features a composite line drawing, SEM micrographs of fruit sections, and a distribution map.

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