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Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica

Main | Family List (MO) | Family List (INBio) | Cutting Edge
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The Cutting Edge

Volume III, Number 3, July 1996

News and Notes | Recent Treatments | Leaps and Bounds | Germane Literature

EDGE ON THE WEB. Taking advantage of the Web's facility for limitless revision, we here include a paragraph left out of the paper version, now in the mail. The results of our informal survey of Manual contributors asking for response (by e-mail) from those who can do without the processed-forest version of "The Cutting Edge" indicate that this electronic technology is not yet known (?), available or convenient to many botanists, and that it is even actively avoided by some. Of the ca. 70 people on our mailing list only 10 responded that they can live with just the electronic version. We received almost as many responses, unsolicited, from contributors expressing their various reasons for still wanting us to send them paper. The survey is open-ended; let us know if you convert.

DRESSLER IN TIQUICIA. Manual Orchidaceae coordinator Robert L. Dressler was in Costa Rica from 14 to 26 July, during which time he visited CR, INB, and USJ, primarily to harvest voucher citations for the Manual Orchidaceae treatment, to account for eleventh-hour discover ies, and to annotate specimens. He submitted an updated and augmented draft of the Orchidaceae treatment (see below), currently being checked and pre-formatted by project coordi nator Cecilia Herrera, and met with staff artist Silvia Troyo to discuss illustrations to be used in the Manual (including several originals provided by collaborator Dora Emilia Mora de Retana and associates). Somehow, Bob also found time for a few days in the field with Dora Emilia in the San Ramón area.

VISITORS TO MO. Sighted in the MO herbarium this past quarter were Manual contributors Bill Anderson (Malpighiaceae, MICH), Kathleen Burt-Utley (Begoniaceae, NOLS), and Carlyle Luer (Orchidaceae pro parte, Sarasota, FL). PI Barry Hammel and INBio honcho José González returned to Tiquicia on 31 May, following a fruitful 6-week tour that included side -trips to F and US.

ANOTHER HOT-SPOT. Two of the "Leaps and Bounds" for this issue come from the totally unprotected, northernmost reaches of the Llanura de San Carlos. Having targeted the adjacent Llanura de Tortuguero for the Manual Project, and having behind us the intensive collecting at La Selva along the southern reaches of the Llanura de San Carlos, we did not expect this area to be so exciting. PI's Barry Hammel and Nelson Zamora and ecologist Alexander Rodríguez went to Boca Tapada recently to check for fertile material of Elvasia (see "Leaps and Bounds") and other oddities that Zamora and Rodríguez had come across during a series of plot inventories begun last fall in an area near the junction of the Ríos San Carlos and San Juan, not far from the Nicaraguan border (and not far from the lodge from which two German tourists were kidnaped earlier this year!). Although the entire Llanura was essentially devastated by logging a number of years ago, patches of more or less selectively logged forest still exist. The terrain is remark ably hilly and that, along with the red clay soil and even many of the spp., brings to mind the Osa Peninsula as well as La Selva. Elvasia, the unusual Doliocarpus sp., and the otherwise Ecuadorean Asplundia aurantiaca Harling (very abundant here, though already known from the Barra del Colorado region) exemplify the area's South American connections and surely fore shadow further country records. Heliconia umbrophila G. S. Daniels & F. G. Stiles is here as well as Quararibea pumila W. S. Alverson (Bombacaceae), both recently considered endemic to La Selva. We certainly encourage more trips to this poorly collected area. Costa Rica, though so small and comparatively well-studied, is yet full of such hot-spots.


AMARYLLIDACEAE. Alan W. Meerow (Univ. Florida, Ft. Lauderdale).
Five genera and 6 spp. of this horticulturally important family are indigenous or adventive in Costa Rica. Only Zephyranthes has 2 spp., both apparently introduced. Phaedranassa carmiolii Baker, though based on a Costa Rican type, is of dubious identity and uncertain provenance. Our remaining genera are Crinum, Eucharis, and Hymenocallis (Alliaceae are excluded). Several other genera and some particular sp. are mentioned as possibly in cultivation.

ARALIACEAE. M. Cannon & J. Cannon (BM).
Four genera and 36 spp. are indigenous to Costa Rica, as follows: Oreopanax (14 spp.), Schefflera (including Didymopanax; 11 spp.), Dendropanax (10 spp.), and Sciadodendron (1 sp.). Eleven spp. (6 of Oreopanax, 4 of Schefflera, 1 Dendropanax) are Costa Rican endemics; one name is still "ined."

CYPERACEAE. Jorge Gómez-Laurito (USJ).
This is Costa Rica's fifth largest monocot family, with 25 genera and ca. 200 spp. Most of the sedges are very widespread, many of them cosmopolitan or well established introductions from Africa or elsewhere in the Old World trop ics. Just 3 spp. are considered endemic to Costa Rica, and a few more to Costa Rica and Panama. The largest genera are Rhynchospora (46 spp., with 2 endemic and 2 others resrticted to Costa Rica and Panama), Cyperus (44 spp., with 2 apparently endemic to Costa Rica/Panama), Scleria (21 spp.), and Eleocharis (19 spp.).

DILLENIACEAE. José González (INB).
Five genera are represented in Costa Rica by just 13 indigenous spp. Doliocarpus and Tetracera , with 4 spp. apiece, are the largest genera, followed by Davilla, with 3 spp. [See under "Leaps and Bounds," where a fifth sp. of Doliocarpus is reported for Costa Rica.].

Treats a total of 167 indigenous or naturalized spp. in 44 genera, plus an additional 15 cultivated spp. and one genus ( Hevea) known exclusively in cultivation. The largest genus in Costa Rica is Croton (including Julocroton), with 32 indig enous spp., followed by Acalypha (18 spp.), Chamaesyce and Euphorbia (the latter including Poinsettia; 13 spp. each), and Dalechampia and
Phyllanthus (11 spp. each). Seventeen spp. are indicated as endemic. Two names are still "ined.," while four others are provisional or specula tive. Compare these statistics with those from Burger's recent (1995) Flora costaricensis treatment (Fieldiana, Bot. n. s. 36: 1-169), given on p. 164 of that work (or see our review in Edge 3(1): 6. 1996).

This family (here including Lacistemataceae) is represented in Costa Rica by 45 indigenous spp. in 20 genera. Only two genera have more than two Costa Rican spp.: Casearia (12 spp.) and Xylosma (9 spp.). Just one sp., Casearia standleyana Sleumer, qualifies as endemic to Costa Rica. No taxa known only from cultivation are treated.

ORCHIDACEAE. Robert L. Dressler (FLAS, MO) and collaborators.
This treatment of the largest angiosperm family in Costa Rica is now nearly complete (lacking only Epidendrum, Mormodes, and Oerstedella). This version features updates of previously submitted portions [see reviews in the Edge 2(1) and 2(3)], plus new treatments of the Spiranthinae and Pleurothallidinae. The manuscript now comprises 519 single-spaced pages, including a glossary of 43 special terms. By adding the newly included genera and spp. to our previous counts, we arrive at a total of 173 genera and 1099 spp. now fully treated. Adding an estimated 170 spp. for the three outstanding genera yields 176 genera and ca. 1270 spp. that should be accounted for in the Manual. Bob promises a more accurate count via e-mail.

The Spiranthinae (prepared by R. L. Dressler ) comprise 15 genera and 43 spp. in Costa Rica, with 4 spp. assigned provisional names and 1 spp. included hypothetically. 7 spp. are reported as endemic. The still poorly known Pleurothallidinae [prepared by C. A. Luer (MO)] boast 20 genera and 390 spp. in Costa Rica, with a remarkable 152 spp. reported as endemic. Pleurothallis, with "at least 150 spp." (including 19 "in sched."), is by far the largest orchid genus treated so far and (fide Dressler) is surely the largest in the country, but will be rivaled in


DILLENIACEAE. The latest collecting hot-spot is the Boca Tapada region of San Carlos, Prov. Alajuela (see under "News and Notes"). An unusual, large-fruited Doliocarpus collected there by PI Barry Hammel is a member of sect. Calinea, possibly Doliocarpus foreroi Aymard (ined.), otherwise known only from Pacific Colombia. It is certainly a new record for Costa Rica, if not a new sp. altogether. This assessment was provided by specialist Gerardo Aymard (PORT), currently resident at MO, upon viewing a scanned image of a fresh (undried) specimen; a definitive identification will require "in-hand" material. Gerardo informs us that the manu script in which D. foreroi is described is slated to be published in July (watch for it in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid).

MALPIGHIACEAE. A mystery liana, collected in Parque Nacional Corcovado by parataxonomist Luis Angulo, proves to be the first known Central American record of the small (ca. 6 spp.), largely South American genus Dicella. The identification was made at MO by visiting specialist and Manual contributor William R. Anderson (MICH), from a scanned image sent as an e-mail attachment. The sp. could not be immediately determined.

OCHNACEAE. An odd tree collected in sterile condition from Boca Tapada by PI Nelson Zamora becomes the first Costa Rican record of the mainly South American genus Elvasia. It is not the first Central American record, as E. elvasioides (Planch.) Gilg has been collected in Panama (El Llano-Cartí Rd.). Though it seems likely that the Costa Rican specimen represents the last-mentioned sp., fertile material is needed for absolute identification.

ORCHIDACEAE. Aguilar 2902, from the Reserva Indígena Boruca in the Pacific lowlands, represents Oncidium ensatum Lindl., known from Nicaragua and Panama but not, heretofore, from Costa Rica. The identification was made in Costa Rica by visiting Manual Orchidaceae coordinator Robert L. Dressler.

OXALIDACEAE. Aguilar 2097, from ca. 700 m elevation near Repunta in El Valle de El Gen eral, is the first Costa Rican record of Oxalis microcarpa Benth., previously reported from Mexico, Honduras, and Panama to Ecuador. This discovery validates Willam Burger's hypothetical inclusion of this sp. in his Flora costaricensis treatment of Oxalidaceae (Fieldiana, Bot. n. s. 28: 2-16. 1991).


Barneby, R. C. 1996. Neotropical Fabales at NY: asides and oversights. Brittonia 48: 174-187.

Miscellaneous observations, the following relevant to us: Mesoamerican material of Entada polystachya (L.) DC. (Fabaceae/ Mimosoideae) is now, more exactly, var. polystachya, with the recognition of two other, largely South American, varieties. Schizolobium and Phyllocarpus (Fabaceae/Caesalpinioideae) are both regarded as monotypic. The former comprises S. parahyba (Vell.) S. F. Blake, with two varieties; all Mesoamerican material belongs to var. amazonicum (Ducke) Barneby, comb. nov. The correct name for the sole sp. of Phyllocarpus is P. riedelii Tul. A discontinuity of 3000 km separates the Costa Rican populations from the nearest station to the south (in Acre State, Brazil).
_____ & J. W. Grimes. 1996. Silk tree, guanacaste, monkey's earring: a generic system for the synandrous Mimosaceae of the Americas. Part I. Abarema, Albizia, and allies. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 74: 1-292.
This project promises "revisions...of all West Indian and South American, and some Central American, genera of tribe Ingeae (Mimosaceae) [i.e., Fabaceae] ever referred to Pithecellobium Martius." The last qualification excludes Inga, Calliandra, and Zapoteca. Pithecellobium in the traditional, broad sense, never a cohesive unit, is here fragmented into 22 splinter genera of varying degrees of robustness. The introductory material for Part I includes results of cladistic work on the group, plus definitions of all genera and a comprehensive generic key. The remainder of the volume consists of phylogenetic analyses cum taxonomic revisions of several segregate genera, including Balizia (3 spp.), Abarema (45 spp.), Pseudosamanea (2 spp.), Samanea (3 spp.), Chloroleucon (10 spp.), and Sphinga (3 spp.), to mention only those represented in Costa Rica; an alpha-taxonomic revision of Albizia (23 spp.); and summaries of Enterolobium and Lysiloma. Revisions of Pithecellobium s. str., Zygia, and Cojoba are deferred to Part II.

Apart from new combinations and generic concepts, this work contains little new information from a Costa Rican perspective. On the contrary, it seems to be at least five years out-of-date with regard to distribution information. For example, the genera Chloroleucon and Sphinga are not attributed to Costa Rica, although specimens exist and were cited in Nelson Zamora's 1991 treatment of Costa Rican Mimosaceae (Brenesia 36: 63-149), not cited here. Abarema barbouriana (Standl.) Barneby & J. W. Grimes is, confusingly, mapped in Costa Rica, but not indicated as occurring there in the textual distribution summary; Zamora's treatment cites a Costa Rican collection.

Full descriptions, keys, maps, some excellent black-and-white plates, list of exsiccatae.

Bornstein, A. J. 1996. (1223) Proposal to conserve the name Sarcorhachis against Manekia (Piperaceae ). Taxon 45: 323-324.
An obscure name based on Haitian material proves congeneric with the familiar Sarcorhachis, over which it has priority by only two months.
Carnevali, G. & J. T. Atwood. 1996. Two new species in the Maxillaria rufescens complex from Central America. Lindleyana 11: 27-33.
Maxillaria dressleriana Carnevali & J. T. Atwood is typified on cultivated material from Prov. Chiriquí, Panama, with a paratype cited from the Upala region of northern Costa Rica. Maxillaria moralesii Carnevali & J. T. Atwood (honoring INB botanist Francisco Morales) is also based on cultivated material, from 800-900 m elevation on the Atlantic slope of the Cordillera Central near Cariblanco, Prov. Alajuela. Features detailed drawings and a key to the three described Costa Rican and Panamanian spp. in the M. rufescens complex (the third being M. hedwigiae Hamer & Dodson).
Dressler, R. L. 1996. The Encyclia pygmaea complex, with a new Central American species, Encyclia racemifera. Lindleyana 11: 37-40. _____ & F. Pupulin. 1996. Macroclinium allenorum, a new Costa Rican species well illustrated forty years ago. Lindleyana 11: 34-36.
The "Encyclia pygmaea" complex, formally E. subgen. Osmophyta sect. Hormidium , comprises five spp. ranging from Florida and Mexico to Bolivia and S. Brazil. Encyclia racemifera Dressler, here described as new, occurs at 1200-1800+ m elevation on the Pacific slope and near the Continental Divide, from the Costa Rican Cordillera de Tilarán southward to W. Panama. Features a key to all spp. in the complex, as well as comparative line drawings and notes for the new sp., E. pseudopygmaea (Finet) Dressler & G. E. Pollard, and E. pygmaea (Hook.) Dressler, which have been confused with one another.

Macroclinium alleniorum Dressler & Pupulin (note change in termination of epithet mandated by Art. 60.11 of the Tokyo Code), known only from the Golfo Dulce region, had been previously confused and illustrated (Orchid J. 2: 365. 1953) as M. cordesii (L. O. Williams) Dodson, a sp. of the Atlantic slope. Good composite plate.

Eriksson, R. 1995. The genus Sphaeradenia (Cyclanthaceae). Opera Bot. 126: 1-106.
This highly anticipated revision now makes it possible to put names on almost all Sphaeradenia collections from Costa Rica. Of 50 spp. total, 20 are here described as new, including S. occidentalis R. Erikss. and S. praetermissa R. Erikss., both endemic to Costa Rica. In all, ten spp. are reported from Costa Rica, with S. sphagnicola Harling bringing the total number of endemic spp. to three. One erstwhile Costa Rican endemic sp., S. irazuensis Cufod., becomes an endemic ssp., S. laucheana (Mast.) Harling ssp. irazuensis (Cufod.) R. Erikss. Eriksson notes that "the differences [between S. irazuensis and S. laucheana ] are unsharp and some connecting morphs are found." We learn that the fruit of our one joint endeavor into describing a new Sphaeradenia, S. carrilloana Grayum & Hammel, "merits no recognition," and the name is placed unceremoniously into synonymy under the thus variable and widespread S. acutitepala Harling. The introductory material includes discussions of morphology, reproduction and dispersal, and phylogeny and phytogeography (no cladograms, as "the phylogeny within Sphaeradenia could not be satisfactorily resolved with cladistic methods"). Excellent illustrations of new spp., distribution maps for all, and scatter diagrams documenting variation in several taxa.

Addendum: Since Eriksson's revision went to press, we have provided him with material of two or three additional spp. for Costa Rica which, with the to-be-expected S. pachystigma Harling, would bring the country total to ca. 14 spp.

Freytag, G. F. & D. G. Debouck. 1996. Phaseolus costaricensis, a new wild bean species (Phaseolinae, Leguminosae) from Costa Rica and Panama. Novon 6: 157 -163.
The new sp., Phaseolus costaricensis Freytag & Debouck, occurs at mid-elevation sites about the Meseta Central (Cord. Central, Cerros de la Carpintera, Cerros de Escazú), in the Dota region, and in the upper Valle de El General, thence disjunctly to Prov. Chiriquí, Panama. It is compared with P. coccineus L., P. tuerckheimii Donn. Sm., P. vulgaris L., and the introduced P. dumosus Macfad. Detailed line-drawing and photos, distribution map, exsiccatae. Some molecular data are brought to bear.
Grayum, M. H. 1996 ['1995']. Notes on Costa Rican Peperomia (Piperaceae), including four new species. Phytologia 79: 108-113.
Three of the four new spp. are terrestrial or epilithic calciphiles from the Golfo Dulce region on the Pacific slope: Peperomia hammelii Grayum, P. saintpauliella Grayum, and P. trichomanoides Grayum. The fourth, P. ursina Grayum, is restricted to the Atlantic lowlands. The name Peperomia tenuifolia C. DC., listed as a synonym of P. lignescens C. DC. in Burger's 1971 Flora costaricensis treatment (Fieldiana, Bot. 35: 5-218), is here resurrected to replace P. killipii Trel. for a sp. treated under the last-mentioned name in Yuncker's (1950) Flora of Panama contribution (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 37: 1-120), but not previously recognized as occurring in Costa Rica. Revised synonymies are provided for Peperomia lignescens and P. tenuifolia. No illustrations or maps.
Greuter, W., D. L. Hawksworth, J. McNeill, M. A. Mayo, A. Minelli, P. H. A. Sneath, B. J. Tindall, P. Trehane & P. Tubbs. 1996. Draft BioCode: the prospective international rules for the scientific names of organisms. Taxon 45: 349-372.
This is a fully realized proposal for a new Code (minus Recommendations, Notes, and Examples) that apparently aspires to be a standardized set of nomenclatural rules for all biota. Equivalences between this draft and the current Codes of biological nomenclature are cross -referenced. Important differences from the current botanical Code are highlighted in an associated article by Greuter & Nicolson (Taxon 45: 343-348. 1996). The pros and cons (respectively) of this sweeping new proposal are debated in papers by Greuter (Taxon 45: 291 -294. 1996) and Orchard et al. (Taxon 45: 287-290). The latter paper explores alternative solutions to two of the basic problems that spurred the BioCode proposal (generic homonyms across kingdoms, and confusion over which Code applies to some protist groups).

Our desultory perusal of the above-mentioned materials leads immediately to the following off-the-cuff observation: a major source of nomenclatural instability must certainly be the ever -changing nature of the Code itself!. We intend to devote considerably more time to evaluating these papers, and recommend that all of our colleagues do the same, in order to be able to vote intelligently on these important issues at the XVI International Botanical Congress in St. Louis, in 1999 (we do get to vote, don't we?).

Hahn, W. J. 1996. Notes on Costa Rican Aquifoliaceae. Novon 6: 181-184.
A name "ined." for 32 years and in steady use at the La Selva Biological Station during most of that time is finally validated as Ilex skutchii Edwin ex T. R. Dudley & W. J. Hahn. The sp. to which the name applies is widespread in Costa Rica, and also known from one Nicaraguan collection. It is compared especially to I. tectonica W. J. Hahn, of the I. guianensis complex; a key to the four Central American sp. of this complex is provided. A second new sp., Ilex hemiepiphytica W. J. Hahn, is endemic to the Monteverde region and the Cord. Central of Costa Rica. It is compared with I. yurumanguinis Cuatrec. and I. chiriquensis Standl. Ilex haberi (Lundell) W. J. Hahn, known only from the Monteverde region, is transferred from Euonymus and allied with Ilex pallida Standl. and I. costaricensis Donn. Sm. No illustrations or maps.
Kruijt, R. C. 1996. A taxonomic monograph of Sapium Jacq., Anomostachys (Baill.) Hurus., Duvigneaudia J. Léonard and Sclerocroton Hochst. (Euphorbiaceae tribe Hippomaneae). Biblioth. Bot. 146: 1-109.
Sapium is reduced from ca. 100 spp. to just 21. As defined here, the genus is restricted to the Neotropics. Those Old World spp. previously included in Sapium are now apportioned among four other genera, three of which are mentioned in the title of the revision. As lumping is the theme, at the sp. level, this work features no novelties in Sapium. Five spp. are apparently attributable to Costa Rica (it is difficult to be certain, since the "Distribution" statements are general and incomplete, and there are no exsiccatae citations). All but one ( S. pachystachys Pittier) are henceforth to be known under regionally unfamiliar names: S. glandulosum (L.) Morong (incl. S. aucuparium Jacq., S. oligoneurum K. Schum. & Pittier, S. jamaicense Sw.); S. laurifolium (A. Rich.) Griseb. (incl. S. aucuparium sensu Flora of Panama non Jacq., S. pleiostachys K. Schum. & Pittier); S. macrocarpum Müll. Arg. (incl. S. thelocarpum K. Schum. & Pittier); and S. stylare Müll. Arg. (incl. S. rigidifolium Huft). [N.B.: our data-base has long since incorporated these changes from Kruijt's (1989) Utrecht thesis.] Features separate dichotomous keys to vegetative and flowering specimens, plus a synoptical key, detailed line drawings of all spp., photographs of lvs., and an index to exsiccatae. A phylogenetic analysis of Sapium and related genera employs 47 conventional (morphological) characters.
Luteyn, J. L. 1996. New species, new records, and neotypification of some Mesoamerican Ericaceae. Brittonia 48: 241-249.
Three new spp. of Cavendishia are described from Costa Rica, or thereabouts. Cavendishia davidsei Luteyn hails from ca. 2000-2800 m elevation in the Cord. Talamanca of E Costa Rica, with one collection from extreme W Panama; C. gomezii Luteyn is known from ca. 2400-2900 m in extreme W Panama, with one collection from "near Cerro Echandi on Costa Rica-Panama border"; and C. limonensis Luteyn is based on just two collections, from 500-700 m elevation in the basin of the Río Urén, on the Atlantic slope of the Cord. Talamanca in Costa Rica. Detailed illustrations (except for C. gomezii ).

The following new country records are here reported: Lateropora ovata A. C. Sm., 1400-1500 m, Atlantic slope Cord. Talamanca (previously known only from W Panama); Cavendishia chiriquiensis A. C. Sm. var. chiriquiensis, 1850 m, Atlantic slope Cord. Talamanca, and var. bullata Luteyn, 1500-1600 m, Monteverde region (both previously known only from W Panama); Sphyrospermum ellipticum Sleumer, ca. 650-950 m, Osa Peninsula and Volcán Cacao (otherwise known from Colombia and Ecuador); Themistoclesia horquetensis Luteyn & Wilbur, from ca. 2350-2750 m, Atlantic slope Cord. Talamanca (previously from W Panama); and Anthopterus revolutus (Wilbur & Luteyn) Luteyn, from near Soki (ca. 150 m elevation), Atlantic slope Cord. Talamanca (previously known from W Panama and E Ecuador).

Nicolson, D. H. 1996. (1233) Proposal to conserve the name Lagenophora (Compositae) with a conserved spelling. Taxon 45: 341-342.
Lagenifera Cass. (1815) predates by three years Cassini's emended spelling, but the orthographically preferable Lagenophora has been used almost exclusively since 1818.
Pennington, T. D. 1996. (1228-1230) Three proposals to conserve or reject species names in the genus Inga (Leguminosae ). Taxon 45: 333-335.
Inga marginata Willd., the well known name for one of the most common sp. in the genus, was shown to be illegitimate by Sousa (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 259. 1993), who substituted the next available name, I. semialata (Vell.) Mart. Here it is argued that I. marginata be reinstituted. Pennington himself has now discovered that the neglected name Inga pisana G. Don is an earlier synonym of the "widespread and economically important" I. oerstediana Benth., and proposes the latter for conservation. So we will be in limbo for another four years until these matters are decided (and since an unlimited number of appeals is permitted, the wait could be indefinite!). Is it not more straightforward and less confusing, in the long run, to simply allow priority to hold sway? [Eds.: Please excuse the gratuitous editorializing!]
Reveal, J. L. 1996 ['1995']. Newly required suprageneric names in vascular plants. Phytologia 79: 68-76.
The author's reclassification of the order Scrophulariales based on recent molecular evidence requires the publication of the name Schlegeliaceae (A. H. Gentry) Reveal for a small family to include (in Costa Rica) the genera Schlegelia and Gibsoniothamnus. Also of interest is the division of traditional Scrophulariaceae into three smaller families, Verbascaceae, Scrophulariaceae s. str., and Rhinanthaceae. Rhinanthaceae Vent. (to be proposed for conservation over the earlier Veronicaceae Durande) includes such genera as Buchnera, Digitalis, Sibthorpia, and Veronica.
Taylor, C. M. 1996. New species and a new combination in Rubiaceae from Central and South America. Novon 6: 215-220.
Features one new sp. from Costa Rica, Alibertia premontana C. M. Taylor, known from the Cord. Tilarán (and disjunctly from the Fortuna and Cerro Colorado regions of W Panama). Illustrated with a line-drawing. The Costa Rican endemic Alibertia utleyorum (Dwyer) C. M. Taylor is here transferred from Duroia, albeit somewhat half-heartedly ("Neotropical generic limits in Gardenieae are not completely resolved, and the correct placement of this species is not clear"). Though it "cannot be retained" in Duroia, a case could apparently be made for inclusion in Borojoa. Exsiccatae citations document occurrences on the Osa Peninsula (the type) and in the Atlantic lowlands south from Puerto Viejo de Sarapiquí. Not cited here, additional collections (8) from the Osa Peninsula on our database and in herbaria.
Yatskievych, G. 1996. A revision of the fern genus Phanerophlebia (Dryopteridaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83: 168-199.
This New World assemblage of eight spp. is represented in Costa Rica by P. juglandifolia (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) J. Sm. and P. macrosora (Baker) Underw. The question of whether Phanerophlebia should be included in the Old World Cyrtomium is effectively laid to rest on the basis of both molecular and traditional data; however, it is considered "probable that Phanerophlebia and Cyrtomium will eventually be resubmerged in Polystichum." Key, illustrations, range maps, and "representative" specimen citations (with index to exsiccatae). No novelties.
Zuloaga, F. O. & O. Morrone. 1996. Revisión de las especies americanas de Panicum subgénero Panicum sección Panicum (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83: 200-280.
The 31 New World spp. of this cosmopolitan group are keyed and fully treated with detailed descriptions, range maps, and superb habit illustrations. The "representative" specimen citations are supplemented by an index to exsiccatae. We detect no major changes for Costa Rica from Davidse's (1993) Flora mesoamericana treatment of Panicum, with five spp. in sect. Panicum recorded for the country: P. ghiesbreghtii E. Fourn., P. hirsutum Sw., P. hirticaule J. Presl, P. hispidifolium Swallen, and P. parcum A. Hitchc. & Chase. Of these, only P. hispidifolium was not also included in Pohl's (1980) Flora costaricensis treatment (Fieldiana, Bot. n. s. 4: 1-608).


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