S. crispissima, S. gloriana, S.
mariannae and S. nutans. Lankesteriana 5: 9-15.
Manual Orchidaceae coordinator Robert L. Dressler continues to
break new ground for Flora mesoamericana, even as his Manual treatment is
in press. The four new Sobralia spp. mentioned in the title are Panamanian
endemics, with the exception of S. crispissima Dressler, widepread from
southern Mexico to Panama. One Costa Rican specimen of S. crispissima is
cited, from the northern Atlantic slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca, along the
road from Turrialba to Siquirres (Dodson 2516, SEL); however, a second, more
recently annotated specimen at MO hails from the Pacific slope of the Cordillera de
Talamanca, along the trail to Cerro Chirripó (Gamboa R. 549).
Sobralia crispissima has been confused with S. lindleyana Rchb. f.
(which, presumably, also occurs in Costa Rica), but differs inter alia in its longer
leaves and shorter petals; the two spp. are distinguished in a key couplet. Keys
are also provided to separate the “sections, anomalous groups and species“
of Sobralia and the spp. of sect. Globosae Brieger (with only the
mysteriously restored S. lancea Garay attributed to Costa Rica).
Sobralia crispissima is depicted only by a close-up, color photo of a flower.
Fernández-Alonso, J. L. 2002. Estudios en Labiatae de Colombia III.
Novedades en Lepechinia Willd., Salvia L. y Satureja L. Anales Jard.
Bot. Madrid 59: 344-348.
The description of Satureja discolor (Kunth) Briq. var.
manaurensis Fern. Alonso, so far known only from the Colombian slope of the
Serranía de Perijá, establishes the autonymic variety for all other
populations of S. discolor (which occurs in Costa Rica). The sp. is known
alternatively as Gardoquia discolor Kunth, or Clinopodium foliolosum
(Benth.) Govaerts [see
The Cutting Edge 8(2): 8, Apr. 2001].
Fryxell, P. A. 2002. An Abutilon nomenclator (Malvaceae).
Lundellia 5: 79-11.
As a first step toward a taxonomic revision of the large (ca. 160 spp.)
genus Abutilon, bibliographic and typological information is provided (when
available) for more than 500 names at sp. and infraspecific rank, as well as 25 at
supraspecific rank. Five new combinations are validated (none pertinent to Costa
Rican floristics), and more than 70 lectotypes and two neotypes are designated.
Gituru, R. W., Q.-F. Wang, Y. Wang & Y.-H. Guo. 2002. (1546) Proposal to
conserve the name Sagittaria guyanensis (Alismataceae) with that spelling.
Taxon 51: 575-576.
The epithet was originally spelled (by Kunth, in 1816) guayanensis,
but was changed by Buchenau (in Das Pflanzenreich, 1903) to guyanensis,
“to ease pronunciation...especially for native speakers of European languages.“
That is a pretty sorry excuse for altering the spelling of an epithet, not to mention
contrary to the Code, as pointed out in this proposal; indeed, the authors of the proposal
present more and better reasons against the proposed conservation than for it. Their
only argument in favor is a rather weak one, that the spelling guyanensis has been
used (according to their research) in marginally more works (44 vs. 39) than the original
version; however, we learn little about the relative importance of these works. With
regard to recent Mesoamerican floras, guyanensis was used in Flora
mesoamericana, but guayanensis in Flora de Nicaragua (and in our Manual
draft). In the absence of a compelling case for conservation, priority should always
prevail. We'd vote to nix this one!
González-Elizondo, M. S., M. González-Elizondo & S. G. Smith. 2002.
Eleocharis obtusetrigona (Cyperaceae) new to North and Central America. Acta. Bot. Mex. 60: 7-11.
These reports, from Texas, Veracruz, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica,
are the first of Eleocharis obtusetrigona (Lindl. & Nees) Steud. from outside
South America; Mesoamerican material of this sp. had previously been misidentified as
E. acutangula (Roxb.) Schult., E. cellulosa Torr., or E. mutata
(L.) Roem. & Schult. A dichotomous key separates E. obtusetrigona from these
and one other similar spp. The lone Costa Rican specimen cited, Lot et al. 1214
(MEXU), is from Las Cóncavas, the site of the Jardín Botánico Lankester,
where this sp. could conceivably have been introduced. A detailed, formal description
of E. obtusetrigona is provided, together with full synonymy.
Guaglianone, E. R. 2001. Contribución al estudio del género
Rhynchospora (Cyperaceae) V. Sección Longirostres en América
austral. Darwiniana 39: 287-342.
Rhynchospora sect. Longirostres Kunth, a member of subgen.
Haplostylis (Nees) Pax, comprises 19 spp., best represented in the Neotropics.
Indeed, 16 spp. are restricted to the New World, while just one is restricted to the
Old World (the remaining two spp. being cosmopolitan). Although this work focuses on
South America, specimens are cited from throughout the range of most spp. The section
is most diverse in South America and temperate North America, with just three spp. here
attributed to Costa Rica: Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton (represented by
the cosmopolitan var. corymbosa), R. pedersenii Guagl., and R.
triflora Vahl. We also have several Costa Rican records for Rhynchospora
trispicata (Nees) Schrad. ex Steud., which is treated in Jorge Gómez-
Laurito's Manual draft (and was attributed to Costa Rica in Flora
mesoamericana). However, Rhynchospora pedersenii, widespread from Mexico
to Paraguay, is a new one for us, with a single Costa Rican record, from near Puerto
Viejo de Sarapiquí (Wilbur 37116, MO; determined in TROPICOS as R.
corymbosa). Rhynchospora pedersenii is a nomen novum, based on R.
gigantea Link var. latifolia H. Pfeiff. [non R. latifolia (Baldwin)
W. W. Thomas]; one new sp. and two new combinations are also validated here, but do
not concern us. Features synonymy, typology, and more or less lengthy descriptions
at all levels, a (non-indented) key to spp., separate keys to infraspecific taxa,
specimen citations, distribution maps, fine, composite line drawings of most spp.,
and indices to exsiccatae and scientific names.
Gustafsson, M. H. G., V. Bittrich & P. F. Stevens. 2002. Phylogeny of
Clusiaceae based on rbcL sequences. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 163: 1045-1054.
This study, involving 31 spp. of Clusiaceae and 21 outgroup spp., confirms
a close relationship of this family to Podostemaceae, previously suggested by other
molecular investigations. Indeed, Clusiaceae is paraphyletic if it does not include
Podostemaceae, which is nested within the former family as the sister group of subfam.
Hypericoideae. The authors decline to impose a formal new classification, pending
additional studies involving a larger sample; however, they express a disinclination
to sink Podostemaceae into Clusiaceae and thereby “create a highly heterogeneous
unit that would be hard to identify macromorphologically.“ They instead lean
toward “a solution that perhaps is more appealing,“ i.e., to retain
Podostemaceae and divide Clusiaceae into three families: Hypericaceae (Hypericum
and Vismia, in Costa Rica), Calophyllaceae (Calophyllum, Mammea, Marila,
and perhaps Clusiella), and Clusiaceae s. str. (the remaining genera). Several
similarities between the superficially very different Podostemaceae and Clusiaceae s. l.
are mentioned (presence of secretory organs, tenuinucellate ovules, and xanthones).
Hall, J. C., K. J. Sytsma & H. H. Iltis. 2002. Phylogeny of Capparaceae and
Brassicaceae based on chloroplast sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 1826-1842.
Parsimony and likelihood analyses of sequence variation using two chloroplast
regions strongly support the monophyly of Brassicaceae s. l. (including Capparaceae),
excluding the genus Forchhammeria (with two spp. occurring in Costa Rica), which
appears most closely associated with Resedaceae. The remainder of the genera sampled
fall into three well supported clades, corresponding to Brassicaceae, Capparaceae subfam.
Capparoideae, and Capparaceae subfam. Cleomoideae; however, the last-mentioned clade is
sister to Brassicaceae, rendering Capparaceae paraphyletic. The authors discuss three
classificatory options: recognition of a single family, Brassicaceae s. l., already
embraced by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group [see
The Cutting Edge
6(1): 5-6, Jan. 1999], or of two or three smaller families. Arguing that
“subsuming all of Capparaceae or just Cleomoideae within an expanded Brassicaceae
obscures the many clear morphological characters that leave Brassicaceae a practical and
cohesive family,“ they advocate the recognition of three families: Brassicaceae
s. l., Capparaceae, and Cleomaceae (the last including only Cleome and
Podandrogyne, among Costa Rican genera). This paper claims to incorporate the
largest sampling of Capparaceae of any molecular study to date, and “is the first
to intentionally sample the diversity of the family with respect to Brassicaceae.“
Henderson, A. J. 2002. Phenetic and phylogenetic analysis of Reinhardtia
(Palmae). Amer. J. Bot. 89: 1491-1502.
The prevailing classification of Reinhardtia as a genus of six spp.
is upheld emphatically by principal component and cluster analysis of morphological data.
Seven distinct groups could be recognized within Reinhardtia gracilis (H. Wendl.)
Burret, a sp. for which three vars. are accepted by the author; the only var. occurring
in Costa Rica, R. gracilis var. rostrata (Burret) H. E. Moore, is
characterized by both “normal-fruited“ and “large-fruited“ groups
(with the latter restricted to Panama and Colombia). A cladogram is presented in support
of the author's contention that speciation in Reinhardtia “has taken place
from large- to small-size plants, from north to south, and from higher to lower
elevations.“ Includes distribution maps.
--. & E. Ferreira. 2002. A morphometric study of Synechanthus (Palmae).
Syst. Bot. 27: 693-702.
Statistical analyses of morphological variation within and between the two
spp. of Synechanthus disclose some interesting patterns, but lead to no
classificatory changes. Synechanthus fibrosus (H. Wendl.) H. Wendl. exists in
three geographically disjunct populations, from Mexico to Costa Rica, that can be
distinguished by discriminant analysis. Synechanthus warscewiczianus H. Wendl.
is relatively invariable over latitude (Nicaragua to Ecuador), but manisfests
altitude-correlated variation on three isolated Panamanian peaks (Cerros Campana,
Gaital, and Jefe); these populations, comprising unusually small plants, are also
distinguishable (from one another, as well as from larger plants) by discriminant
analysis. Includes distribution maps.
Hu, J.-M., M. Lavin, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. J. Sanderson. 2002.
Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal ITS/5.8S sequences in the tribe Millettieae
(Fabaceae): Poecilanthe-Cyclolobium, the core Millettieae, and the Callerya
group. Syst. Bot. 27: 722-733.
Of incidental interest to us is the strong suppost shown for the inclusion of
Willardia in Lonchocarpus; Muellera, also sometimes referred to
Lonchocarpus, was apparently not included in this study.
Janovec, J. P. & J. S. Harrison. 2002. A morphological analysis of the
Compsoneura sprucei complex (Myristicaceae), with a new combination for the
Central American species Compsoneura mexicana. Syst. Bot. 27: 662-673.
Critical evaluation of morphological characters, including principal
components analysis, succeeds in resolving two more or less distinct entities within
the widespread taxon that we have known as Compsoneura sprucei (A. DC.) Warb.
The latter name is here restricted to populations in western Amazonian South America;
for Mesoamerican plants, the new combination Compsoneura mexicana (Hemsl.)
Janovec (based on Myristica mexicana Hemsl.) is validated. The rather subtle
differences (involving bark features, leaf shape, details of the staminate flowers,
and fruit characters) are presented in tabular and key form. The authors suggest
that “the Andes Mountain chain, as a geomorphological barrier to
cross-fertilization, dispersal, and gene flow, has played a significant role in the
evolutionary and biogeographic patterns exhibited by [Compsoneura].“ A
formal systematic treatment of the two-sp. complex includes synonymy, typology,
lengthy descriptions, citation of representative specimens, distribution maps, and
SEM micrographs of staminate floral features.
Jenny, R. 2002. Mormodes horichii-Neues aus Herrenhausen. Orchidee
(Hamburg) 53: 355-357.
Contains information on the 1961 discovery of the rare Mormodes
horichii Fowlie (Orchidaceae), as well as a brief biographical sketch of its
discoverer, the late Clarence Kl. Horich (1930-1994), with color photos of
both plant and man. In German.
Jiménez, Q., F. Rojas, V. Rojas & L. Rodríguez. 2002.
Árboles maderables de Costa Rica, ecología y silvicultura. Edit.
INBio y Tecnol. 361 pp.
This new work features descriptions and color photos of the 55 most
important timber tree spp. in Costa Rica, together with ecological data and
information on silviculture. Wood samples are also illustrated. Bilingual
(Spanish/English). We have not yet seen this book, but are indebted to first author
Quírico Jiménez for this preliminary announcement.
Kron, K. A., W. S. Judd, P. F. Stevens, D. M. Crayn, A. A. Anderberg, P. A.
Gadek, C. J. Quinn & J. L. Luteyn. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of
Ericaceae: molecular and morphological evidence. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 68:
A new classification of Ericaceae, based on several character-fields
(including DNA sequence data), is formalized. This is of only marginal interest
to us, except for the inclusion of the taxa formerly distinguished as Pyrolaceae
and Monotropaceae as subfam. Monotropoideae (one of nine subfamilies). Two new
combinations and three new taxa are validated, none relevant to Costa Rican floristics.
Liede, S. & A. Tåuber. 2002. Circumscription of the genus
Cynanchum (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae). Syst. Bot. 27: 789-800.
Chaos has long reigned over the generic classification of the former
Asclepiadaceae (now a subfamily of Apocynaceae), and the results of this inconclusive
study will only serve to perpetuate that situation. Sequence analysis of three genetic
regions for 105 spp. of Cynanchum and related genera reveals a fundamental
split along Old World/New World lines, with Cynanchum s. str. (including the
type sp.) restricted to the Old World. Most of the New World Cynanchum spp.
appear in a separate clade-paraphyletically, with respect to numerous other genera
including Blepharodon, Ditassa, Funastrum, Metastelma, Orthosia, and
Tassadia; however, the New World Cynanchum subg. Mellichampia
(A. Gray ex S. Watson) Sundell (including C. racemosum Jacq.) appears with
the Old World clade, where it is paraphyletic with respect to the sole sp. of
Metalepis studied. Metastelma and Orthosia are characterized as
clearly distinct from Cynanchum, in whatever context; Ditassa is
“possibly“ polyphyletic. While anticipating “extensive renaming
especially in the New World 'Cynanchum' segregates,“ the authors wisely
refrain from such activity at the present time, citing their limited data-set. For
the time being, they recommend that New World workers use generic names other than
Cynanchum (Metastelma, Orthosia, etc.), whenever these are available; when
they are not, then the name “Cynanchum“ should be be placed in
Luer, C. A. 2002. Miscellaneous new species in the Pleurothallidinae
(Orchidaceae). Selbyana 23: 1-45.
Thirty new spp., one new subsp., and one new combination are validated
in this paper, but just two of the new spp. are pertinent to Costa Rica.
Pleurothallis haberi Luer, dedicated to our esteemed colleague William
Haber, is a diminutive member of subg. Specklinia (Lindl.) Garay [and
hence would presumably be treated in the genus Specklinia by Pridgeon and
Cutting Edge 9(1): 9-10, Jan. 2002]. The 153rd Pleurothallis sp. recorded
from Costa Rica, P. haberi is known only by the type collection, from 900 m
on the Atlantic slope of the Cordillera de Tilarán in the Monteverde region.
The name Zootrophion williamsii Luer is coined for a sp. of Costa Rica and
Panama previously known (even in early Manual Orchidaceae drafts) as Z.
atropurpureum (Lindl.) Luer; the latter name is now restricted to material from
the Greater Antilles and southern Brazil. Both new spp. are depicted in fine,
composite line drawings. Unfortunately, Pleurothallis haberi just misses our
deadline for inclusion in the Manual; however, we should still be able to accommodate
the name-change from “Zootrophion sp. A“ to Z. williamsii.
--. 2002. A systematic method of classification of the Pleurothallidinae
versus a strictly phylogenetic method. Selbyana 23: 57-110.
In which the author rejects the “phylogenetic“ classification
of subtribe Pleurothallidinae Lindl. (Orchidaceae) recently adduced by Pridgeon and
Chase [see The
Cutting Edge 9(1): 9-10, Jan. 2002] in favor of his own “systematic“
classification and, for good measure, formally synonymizes all of the new combinations
and names validated by those authors. Various errors and false assumptions made by
Pridgeon and Chase are also corrected. Although we disagree with the author's
theoretical arguments (that the purpose of taxonomy is identification, and that
polyphyletic taxa are acceptable if so characterized), he does make a compelling case,
on practical grounds, for the provisional maintenance of the status quo. Put it this
way: we were quite content with the author's rejection of the final-hour
“phylogenetic“ overhaul for his Manual treatment of Pleurothallidinae!
Morales, C. O. 2002. Ecce homo, scientia clarus: Luis Fournier
Origgi (1935-2002). Lankesteriana 5: 1-2.
A fond remembrance of the recently deceased Costa Rican plant biologist
Cutting Edge 9(3): 1, Jul. 2002], to whom this issue of Lankesteriana is dedicated.
--. 2002. Trichopilia × ramonensis (Orchidaceae), un híbrido
natural de Costa Rica. Lankesteriana 5: 17-21.
A natural hybrid between Trichopilia marginata Henfr. and T.
suavis Lindl., collected several times in the San Ramón region of central
Costa Rica, is officially christened as T. × ramonensis J. B. García &
D. E. Mora ex C. O. Morales (the name having been used informally by the
indicated authors in 1992). Photographic evidence strongly suggests that the hybrid
also occurs in Panama. Illustrated with a composite line drawing.
--. 2002. Notas varias sobre Heliconia rodriguezii (Heliconiaceae)
de Costa Rica. Lankesteriana 5: 23-25.
Heliconia rodriguezii F. G. Stiles was described in 1982, but all
the original material has remained at USJ for 20 years; the isotypes were finally
distributed only this year. Morphological, distributional, and phenological information
are provided for this little known sp., endemic to Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo at
ca. 800-1550 m elevation. Illustrated with a line drawing.
Nickrent, D. L., A. Blarer, Y.-L. Qiu, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. Zanis.
2002. Molecular data place Hydnoraceae with Aristolochiaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 89:
The title just about says it all. Combined analyses of six different genes
suggest that the odd parasitic family Hydnoraceae, often associated with Rafflesiaceae,
belongs instead to a clade here termed Aristolochiaceae s. l. (including Lactoridaceae).
This clade is in turn sister to Piperaceae and Saururaceae. Because the relationships
within Aristolochiaceae s. l. could not be resolved, the internal classification of the
group remains in limbo. Perhaps of greater interest to us is the authors' incidental
mention of an earlier paper, not seen by us, in which Prosopanche costaricensis
L. D. Gómez & Gómez-Laur. (the only Central American representative of
Hydnoraceae) was placed in synonymy under P. americana (R. Br.) Baill.
Pupulin, F. 2002. Exploring for orchids. Orchids 71: 1016-1019.
To illustrate the point that “exploration is still an integral part of
botanical work,“ the author relates his now familiar tale of the discovery of a
new orchid sp. at a relatively well botanized site. The subject is Ornithocephalus
montealegreae Pupulin, the eighth Costa Rican member of its genus, found at ca.
1100 m elevation near Moravia de Chirripó, on the Atlantic slope of the northern
Cordillera de Talamanca. The new sp. is “easily distinguished...by its long,
subfalcate petals and the elliptic, boat-shaped lip terminating in a bicallous apex with
two bright yellow, rounded blotches“ resembling pollen masses. A subsequent
collection, from 600 m elevation on the Atlantic slope of Volcán Irazú, is cited as a
paratype. Illustrated with an excellent, composite line drawing by the author, as well
as color photos of living material. This is another novelty that did not make the cut
for the Manual.
--. & M. A. Blanco. 2002. A new species of Stellilabium section
Taeniorhachis (Orchidaceae) from Costa Rica. Lankesteriana 5: 27-30.
Stellilabium smaragdinum Pupulin & M. A. Blanco becomes the twelfth
Costa Rican member of its genus, notorious for being represented in most herbaria by as
many (or fewer) specimens as spp. The new sp., known only by the type collected in oak
forest at ca. 2400 m elevation near the Continental Divide in the northern Cordillera
de Talamanca, is related and compared to S. minutiflorum (Kraenzl.) Garay and
the recently described S. erratum Dressler [see
The Cutting Edge
9(1): 4, Jan. 2002]. Illustrated with a very fine, composite line drawing by the
first author. Another in the growing list of eleventh-hour orchid novelties that the
Manual will be unable to accommodate. Taking this new sp., together with
Ornithocephalus montealegreae (see previous entry), Sobralia crispissima
(see under Dressler, this column), and Pleurothallis haberi and Zootrophion
williamsii (see first Luer entry), our running total of new orchid spp. described
from Costa Rica since 1993 climbs to 194.
Quinn, C. J., R. A. Price & P. A. Gadek. 2002. Familial concepts and
relationships in the conifers based on rbcL and matK sequence comparisons.
Kew Bull. 57: 513-531.
Cupressaceae s. str. and Cupressaceae s. l. (including Taxodiaceae) both
emerge as monophyletic, with 100% bootstrap support; however, Taxodiaceae is paraphyletic
with respect to Cupressaceae s. str. This information vindicates the inclusive
circumscription of Cupressaceae in Mary Merello's Manual treatment [see
The Cutting Edge
9(4): 2, Oct. 2002].
Salazar, G. A., M. W. Chase & M. A. Soto Arenas. 2002. Galeottiellinae, a
new subtribe and other nomenclatural changes in Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae: Cranichideae).
Lindleyana 17: 172-176.
The only item here of interest to us is the new combination Pteroglossa
roseoalba (Rchb. f.) Salazar & M. W. Chase, based on Pelexia roseoalba Rchb.
f. This sp. has most recently been called Eltroplectris roseoalba (Rchb. f.)
Hamer & Garay (as in our Manual draft); however, foliar and floral morphology better
concord with Pteroglossa, and unpublished molecular data support removal from
Smith, G. F. & E. M. A. Steyn. 2002. Agave wercklei: a mesoamerican
species in South Africa. Bradleya 20: 45-50.
We are surprised to learn that Agave wercklei F. A. C. Weber ex
Wercklé (Agavaceae), a narrow endemic in Costa Rica, is grown as an ornamental in
South Africa, “where it has the potential of becoming a problem plant.“
Strangely, the authors do not elaborate on the last-mentioned claim, failing even to
establish that A. wercklei occurs outside cultivation in South Africa. They do,
however, provide a full description, distribution maps (for both Mesoamerica and South
Africa), detailed line drawings, and color photos from life. The fruits of A.
wercklei are described for (ostensibly) the first time, and the flowers and fruits
are illustrated for the first time.
Steinmann, V. W. & J. M. Porter. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships in
Euphorbieae (Euphorbiaceae) based on ITS and ndhF sequence data. Ann.
Missouri Bot. Gard. 89: 453-490.
Parsimony analyses of both nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences show
Euphorbia to be paraphyletic, with “all other genera currently recognized
in the subtribe“ nested therein. These nested genera include Chamaesyce
and Pedilanthus (as well as Poinsettia, not “currently recognized,“
at least by these authors). Bucking “the current taxonomic trend...in the direction
of splitting Euphorbia,“ the authors instead argue cogently to expand the
genus “to encompass all members of the subtribe.“ They note that the
splitting option (defining the genus Euphorbia as congruent to the present subgenus
Euphorbia) would require changing the names of ca. 1700 spp. (vs. only ca. 100 in
the expansion option); indeed, ca. 90% of the spp. currently in Euphorbia would
be banished to other genera, often weakly characterized on the basis of cyathial
characters. Naturally, we come down on the side of expansion, and while we lament the
loss of Pedilanthus, it seems a small price to pay for the elimination of
Chamaesyce, a bogus genus if ever there was one (take that, Daryl!).
Szlachetko, D. L. & H. B. Margonska. 2002. Gynostemia orchidalium II.
Orchidaceae (Epidendroideae). Acta Bot. Fenn. 173: 1-275.
This is the second installment in a projected four-part series [for a
The Cutting Edge 8(1): 9, Jan. 2001]. This contribution does not appear to incorporate
any nomenclatural innovations.
Thomson, J. A. & M. E. Alonso-Amelot. 2002. Clarification of the taxonomic
status and relationships of Pteridium caudatum (Dennstaedtiaceae) in Central and South
America. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 140: 237-248.
Morphological comparisons and “DNA fingerprinting“ reaffirm that
Pteridium caudatum (L.) Maxon merits recognition at sp. rank (as according to Flora
mesoamericana), even though it has often been treated as a var. of P. aquilinum (L.)
Kuhn. The DNA results suggest that P. caudatum is a fertile allotetraploid, with genomic
elements characteristic of the southern hemisphere diploid Pteridium arachnoideum (Kaulf.)
Maxon, together with elements of some northern hemisphere diploid taxa. The
“heterogeneity observed within P. caudatum is consistent with multiple origins
through independent hybridization events.“
Yakandawala, D. M. D., C. M. Morton & G. T. Prance. 2001. A phylogenetic
study of the Chrysobalanaceae using morphological data. Ceylon J. Sci., Biol. Sci.
Cladistic analysis using 50 morphological characters and all 17 genera of
Chrysobalanaceae (with Dichapetalaceae as the out-group) indicates that Licania is
paraphyletic; the (presumably African) subg. Afrolicania (Mildbr.) F. White & Prance
is closer to Chrysobalanus than to the rest of Licania, and should thus be reinstated
at generic rank.