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Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica

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The Cutting Edge

Volume VIII, Number 1, January 2001

News and Notes | Recent Treatments | Leaps and Bounds | Germane Literature

Almeda, F. 2000. The hexandrous species of Topobea (Melastomataceae). Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 52: 97–109.

Topobea, sister to Blakea, comprises ca. 70 spp. of mostly epiphytic or hemiepiphytic shrubs, strongly centered in southern Central American and Colombia. This contribution considers five spp. that have flowers with six stamens and 2- or 4-locular ovaries, in a genus otherwise characterized by 12 stamens and 6-locular ovaries. Four of the five spp. in this group are local endemics in Panama; the remaining sp., Topobea crassifolia (Almeda) Almeda, ranges more widely in Panama, and occurs also in Costa Rica (at ca. 750–1300 m, on the Atlantic slope of the Cordillera Central in Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo). Features a key to spp., sp. descriptions, representative specimen citations, and distribution maps, as well as a fine, composite line-drawing of the Panamanian T. arboricola Almeda (the only sp. here described as new).
——. 2000. A synopsis of the genus Blakea (Melastomataceae) in Mexico and Central America. Novon 10: 299–319.
Blakea, a genus of ca. 100 mainly epiphytic spp. of shrubs and trees centered in northwestern South America, is represented in the Mesoamerican region by 33 spp. More than half (17) of these occur in Costa Rica, including the following seven endemics: Blakea anomala Donn. Sm., B. austin-smithii Standl., B. chlorantha Almeda, B. costaricensis Umaña & Almeda, B. grandiflora Hemsl., B. penduliflora Almeda, and B. tapantiana Umaña & Almeda. Two additional spp., Blakea litoralis L. O. Williams and B. wilsoniorum Almeda sp. nov., are nearly endemic to Costa Rica, each known otherwise from a single Panamanian collection. The latter is the only one of the four new spp. described here to range outside Panama. The new combination Blakea storkii (Standl.) Almeda, based on Topobea storkii Standl., becomes the accepted name for a sp. of Costa Rica and western Panama previously known as Blakea woodsonii Gleason, here newly synonymized. Several other new synonymies are debuted, most notably, from our perspective, that of Blakea subpeltata Cogn., erstwhile Costa Rican endemic, under B. guatemalensis Donn. Sm. The first Panamanian record of this sp. is cited here, supplementing the Guatemalan disjunction. Includes a key to all 33 spp., plus composite line-drawings of the four new spp. The differences between Blakea and the closely related Topobea are enumerated in the genus discussion.
Arbo, M. M. 2000. Estudios sistemáticos en Turnera (Turneraceae) II. Series Annulares, Capitatae, Microphyllae y Papilliferae. Bonplandia 10: 1–82.
Turnera, with about 100 spp. in Africa and the New World, comprises nine series, of which two were revised by the author in the first installment of this series (Bonplandia 9: 151–208. 1997). The four series treated here harbor 21 spp., of which just one occurs in Costa Rica: Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. (ser. Microphyllae Urb.) , the allegedly aphrodisiac damiana of liqueur fame. This notorious sp. is represented in Costa Rica by var. diffusa, which occurs naturally at ca. 0–400 m elevation in the Guanacaste region. Very thorough, with a key to all nine series, keys to the spp. of each series, lengthy descriptions of series and spp., exhaustive specimen citations, distribution maps, and detailed line-drawings.
Badillo, V. M. 2000. Carica L. vs. Vasconcella St. Hil. (Caricaceae) con la rehabilitación de este último. Ernstia 10: 74–79.
Citing five morphological differences, a strict hybridization barrier, and a recent DNA study, the author, a monographer of Caricaceae, restricts the type genus to a single sp.: Carica papaya L., the papaya of commerce. The remaining 20 spp. inherit the generic name Vasconcella A. St.-Hil. The correct names in Vasconcella for all 20 (plus six infraspecific taxa) are supplied in a nomenclator, in which 17 new combinations (11 at sp. rank, 6 at infraspecific rank) and one new name are valildated. Occurring in Costa Rica are Vasconcella cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC. (formerly Carica cauliflora Jacq.) and Vasconcella cundinamarcensis V. M. Badillo (formerly Carica pubescens Lenné & K. Koch, non Vasconcella pubescens A. DC.). On the surface, this move is a real shocker, akin (from our unenlightened perspective) to restricting Citrus to C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Cucurbita to C. pepo L., or Salvia to S. officinalis L. Carica cauliflora is so similar to C. papaya that it is often confused with it, and has even been suspected as a wild form (see, e.g., Standley & Williams's remarks in the Flora of Guatemala under Carica pennata Heilborn, a synonym of C. cauliflora). The morphological differences mentioned by Badillo seem generally of sp.-rank magnitude. We have not seen the cited DNA study, but wonder if other classificatory options are available, e.g., subgeneric ranking for Vasconcella, or sinking Jacaratia into Carica s. l. (either of which seems more reasonable to us).
Berg, C. C. & M. E. E. Hijman. 1999. The genus Dorstenia (Moraceae). Ilicifolia 2: 1–211.
The peculiar, largely herbaceous Dorstenia is a pantropical genus of 105 spp., 59 in the Old World (mostly Africa) and 46 in the New World. Here, nine sections are recognized. Consistent with William Burger's 1977 Flora costaricensis treatment (Fieldiana, Bot. 40: 94–215), just three spp. (none endemic) are attributed to Costa Rica: Dorstenia choconiana S. Watson, D. contrajerva L., and D. drakena L. The authors presumably did not see Manual co-PI Mike Grayum's collection of a fourth sp. for the country, from Fila Matama on the Atlantic slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca. This is more of a synopsis than a revision, as there are no species discussions, no specimen citations (excepting vouchers for illustrations), and only very brief summaries of distribution. Includes a key to sections (but no keys to spp. within sections), plus five artificial keys to spp., organized by growth habit and geographic range (and limiting to 24 spp. the possibilities for Costa Rica); full-page, composite line-drawings for 91 spp.; sections on doubtful and excluded names and nomina nuda; and an index to scientific names. The generous introductory part discusses morphological differentiation, reproduction, cytology, distribution, and supra- and infrageneric classification. No new spp., but four new sections are described, and four lectotypes designated; however, these do not affect our taxa.
Cascante, A. & A. Estrada. 1999. Lista con anotaciones de la flora vascular de la Zona Protectora El Rodeo, Costa Rica (un Bosque Húmedo Premontano del Valle Central). Brenesia 51: 1–44.
The Zona Protectora El Rodeo, along the Río Virilla at ca. 500–1014 m elevation, harbors the last sizeable chunk of reasonably intact forest in the Valle Central. It is also important historically, having been visited by numerous prominent collectors including Oersted, Pittier, and Tonduz. This vouchered list accounts for a total of 554 spp. of vascular plants, in 395 genera and 115 families. Most diverse are Fabaceae (s. l.), Asteraceae, and Rubiaceae, with 55, 42, and 24 spp., respectively. Only 5% of the spp. in this seasonally dry forest type are epiphytes, while 35% are trees, 19% shrubs, and 29% herbs. These statistics are discussed in greater depth in the introductory part, which also treats habitat types and some noteworthy spp. The checklist annotations concern synonymy, common names, growth habit, habitat type and (irregularly) distinctive features and phenology. Also featured are a rather crude map of the site, plus a graphic representation of monthly precipitation and average temperature.
Dressler, R. L. 2000. Precursor to a revision of the Chondrorhyncha complex/Precursor a una revisión del complejo Chondrorhyncha. Orquideología 21: 233–255.
The controversial generic classification of spp. related to Chondrorhyncha (Orchidaceae) is reexamined in light of preliminary, unpublished analyses of DNA sequences for 30 of ca. 160 spp. in subtribe Zygopetalinae. Genus names that have been variously employed for Costa Rican members of this group include Chaubardiella, Chondrorhyncha, Cochleanthes, Huntleya, Kefersteinia, Pescatorea, and Warczewiczella. Of these, Chaubardiella, Huntleya, Kefersteinia, and Pescatorea appear to be natural, distinct groups (at least, within the context of the genera occurring in Costa Rica); but some adjustments may be needed for the remaining genera. Neither Chondrorhyncha nor Cochleanthes, according to their most recent circumscriptions, seem to be natural groups; however, the author suggests that "both may become natural groups by restricting Cochleanthes and removing some misfits from Chondrorhyncha and Warczewiczella." The restriction of Cochleanthes has already been accomplished for the Manual Orchidaceae treatment, namely, by removing C. discolor (Lindl.) R. E. Schult. & Garay as Warczewiczella discolor (Lindl.) Rchb. f., and C. picta (Rchb. f.) Garay as Chondrorhyncha picta (Rchb. f.) Senghas; only Cochleanthes aromatica (Rchb. f.) R. E. Schult. & Garay remains. Reading between the lines here, it would appear that the process of removing "misfits" from Chondrorhyncha may ultimately purge that genus from Costa Rica altogether. We learn that Chondrorhyncha "may well be a natural group of 8 or 10 South American species," from which spp. occurring in Costa Rica are variously segregated: C. bicolor Rolfe to the newly resurrected Chondroscaphe, and the Chondrorhyncha albicans Rolfe and C. picta sp. groups (the former including C. reichenbachiana Schltr.) characterized as "similar to Chondrorhyncha," but considered separately. No formal nomenclatural changes are implemented, pending more comprehensive molecular analyses. Includes a discussion of important characters in the complex, a key to the genera and sp. groups, the cladogram on which the paper is based, and seven pages of color plates (all close-ups of flowers on living plants). Another view: this complex has a long history of being carved up into smallish, technical genera that are continually adjusted and recombined in various ways, strongly suggesting that the best option may be to combine the lot; the cladogram can be read as providing support for this as well! Bilingual, English/Spanish.
——. 2000 ['1999']. Mesoamerican orchid novelties 4, Habenaria. Bol. Inst. Bot. Univ. Guadalajara 7: 93–101.
Of the four new spp. described here, only Habenaria carlotae Dressler is reported from Costa Rica. The type and only known specimen of H. carlotae was collected by Manual Rubiaceae contributor Charlotte M. Taylor (MO), honored by the epithet, at ca. 1500–1600 m elevation on the San Isidro de El General slope of Cerro de La Muerte. Although "it is quite distinctive and does not appear to have any close allies in Central America," H. carlotae has flowers somewhat resembling those of H. repens Nutt. The name Habenaria macroceratitis Willd. is freed from synonymy under H. quinqueseta (Michx.) Sw., and an improved key is provided to separate the two spp. (N.B.: the former name applies to Costa Rican material). The names Habenaria gymnadenioides Schltr., H. verecunda Schltr. (both based on Costa Rican types), and H. hondurensis Ames are all newly synonymized under H. wercklei Schltr., conceived as ranging from Guatemala to central Panama. The new spp. are illustrated—except for H. carlotae!
Ebinger, J. E., D. S. Seigler & H. D. Clarke. 2000. Taxonomic revision of South American species of the genus Acacia subgenus Acacia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). Syst. Bot. 25: 588–617.
The sp. that has long been called Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. in Costa Rica now has a new name (stand back!): Acacia guanacastensis (H. D. Clarke, Seigler & Ebinger) Ebinger, Seigler & H. D. Clarke (based on A. farnesiana var. guanacastensis H. D. Clarke, Seigler & Ebinger, Syst. Bot. 14: 562. 1989). Specific rank for this taxon is justified on the basis of its "unique morphological characteristics" (more pinnae, with more numerous pinnules) and its distribution. Acacia guanacastensis ranges from Oaxaca and Veracruz to Venezuela (hence its inclusion here); as implied by the epithet, it occus only on the Pacific slope in Costa Rica.
Estrada, A. 2000. Legado asiático en Costa Rica. Museo 8(3): 5–6.
A brief, popular account of the discovery in Costa Rica of Chiangiodendron mexicanum T. Wendt (Flacourtiaceae), previously known only from the Uxpanapa region of Mexico [see The Cutting Edge 7(2): 4–5, Apr. 2000]. The only Costa Rican stations are Páramo and Savegre Abajo, both in the Cantón de Pérez Zeledón, in the basin of the Río División, on the Pacific slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca. This is exciting, as further explorations in this region are planned by the Museo Nacional crew (see under "News and Notes"). Illustrated with a black-and-white photo of a fresh, fertile branch.
Gámez L., R. 1999. De biodiversidad, gentes y utopías: reflexiones en los 10 años del INBio. Inst. Nac. de Biodiversidad, Sto. Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. 144 pp.
Rodrigo Gámez, Director General of INBio from the get-go, tells the story from his own perspective. Though less objective that Zeledón's more detached account (see below), this makes for more interesting reading, as Gámez records his personal reactions to INBio's successes and setbacks in a forthright manner. Features well-selected color photos and scholarly, informative annotations.
Gaut, B. S., L. P. Tredway, C. Kubik, R. L. Gaut & W. Meyer. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships and genetic members of the Festuca-Lolium complex (Poaceae) based on ITS sequence data. Pl. Syst. Evol. 224: 33–53.
Cladistic analysis of 116 ITS sequences for 31 taxa shows Lolium (which may or may not be monophyletic) as nested within Festuca, largely consistent with previous studies. The authors conclude that "a merger of the two genera...might be favorable, but...must be conditioned on further studies of the relationship of Vulpia to Lolium and Festuca." Strange indeed that no spp. of Vulpia were included in this study in the first place! Both Festuca and Lolium occur in Costa Rica, the latter only as an introduction.
Gómez-Laurito, J. 2000. A new Dalechampia L. (Euphorbiaceae) from southern Costa Rica. Novon 10: 368–370.
Dalechampia burgeriana Gómez-Laur., dedicated to Flora costaricensis mastermind William C. Burger (F), is known only by the type collection, from 1000–1200 m elevation on Fila Cruces, in the southern Fila Costeña. The new sp., here depicted in an excellent composite line-drawing, is the only Costa Rican Dalechampia with five-foliolate leaves. It is compared with D. regnellii Müll. Arg. of southern Brazil, a putative relative also with five-foliolate leaves.
Hammel, B. E. 2000. A new species of Dioscorea from Costa Rica. Novon 10: 378–381.
Recharacterization of the long-misunderstood Dioscorea lepida C. V. Morton (Dioscoreaceae) has resulted in the segregation of a new sp., Dioscorea natalia Hammel. The latter is endemic to Costa Rica, where it is restricted to cloud-forest habitats near the Continental Divide at ca. 900–1500 m elevation in the Cordilleras de Tilarán, Central, and de Talamanca. The distinguishing features of the real D. lepida are discussed in detail, and a key is provided to separate the closely related and sympatric D. lepida, D. natalia, D. racemosa (Klotzsch) Uline, and D. standleyi C. V. Morton. The new sp. is illustrated with an exemplary composite line-drawing by Manual artist Silvia Troyo, whose daughter inspired the specific epithet.
Lourteig, A. 2000. Oxalis L. subgéneros Monoxalis (Small) Lourt., Oxalis y Trifidus Lourt. Bradea 7(2): 1–629.
The author has been specializing on Oxalis since the 1950's, so it is a shame that this, the culmination of her life's work, had to be hurried because of "serious health troubles." This is nothing less than a revision of three of the four subgenera of this huge, cosmopolitan genus, strongly centered in South America and South Africa, omitting the exclusively South African sect. Cernuae (of subgen. Oxalis), with 208 spp. The fourth subgenus, Thamnoxys (Endl.) Reiche, previously revised by the author [Bradea 7(1): 1–199. 1994], comprises 71 spp. These figures, added to the 208 spp. accepted in the three subgenera revised here, yield a generic total of 487 spp., considerably below the estimate of 700 given by The plant-book (1997). Subgenus Oxalis, with 27 sections and 204 spp. (excluding sect. Cernuae), accounts for the vast bulk of the present volume; the other two subgenera have just two spp. apiece.

The author admits to having cut corners, and notes (in the Abstract) that Central America has been especially hurt by this process. Fortunately, we have William Burger's 1991 Flora costaricensis treatment (Fieldiana, Bot. n. s., 28: 2–16) as a yardstick. Burger treated 12 Oxalis spp., of which three were hypothetical; but one of the latter, O. microcarpa Benth., has since turned up [see The Cutting Edge 3(3): 3, Jul. 1996], resulting in a total of 10 spp. for the country. Unfortunately, comparable information cannot be extracted from Lourteig's contribution. Three of our 10 spp., O. barrelieri L., O. frutescens L., and O. microcarpa, are not included in the present work, and presumably belong to subgen. Thamnoxys. Of the remaining seven spp., very little Costa Rican material appears to have been seen. For example, no Mesoamerican specimens at all are cited for the widespread Oxalis spiralis Ruiz & Pav. ex G. Don subsp. spiralis, instead merely the promise that "El material de Centro-América se publicará eventualmente." Considering this situation, together with the large number of extralimital spp. cluttering the keys, Costa Rican users may have limited use for this volume.

Features a key to subgenera, a key to the sections of subgen. Oxalis, nested keys to spp. and infraspecific taxa, descriptions of most taxa, specimen citations (especially for South American taxa), an index to scientific names, and composite line-drawings of selected spp. The introduction occupies less than a page. Of the numerous new taxa and new names, just one is of interest to us: Oxalis spiralis subsp. trichophora Lourteig, subsp. nov., noteworthy for its golden-hirsute pubescence on all parts, is endemic to Costa Rica at 1800–2800 m elevation in Provs. Cartago and San José (the type is from near Copey de Dota). In Spanish.

Luer, C. A. 2000. Miscellaneous new species in the Pleurothallidinae/Varias especies nuevas de las Pleurothallidinae. Orquideología 21: 318–340.
Pleurothallis endresii Luer and P. tomentosa Luer, endemic Costa Rican spp. described here ostensibly as new, were previously published by Luer [Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 76: 159–180. 1999; see The Cutting Edge 7(2): 9–10, Apr. 2000]. Nonetheless, we somehow overlooked these in our running total of new Orchidaceae spp. described from Costa Rica since ca. 1993, which now stands at 164 [including Habenaria carlotae (see under Dressler, above) and Lepanthes empticia Luer, published in the 1999 paper with the two Pleurothallis spp.]. We suspect that the five other "new" sp. names published in the present paper, from countries other than Costa Rica, have also been validated elsewhere. Bilingual, English/Spanish.
Meerow, A. W., C. L. Guy, Q.-B. Li & S.-L. Yang. 2000. Phylogeny of the American Amaryllidaceae based on nrDNA ITS sequences. Syst. Bot. 25: 708–726.
The only result with potential repercussions for Costa Rican floristics is the tentative demonstration that Zephyranthes is triphyletic. The authors attempt no classificatory or nomenclatural changes, pending further investigation of possible reticulate evolution in the group. However, it is worth noting that Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl., the only sp. occurring in Costa Rica included in this study, appears to have a different origin than Z. atamasco (L.) Herb., the generic type.
Meyer, F. K. 2000. Revision der Gattung Malpighia L. (Malpighiaceae). Phanerog. Monogr. 23: 1–630.
According to this monumental work, Malpighia comprises 130 mostly shrubby spp., neotropical in distribution from southern Texas to Peru, Venezuela, and Guyana. Centers of diversity are Mexico (26 spp., 20 endemic) and the Greater Antilles, especially Cuba (58 spp., 53 endemic) and Hispaniola (27 spp., 24 endemic). Just six spp. (none endemic) reach Costa Rica: Malpighia albiflora (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., M. glabra L., M. mexicana A. Juss., M. romeroana Cuatrec., M. stevensii W. R. Anderson, and M. verruculosa W. R. Anderson. We also record the cultivated Malpighia emarginata Sessé & Moç. ex DC., of which Meyer cites no Costa Rican specimens (indeed, he appears to have seen very little Costa Rican material in general). An infrageneric classification is adopted based on two subgenera, Romeroa F. K. Mey. (with just three spp.) and Malpighia. The autonymic subgenus is divided into two sections, Schizocarpae F. K. Mey. (with only two spp.) and Malpighia; in other words, 125 of the 130 spp. in the genus belong to sect. Malpighia, which is further subdivided into subsections (seven) and series. Complete with thorough descriptions of the genus, spp., and infraspecific taxa, (but only very brief, diagnostic descriptions of other infrageneric taxa); a combined dichotomous, unindented key to all infrageneric taxa, with extremely verbose leads that are numbered consecutively (a peculiar device, but surprisingly effective in such a large, unindented key); comprehensive specimen citations (in a highly uneconomical format); distribution maps (very conveniently positioned); a nomenclator; a summary of sp. distribution by country; an index to exsiccatae (also gobbling too much space); and 150 full-page, black-and-white photos of herbarium specimens, extending beyond the numbered pages. The introductory section discusses all important aspects of morphology, as well as biogeography and classification (mainly infrageneric). By the author's own count (in a convenient summary), 67 new spp. and 10 new subsp. are validated here, along with nine new combinations (4 spp., 5 subspp.) and one new sp. name. An additional 17 new taxa and combinations involve other infrageneric categories. Four lectotypes and two neotypes are designated. Only two of these novelties are of interest to us: Malpighia verruculosa subsp. antillana (Vivaldi) F. K. Mey. (based on M. albiflora subsp. antillana Vivaldi), Caribbean in distribution but invoking autonymic subspecific qualification for our Central American material (while revoking it for M. albiflora); and Malpighia mexicana subsp. guadalajarensis (S. Watson) F. K. Mey. (based on Bunchosia guadalajarensis S. Watson), including as a synonym Malpighia edulis Donn. Sm., the two syntypes of which are the sole Costa Rican records of M. mexicana. Meyer characterizes M. mexicana as basically Mexican, from Durango to Oaxaca, and regards all records from Chiapas to Costa Rica as dubiously indigenous (possibly cultivated for their edible fruit). Nevertheless, the provenance of the Costa Rican lectotype ("forêt de La Carpintera") suggests a natural occurrence.
Nesom, G. L. 2000. Generic conspectus of the tribe Astereae (Asteraceae) in North America and Central America, the Antilles, and Hawaii. Sida, Bot. Misc. 20: 1–100.
Presents the author's generic concepts, apparently based on traditional taxonomic methods, but with a brief discussion of the implications of recent molecular analyses. Within the region specified in the title, 14 subtribes and four "Incertae sedis" groups are recognized for tribe Astereae. Although the generic composition of each of these 18 groups is duly indicated, the groups are neither keyed nor described, and there is no key to to genera at any level. Instead, the generic entries are arranged in strict alphabetic sequence, each featuring a formal description, an often insightful discussion (touching on such aspects as diagnostic features and alternative classifications), and useful literature references. A major theme here is the breakup of several large genera, especially Aster and Haplopappus, the former scarcely represented in Costa Rica and the latter not at all. Aster spinosus Benth. goes to the monotypic Chloracantha, in one of the "Incertae sedis" groups, but the disposition of our other weedy erstwhile Aster spp. cannot be divined. The remaining genera of tribe Astereae represented in Costa Rica are: Archibaccharis and Baccharis (subtribe Baccharidinae); the introduced Bellis (subtribe Bellidinae); Conyza and Erigeron (subtribe Conyzinae); Egletes (subtribe Grangeinae); Laestadia and Westoniella (subtribe Hinterhuberinae); and Myriactis (subtribe Lagenopherinae). Somewhat surprisingly, the author resists recent efforts to splinter Baccharis. Another surprise concerns the genus Lagenophora [here spelled "Lagenifera," in ignorance or defiance of a recommendation by the Committee for Spermatophyta to conserve the former spelling; see The Cutting Edge 6(1): 7, Jan. 1999]. Actually, there are two surprises here: first, that four spp. are attributed to Costa Rica (our data-base accounts for just one, L. panamensis S. F. Blake); and second, that all four are here "tentatively maintained" in the otherwise Asian genus Myriactis, with Lagenophora s. str. apparently confined to South America.
Norman, E. M. 2000. Buddlejaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 81: 1–225.
Buddlejaceae are here regarded as comprising eight genera with 125 spp. The familial circumscription is novel for us, with four genera accepted for the New World: Buddleja, Peltanthera, and Polypremum, all occurring in Costa Rica, plus Emorya, of Texas and northern Mexico. One recent study removed Peltanthera to Gesneriaceae and Polypremum to Tetrachondraceae [see The Cutting Edge 7(3): 4, Jul. 2000]; indeed, the cladogram from that study is published here, and one presumes that the author might have followed suit but for time constraints (our Manual treatment still has all these genera in Loganiaceae!). Of the 71 spp. treated in this monograph, 67 belong to Buddleja, with Peltanthera and Polypremum monotypic. For Costa Rica, there is no change in sp. composition from the Manual treatement, by Joaquín Sánchez (CR): just four spp. of Buddleja, plus Peltanthera floribunda Benth. and Polypremum procumbens L. But there is one name-change: Costa Rican material previously referred to Buddleja cordata Kunth is here called B. skutchii C. V. Morton subsp. costaricensis E. M. Norman, subsp. nov., restricted to Costa Rica and western Panama (Prov. Chiriquí). A very thorough presentation, with a family description, key to genera, generic descriptions, an artificial key to Buddleja spp. organized geographically, a key to the 12 series of sect. Buddleja, keys to the spp. of each series, keys to infraspecific taxa, complete bibliographic and typological data for all accepted names and synonyms, detailed sp. descriptions, representative (but generous) specimen citations, illustrations (both photographs and line-drawings), distribution maps, and indices to exsiccatae and scientific names. The lengthy introductory part is especially strong on morphology and anatomy, cytology, hybridization, and chemistry. Two new spp., one new subsp., and one new combination are published, all in Buddleja, with just one (above) affecting Costa Rica.
Pupulin, F. 2000. A revision of the Costa Rican species of Macroclinium (Orchidaceae)/Una revisión de las especies costarricenses de Macroclinium. Orquideología 21: 274–309.
No new taxa are described here and, except for the narrower focus and added detail, there are no significant changes from the author's 1997 synopsis of the genus: 10 spp. of Macroclinium occur in Costa Rica, of which six are endemic [see The Cutting Edge 5(4): 8, Oct. 1998, for further information]. This time out we get the deluxe treatment: a key to spp., detailed sp. descriptions, comprehensive exsiccatae citations, an excellent, composite line-drawing of each sp., and a page of color photographs of live plants. Bilingual, English/Spanish.
Rudall, P. J., J. G. Conran & M. W. Chase. 2000. Systematics of Ruscaceae/Convallariaceae: a combined morphological and molecular investigation. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 134: 73–92.
We had been aware of overtures to to unite Convallariaceae and Dracaenaceae, but not of recent work suggesting that Nolinaceae and Ruscaceae should be thrown into the mix. The resulting Ruscaceae s. l., a well-supported clade in molecular analyses, is characterized by the absence of phytomelan in the seed coat, few ovules per locule, pedicel articulation, berried fruits, and a similiar basic chromosome number and karyotype. The authors note "an unusual lack of sequence divergence for such a morphologically varied group of taxa." Intrafamilial relationships of Ruscaceae s. l., the main focus of this paper, fall outside our domain.
Szlachetko, D. L. & P. Rutkowski. 2000. Gynostemia orchidalium I. Apostasiaceae, Cypripediaceae, Orchidaceae (Thelymitroideae, Orchidoideae, Tropidioideae, Spiranthoideae, Neottioideae, Vanilloideae). Acta Bot. Fenn. 169: 1–380.
The first installment in a four-part series, surveying as many genera as possible in Orchidaceae (and closely allied families) with respect to the morphology of the gynostemium (that is, the androecium plus the gynoecium, which are more or less united in this group). This volume covers those taxa mentioned in the title; the second volume (in preparation) will cover Orchidaceae subfam. Epidendroideae, while both the third and fourth volumes will be devoted to Orchidaceae subfam. Vandoideae. Each genus entry features a formal description of just the gynostemium, accompanied by detailed, labeled line-drawings. Herbarium vouchers are cited in an exhaustive appendix. Eight new combinations are validated here, none relevant to Costa Rican floristics. Despite the unusual emphasis, readers should find this series useful not only because of the careful, parallel descriptions and illustrations, but also because of the keys provided at each level (emphasizing gynostemial characters, but often including other characters). After all, many orchid genera are separated solely on "technical" characters of the gynostemium.
Vega, A. S. 2000. Revisión taxonómica de las especies americanas del género Bothriochloa (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Andropogoneae). Darwiniana 38: 127–186.
Bothriochloa, a pantropical genus of ca. 35 spp., is here considered to include 22 New World spp. (plus two subspp. and one var.). Both Flora costaricensis (Pohl, Fieldiana, Bot. n. s., 4: 1–608. 1980) and Flora mesoamericana Vol. 6 (Davidse & Pohl, 1994: 384–386) attributed just one sp. of Bothriochloa to Costa Rica: B. pertusa (L.) A. Camus, an Old World native sparingly established on the Pacific coast. This treatment adds Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng var. songarica (Rupr.) Celarier & J. R. Harlan, another Old World adventive, vouchered by Standley 35484 (US), from 1500–1800 m elevation in the Cerros de La Carpintera. Features a key to spp. and infraspecific taxa (unindented), adequate descriptions, comprehensive specimen citations, distribution maps, sections on excluded and dubious spp., an index to exsiccatae (but not to scientific names), and excellent composite line-drawings of selected spp. The introductory part emphasizes taxonomic history, distribution, and spikelet morphology (with many drawings and some SEM micrographs). No taxonomic novelties. In Spanish, with an English abstract.
Wendt, T. 2000. Moutabea gentryi (Polygalaceae), a new species of liana from Central America and Colombia. Lundellia 3: 6–12.
One of the most recalcitrant mystery plants of our early La Selva days was a rigid, subcanopy liana with somewhat aculeate stems, simple, alternate leaves (bluish when new), and large, green, globose fruits. When flowering material at last was found, we thought the problem would be solved. But still we were in the dark, even as to family, until reclusive genius Melvin Turner (DUKE) conclusively matched our plant with Moutabea, a small genus of Polygalaceae not previously reported from outside South America. The sp. determination, however, has remained unsettled all this time, with the names Moutabea aculeata (Ruiz & Pav.) Poepp. & Endl. and M. longifolia Poepp. & Endl. appearing on various La Selva checklists. Manual correspondent Tom Wendt (TEX) here decides that M. longifolia is a synonym of M. aculeata, and that the La Selva plant is neither, but rather a new sp., Moutabea gentryi T. Wendt. The overall geographic range of M. gentryi is small, from northeastern Costa Rica (and probably extreme southeastern Nicaragua) to northwestern Colombia. It occurs at ca. 0–350 m elevation in Costa Rica, in two areas: the north Atlantic coastal plain (from near Upala to La Selva and the Barra del Colorado region), and the Golfo Dulce region. Includes a very long description, an extensive discussion, comprehensive specimen citations, a range map, and an excellent composite line-drawing.
Yen, A. C. & R. G. Olmstead. 2000. Molecular systematics of Cyperaceae tribe Cariceae based on two chloroplast DNA regions: ndhF and trnL intron-intergenic spacer. Syst. Bot. 25: 479–494.
Several genera traditionally considered distinct, including Uncinia (occurring in Costa Rica), are shown to be nested within Carex. Although usually regarded as more primitive than Carex, by virtue of its peculiar, hook-shaped rachillae, Uncinia may in fact be a highly specialized and derived taxon.
Zeledón, R. 2000. 10 años del INBio: de una utopía a una realidad. Inst. Nac. de Biodiversidad, Sto. Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. 279 pp.
A frank and critical account of the formative years at INBio from the pen of Rodrigo Zeledón, a distinguished Costa Rican scientist who was not directly involved. As the author admits, this may seem premature, just 10 years on, but it is just as well to record these rapidly unfolding events while they are still fresh. Replete with arcane statistics (e.g., a list of new Lepidoptera species dedicated to INBio personnel) and color graphics.


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