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Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica

Main | Family List (MO) | Family List (INBio) | Cutting Edge
Draft Treatments | Guidelines | Checklist | Citing | Editors

The Cutting Edge

Volume VI, Number 4, October 1999

News and Notes | Leaps and Bounds | Germane Literature

Allorge-Boiteau, L. 1999 ['1998']. New combinations in Odontadenia and Mandevilla (Apocynaceae). Phytologia 84: 304--306.

Really just one new combination (not relevant to Costa Rica), plus two lectotypifications. The lectotypification here of Echites puncticulosa Rich. [basionym of Odontadenia puncticulosa (Rich.) Pulle] is apparently predated, and thus superseded, by that of Francisco Morales (Bull. Jard. Bot. Belg. 67: 460. 1999), who chose a different specimen.

Austin, D. F. 1999 ['1998']. The genus Aniseia Convolvulaceae). Syst. Bot. 23: 411--420.

This genus of three spp. is indigenous to the Americas, although Aniseia martinicensis (Jacq.) Choisy has been introduced and is naturalized in the Old World. Previously defined on the sole basis of enlarged outer sepals, Aniseia has harbored 28 additional sp. These are now apportioned among eight other genera, with the understanding that enlarged outer sepals have evolved independently in several lineages. A more stringent definition of Aniseia invokes a single style, globose stigmas, rugate pollen, and four-valved capsules, in addition to enlarged sepals. Only A. martinicensis occurs in Costa Rica, with the subtly different var. martinicensis and var. ambigua Hallier f. both represented. No illustrations, and skeletal specimen citations, but with a key to all eight genera of tribe Convolvuleae, a generic description, key to spp., full synonymy and typology, good sp. descriptions, and distribution maps.

Betancur, J. & D. R. Miranda-Esquivel. 1999. Existe Sodiroa? Revista Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. 23: 189--194.

The Massangea and Sodiroa (s. str.) sp.-complexes, with 11 and seven spp., respectively, are presently subsumed within the genus Guzmania (Bromeliaceae), but have enjoyed generic ranking in the past. Their status is here evaluated by means of a cladistic analysis of 25 morphological characters. The results indicate that Massangea is paraphyletic, while Sodiroa s. str. (defined by scandent growth habit and relatively short cauline leaves) and Sodiroa s. l. (i.e., including Massangea) are both monophyletic. The authors conclude that Sodiroa s. l. (defined by the presence of stolons) "could be reestablished as a genus." Their cladogram, however, suggests other possibilities, such as the inclusion of Guzmania wittmackii (André) André ex Mez in Mezobromelia, or of Mezobromelia in Guzmania. Clearly, as acknowledged by the authors, more taxa need to be included in the analysis, representing other groups of Guzmania and other genera in subfam. Tillandsioideae (so why didn't they do that--and why do these preliminary, inconclusive works continue to be published?). For the record, Costa Rican spp. of the Massangea complex are Guzmania herrerae H. Luther & W. J. Kress, G. musaica (Linden ex André) Mez, G. scandens H. Luther & W. J. Kress, and G. sprucei (André) L. B. Sm., while Sodiroa s. str. is represented only by Guzmania obtusiloba L. B. Sm. In Spanish.

Daniel, T. F. 1999. Revision of Spathacanthus (Acanthaceae). Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 22: 33--46.

Three spp. are accepted in this genus of shrubs and small trees, restricted to the Mesoamerican region. As per previous accounts, Costa Rica's only representative is the endemic Spathacanthus hoffmannii Lindau, occurring at ca. 80--1700 m elevation, on both slopes, from the Cordillera de Tilarán to the north end of the Cordillera de Talamanca (including Cerro Turrubares). Includes a key to spp., distribution map, and composite line-drawing of the more northern S. hahnianus Baill. The introductory section features pollen micrographs and a cladogram, based on an analysis of 10 morphological characters.

----. 1999. Revision of Stenostephanus (Acanthaceae) in Mexico. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 22: 47--93.

Habracanthus and Hansteinia are formally synonymized under Stenostephanus, until recently a genus of six South American spp., now comprising ca. 75 spp. ranging from Mexico to Bolivia. This contribution treats the 15 spp. occurring in Mexico. New combinations had already been made by the author for the only two Mexican spp. ranging to Costa Rica, Stenostephanus gracilis (Oerst.) T. F. Daniel and S. silvaticus (Nees) T. F. Daniel. Combinations have y et to be validated for most of the other Central and South American spp.

Davidse, G. & N. J. Turland. 1999. (1417) Proposal to conserve the name Andropogon bicornis (Gramineae) with a conserved type. Taxon 48: 573--574.

The name Androgopon bicornis L. (1753), used consistently since its publication for a conspicuous and familiar neotropical weedy grass, appears never to have been effectively lectotypified. All the available original material corresponds to spp. other than the one to which the name has been applied, namely, Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. and Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash. (alternatively, Andropogon scoparium Nash). The two last-mentioned spp. have also been known by the names given for many years. The Code (Art. 9.9) precludes neotypification if original material is extant, and requires that a lectotype be chosen from the original material. This would result in "the displacement of either Andropogon glomeratus or Schizachyrium scoparium with an entirely new application of A. bicornis, and the replacement of the long and unambiguous application of A. bicornis with a completely new name." The present proposal seeks "to prevent the considerable nomenclatural disruption that would ensue." (N.B.: both A. bicornis and A. glomeratus occur in Costa Rica).

Delprete, P. G. 1999. Rondeletieae (Rubiaceae)--Part I (Rustia, Tresanthera, Condaminea, Picardaea, Pogonopus, Chimarrhis, Dioicodendron, Molopanthera, Dolichodelphys, and Parachimarrhis). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 77: 1--226.

An emerging infrafamilial classification of Rubiaceae will recognize three subfamilies, with tribe Rondeletieae belonging to subfam. Cinchonoideae. The author of this work has redefined Rondeletieae to include tribe Sipaneeae and two subtribes (Condamineinae and Pinckneyinae) of tribe Condamineeae, based on a cladistical analysis of morphological characters (the cladogram is presented here). So circumscribed, Rondeletieae embraces ca. 35 neotropical genera with ca. 340 spp. This contribution treats the neotropical members (10 genera and 39 spp.) of those Rondeletieae formerly included in tribe Condamineeae. Rustia and Chimarrhis, with 14 spp. apiece, make up the lion's share. Only Rustia, Condaminea, Pogonopus, and Chimarrhis are represented in Costa Rica, by a total of just six spp. (two each in Rustia and Chimarrhis). No sp. is endemic, although Chimarrhis latifolia Standl. (but for the Panamanian type) nearly qualifies. The only noteworthy departure from the Flora costaricensis Rubiaceae treatment of William Burger and Charlotte M. Taylor (Fieldiana, Bot. n. s. 33: 1--333. 1993) is the use of the name Pogonopus exsertus (Oerst.) Oerst. in place of P. speciosus (Jacq.) K. Schum., now restricted to northeastern Colombia and northern Venezuela. Promised for future installments is coverage of Augusta (including Lindenia), Bathysa, Elaeagia, the "Rondeletia complex," Simira, Sipanea, and Warszewiczia (to mention only those genera occurring in Costa Rica). The author has apparently not yet decided whether to circumscribe Rondeletia broadly (to include Arachnothryx, Rogiera, etc.) or narrowly. Features detailed descriptions at all levels, sp. keys, distribution maps, composite line drawings of most spp. (with black-and-white photos of some), an index to exsiccatae, and indices to common and scientific names. The main introduction serves for the whole tribe, with a historical summary, discussion of phylogenetic relationships, tabular summary of the neotropical genera (indicating sp. totals, distribution, and habit), a detailed description of the tribe, and a key to all neotropical genera. A subsidiary introduction, focusing on the genera treated in this volume, mainly addresses morphological and anatomical variation, with an emphasis on seed and pollen morphology (plenty of SEM micrographs of both). A splendid, scholarly, and authoritative piece of work.

Fournier O., L. A. & E. G. García D. 1998. Nombres vernaculares y científicos de los árboles de Costa Rica. Editorial Guayacán Centroamericana, San José. 262 pp.

This well-researched and extremely useful volume provides Spanish and Amerindian names for an astonishingly comprehensive selection of Costa Rican tree spp., both indigenous and exotic. The book is divided into two main parts, in which spp. are indexed according to scientific names, then vernacular names; a third, smaller section gives English names for selected spp. The scientific nomenclature is authoritative and up-to-the-minute, due (we suspect) to the acknowledged involvement of Jorge Gómez-Laurito (USJ) and Gerardo Herrera (CR). Typographical errors are surprisingly few. This contribution will facilitate our work on the Manual, and we hope there will be a second volume covering other life-forms.

Franceschinelli, E. V., K. Yamamoto & G. J. Shepherd. 1999 ['1998']. Distinctions among three Simarouba species. Syst. Bot. 23: 479--488.

Simarouba (Simaroubaceae) is accepted a priori as a neotropical genus of six spp. (the issue of whether it is distinct from Quassia and Simaba is not addressed). Three of the spp. are endemic to the Caribbean islands, while Simarouba amara Aubl., S. glauca DC., and S. versicolor A. St.-Hil. occur predominantly on the mainland. The three continental spp. have been frequently confused, especially in "regions where their populations are parapatric such as in Costa Rica (S. amara and S. glauca)." Indeed, S. amara and S. glauca have sometimes been treated as conspecific. The authors use cluster and principal-component analysis to differentiate the continental spp., and provide a key that upholds characters emphasized by previous workers (e.g., Duncan M. Porter, in the Flora of Panama, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 32. 1973). Some representative specimens are cited in Appendix 1. Simarouba amara is restricted to wet forests and S. glauca to dry forests, consistent with our contentiously promoted (but poorly articulated) argument that trees at the Estación Biológica La Selva were specifically distinct from trees of the Guanacaste lowlands. We like this study!

Fryxell, P. A. 1999. Pavonia Cavanilles (Malvaceae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 76: 1--285.

Pavonia, with ca. 250 spp., is "probably" the largest genus of Malvaceae s. str. This weighty opus treats all 224 New World spp., the overwhelming majority of which are tropical. The American spp. are arranged in five subgenera, with 15 sections and seven subsections; two of the subgenera, six of the sections, and four of the subsections are here newly described. In addition, 24 new spp. and nine new combinations (none affecting Costa Rica) are validated. Among the 11 spp. attributed to Costa Rica are no endemics, and no surprises, except perhaps the substitution of the name Pavonia schiedeana Steud. for the well-known (but illegitimate) P. rosea Schltdl. Highlights include a key to all eight genera of tribe Malvavisceae (characterized by 10 styles and stigmas, but just five mericarps), a key to subgenera, sections, and subsections of Pavonia (with sp. keys found under the terminal supraspecific taxon), an index to exsiccatae, indices of common and scientific names, distribution maps, and composite line-drawings of ca. 50 spp. (with supplementary illustrations of mericarps of most spp.). The introductory section is comparatively brief.

Glassman, S. F. 1999. A taxonomic treatment of the palm subtribe Attaleinae (tribe Cocoeae). Illinois Biol. Monogr. 59: 1--414.

According to this view, subtribe Attaleinae (Arecaceae) consists of 65 spp. in five genera: Attalea (21 spp.), Orbignya (11 spp.), Scheelea (31 spp.), Maximiliana (1 sp.), and Ynesa (1 sp.). Acknowledged but not heeded is the recent initiative by Andrew Henderson (NY) and associates (Field guide to the palms of the Americas, 1995) to reduce the number of spp. to ca. 30, in a single genus (Attalea). Glassman's rationale is not persuasive: "As long as I can recognize 4 distinct genera based mainly on differences in the staminate flowers, I cannot accept 1 genus to cover all taxa in the Attaleinae." He cites, but dismisses, several examples of "intergeneric" hybrids, including the exceptionally disturbing Ynesa colenda O. F. Cook, regarded as "probably of intergeneric hybrid origin, involving certain species of Orbignya, Attalea, and Maximiliana...[that] have since become extinct..." The sp. concepts here are also suspiciously narrow, with three spp. of Scheelea distinguished in the Mesoamerican region, mainly on the basis of the arrangement and width of the medial leaf pinnae. The author, who has apparently done little or no field work in Mesoamerica, cites very few, "representative" specimens (indeed, few are available), and none of his own. Our cursory herbarium crawl at MO has effectively demolished any notion that more than one Mesomerican Scheelea sp. can be distinguished, at least on the basis of pinna features.

Because of the competing systems described above, two radically different names are in current use for the single sp. of subtribe Attaleinae occurring in Costa Rica: Attalea butyracea (Mutis ex L. f.) Wess. Boer, fide Henderson et al.; and Scheelea rostrata (Oerst.) Burret, fide Glassman, who restricts S. butyracea (Mutis ex L. f.) H. Karst. ex H. Wendl. to South America. We side provisionally with Glassman on the latter issue (the obsolete petioles of S. butyracea seem quite distinctive), but are inclined toward Henderson's generic classification, yielding yet a third tenable name for this sp.: Attalea rostrata Oerst. (employed in our Manual palm treatment).

This revision features a key to genera, discussions of relationships within genera, extensive generic descriptions, keys to spp., representative specimen citations (and no index to exsiccatae), a lengthy section on hybrids, many black-and-white photos (mostly in the field in Brazil), line-drawings of pinna cross-sections and flower and fruit details, distribution maps, and an index to scientific names. More attention should have been paid to typification; the author's failure to neotypify Cocos butyracea Mutis ex L. f. is an especially dangerous oversight.

Grayum, M. H. 1999 ['1998']. Nomenclatural and taxonomic notes on Costa Rican palms (Arecaceae), with five new species. Phytologia 84: 307--327.

Five new spp. are described, all apparently endemic to Costa Rica: Bactris polystachya H. Wendl. ex Grayum (north Atlantic coastal plain), Calyptrogyne herrerae Grayum (Cordillera de Talamanca), Chamaedorea hodelii Grayum (Cordillera de Tilarán to Cordillera de Talamanca), Geonoma brenesii Grayum (mainly Cordillera de Tilarán), and Geonoma talamancana Grayum (Cordillera de Talamanca). Chamaedorea hodelii is segregated from C. crucensis Hodel, here shown to be conspecific (according to its type) with C. coralliformis Hodel; the last-mentioned name falls into synonymy under the earlier C. crucensis. The prevailing application of the name Chamaedorea zamorae Hodel (based on a specimen cultivated in Hawaii) is upheld. A key is provided to separate the Costa Rican and Panamanian spp. of Chamaedorea subg. Stephanostachys Klotzsch with spicate inflorescences. The application of the name Desmoncus costaricensis (Kuntze) Burret is restricted to the rarer of two Desmoncus spp. occurring on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica, and its basionym (Atitara costaricensis Kuntze) is epitypified. The name Desmoncus schippii Burret is accepted for the second, more common sp., and full synonymy is provided. The authorship of Elaeis oleifera (Kunth) Cortés is retained as such. No illustrations.

Hammel, B. E. 1999. Two new species of Clusiella (Clusiaceae) with a synopsis of the genus. Novon 9: 349--359.

Clusiella is a genus of eight epiphytic spp., ranging from Costa Rica to northern Brazil and Peru. All but two of the spp. occur in Colombia, and three are endemic there. Most Central American material previously identified as C. elegans Planch. & Triana is segregated as Clusiella isthmensis Hammel sp. nov., regarded as more closely related to the Colombian C. macropetala Cuatrec. The largely Colombian C. elegans is otherwise known from a single Panamanian population, with C. isthmensis the only sp. reaching Costa Rica. Despite their similar names and shared epiphytic habit, Clusia and Clusiella are not considered close relatives; rather, Clusiella "would seem to be closely related to Symphonia." Includes a generic description, key to spp., sp. descriptions, comprehensive specimen citations, a distribution map, composite line-drawings of the two new spp., and some black-and-white photos of critical details. Except for the somewhat brief sp. -descriptions, this is closer to a revision than a synopsis.

----. 1999. Synopsis of Chrysochlamys (Clusiaceae: Clusioideae: Clusieae) in Mesoamerica. Novon 9: 360--374.

Recounts the "tortuous taxonomic history" of the complex for which t he generic names Chrysochlamys, Dystovomita, Tovomita, Balboa, and Tovomitopsis have been variously employed, and fires the latest salvo: the first three genera are retained, while the last two are synonymized under Chrysochlamys. With cladistic analyses yet to be accomplished, further refinements of this scheme may become necessary. Chrysochlamys here emerges as a genus of "perhaps as many as 50" mostly South American spp., ranging northward to Mexico. Eight of the 13 Mesoamerican spp. occur in Costa Rica, but only Chrysochlamys skutchii Hammel sp. nov. is endemic. One other new sp. is described (Chrysochlamys tenuis Hammel, of Costa Rica and Panama), and five new combinations (four pertaining to Costa Rica) are validated. The somewhat problematic sp. most recently reated as Tovomitopsis croatii (Maguire) D'Arcy is restored to Tovomita croatii Maguire. Features a key to the three accepted genera in the group, a description of Chrysochlamys, and a key to the 13 Chrysochlamys spp. represented in Mesoamerica, with brief sp.-descriptions, full or representative specimen citations, generous discussions, and composite line-drawings of the two new spp.

----. 1999. Plantas ornamentales nativas de Costa Rica Native Ornamental Plants. Inst. Nac. de Biodiversidad, Sto. Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. 240 pp.

This guide, the latest in INBio's fancy "Colección Guías de Campo de Costa Rica" series, spotlights 82 native plus 4 naturalized spp. grown as ornamentals, each illustrated with at least one color photo (the majority with two), mostly by the author. The spp. are arranged in seven major groups, more or less according to habit: trees and shrubs, herbs, vines, rosettes, palms and cycads, cacti, and orchids. Within these groups, the order is alphabetical, by family, genus, and sp. Herbs, trees, and shrubs account for the majority of the spp. treated. Each sp. entry consists of one page of text and one of illustration(s). The text (in both Spanish and English) includes a brief description, a summary of geographical distribution, description of the habitat in Costa Rica, and notes on natural history (including distribution within the country). The introductory part features an annotated list of the families treated, and a list of the spp. in each of the seven groups. At the end is a glossary (illustrated by Silvia Troyo) and an index to scientific and common names.

Jeffrey, C. & W. J. J. O. de Wilde. 1999. (1428--1429) Proposals to reject the names Pepo indicus and Momordica trifolia (Cucurbitaceae). Taxon 48: 599--600.

The lectotype and all other original elements associated with the neglected name Pepo indicus Burm. (1755) represent the cultivated sp. universally known as Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne ex Lam.) Poir., and not (as previously believed) Cucurbita pepo L. (1753). The name Cucurbita moschata has been in continuous use since 1819 for a commonly cultivated tropical squash, and "its displacement by a combination in Cucurbita based on Pepo indicus would be nomenclaturally disastrous." Hence the present proposal. The bit on Momordica is of no concern to us.

Jordaan, M. & A. E. van Wyk. 1999. Systematic studies in subfamily Celastroideae (Celastraceae) in southern Africa: reinstatement of the genus Gymnosporia. S. African J. Bot. 65: 177--181.

Gymnosporia is "reinstated" (as separate from Maytenus) as "an Old World genus comprising about 80 species and subspecies, occurring in most of Africa, Madagascar and adjacent islands, southern Spain, the near Middle East, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, extending to the Far East, Malesia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Taiwan, Queensland (Australia) and the Polynesian Islands." Overlooked are three neotropical spp. of Gymnosporia, and prior reinstatement of the genus by New World authorities (most recently, by Manual co-PI Barry Hammel, Novon 7: 147--155. 1997). In its Old World manifestation, Gymnosporia is here characterized by a combination of five character-states: (1), the presence of spines and brachyblasts; (2), functionally unisexual flowers; (3), dichasial inflorescences; (4), 2--4-locular ovaries; and (5), bi-ovulate locules. With the apparent exception of (1), the neotropical spp. conform. An "amplified genus description" is provided.

Les, D. H., E. L. Schneider, D. J. Padgett, P. S. Soltis, D. E. Soltis & M. Zanis. 1999. Phylogeny, classification and floral evolution of water lilies (Nymphaeaceae; Nymphaeales): a synthesis of non-molecular, rbcL, matK, and 18S rDNA data. Syst. Bot. 24: 28--46.

The "well-corroborated phylogeny" promoted here accepts two families in Nymphaeales: Cabombaceae (Cabomba, Brasenia) and Nymphaeaceae (Nuphar, Barclaya, Ondinea, Nymphaea, Euryale, Victoria). The four last-mentioned genera comprise subfam. Nymphaeoideae, while the remaining two form monotypic subfamilies. Insofar as families are concerned, this arrangement accords with the Manual Costa Rican data-base, with only Cabomba and Nymphaea represented. Pleiomery appears to have been secondarily derived several times within the order.

Monro, A. K. 1999. Seven new species of Pilea Lindley (Urticaceae) from Mesoamerica. Novon 9: 390--400.

Just one of these novelties is recorded from Costa Rica: Pilea tripartita A. K. Monro, endemic and known by only three collections from the Cordillera de Talamanca, is compared most closely to the sympatric P. cornutocucullata Cufod., with which it has been confused. The new sp. epithet refers to its three-parted staminate flowers (those of P. cornutocucullata being four-parted). All the new spp. are illustrated with line-drawings.

Morales, J. F. 1999. Seis nuevas especies de Vriesea sect. Xiphion (Bromeliaceae: Tillandsioideae) para Costa Rica. Novon 9: 401--406.

Vriesea subg. Vriesea sect. Xiphion (E. Morren) E. Morren ex Mez, which might achieve generic ranking in the hands of some contemporary workers, is characterized by usually pale green or brown inflorescence bracts and included stamens. All six spp. described here are Costa Rican endemics: Vriesea barii J. F. Morales (honoring former parataxonomist Alvaro "Bari" Fernández), of the Cordillera de Talamanca; Vriesea haberi J. F. Morales and V. simulans J. F. Morales, both of the Cordillera de Tilarán; Vriesea osaensis J. F. Morales, of the humid Pacific lowlands; Vriesea tiquirensis J. F. Morales, of the Candelaria region (Prov. San José, Cantón de Acosta); and Vriesea vulcanicola J. F. Morales, of Volcán Rincón de la Vieja. The affinities of all six novelties are briefly discussed, and all but V. tiquirensis are illustrated with line-drawings.

Nepokroeff, M., B. Bremer & K. J. Sytsma. 1999. Reorganization of the genus Psychotria and tribe Psychotrieae (Rubiaceae) inferred from ITS and rbcL sequence data. Syst. Bot. 24: 5--27.

Psychotria s. l., with 1650 spp., is one of the largest genera of flowering plants. This study, involving just 85 taxa, portrays Psychotria (verbally and graphically) as "broadly paraphyletic and defined by a lack of characters used to define other genera in the tribe." Two groups traditionally assigned to Psychotria are more closely related to other genera in tribe Psychotrieae than to other spp. of Psychotria: Psychotria sect. Notopleura Benth. & Hook. f., and a clade consisting of Palicourea plus Psychotria subg. Heteropsychotria Steyerm. Several myrmecophytic genera comprising the Malesian subtribe Hydnophytinae (ca. 50 spp.) are embedded within Psychotria subg. Tetramerae (Hiern) R. Petit. The authors suggest that Psychotria be restricted to subg. Psychotria, subg. Tetramerae, subtribe Hydnophytinae, plus t he Asian-Pacific genus Amaracarpus (ca. 60 spp.), with "lack of preformed germination slits" cited as one possible synapomorphy. This r econstituted Psychotria would still be a vast genus, of ca. 1200 spp. (ca. 200 neotropical, 250 African, and 700 Asian-Pacific). Some kinks remain to be worked out, however; for example, Psychotria microdon (DC.) Urb., the only New World sp. in the otherwise African subg. Tetramerae, is related to and perhaps even a member of the African genus Chazaliella. Better supported by this study are elevation to generic rank for Psychotria sect. Notopleura, and also for the clade consisting of Palicourea and Psychotria subg. Heteropsychotria. The genus Notopleura (Benth. & Hook. f.) Bremek. would contain ca. 45 neotropical spp.; the formal transfer of names is promised for a forthcoming paper. The Palicourea/subg. Heteropsychotria clade, apparently to be known under the generic moniker Psychotrophum P. Browne, would have ca. 550--650 spp., also exclusively neotropical. This paper features no formal descriptions, no keys, and no nomenclatural novelties.

For the record: Costa Rican representatives of Psychotria subg. Psychotria include P. chagrensis, Standl., P. graciliflora Benth., P. horizontalis Sw., P. limonensis K. Krause, P. marginata Sw., P. micrantha Kunth, P. nervosa Sw., and P. tenuifolia Sw.

Some Costa Rican spp. of Psychotria sect. Notopleura are: P. dukei Dwyer, P. guadalupensis R. A. Howard (and the other epiphytic spp.), P. macrophylla Ruiz & Pav., and P. uliginosa Sw.

Psychotria subg. Heteropsychotria includes: P. aubletiana Steyerm. (Cephaelis axillaris Sw.), P. berteriana DC., P. brachiata Sw., P. brachybotrya Müll. Arg., P. capitata Ruiz & Pav., P. chiriquiensis (Standl.) C. M. Taylor (Cephaelis chiriquiensis Standl.), P. deflexa DC., P. elata (Sw.) Hammel (Cephaelis elata Sw.), P. furcata DC., P. pittieri Standl., P. poeppigiana Müll. Arg. [Cephaelis tomentosa (Aubl.) Vahl], P. pubescens Sw., and P. racemosa Rich. Two other ostensible members, the closely interrelated P. ipecacuanha (Brot.) Stokes [Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brot.) A. Rich.] and P. borucana (A. R. Molina) C. M. Taylor & W. C. Burger (Cephaelis borucana A. R. Molina), are apparently related to the genus Geophila (also of tribe Psychotrieae).

Robinson, H. 1999 ['1998']. New species and new combinations of neotropical Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). Phytologia 84: 347--353.

Our only concern here is Fleischmannia diversifolia (Schrad.) H. Rob. comb. nov., which apparently must replace F. pycnocephala (Less.) R. M. King & H. Rob.

Smith, G. F. & E. M. A. Steyn. 1999. Agave vivipara: the correct name for Agave angustifolia. Bothalia 29: 100.

Not! The authors claim that "Wijnands (1983) and Forster (1992) have shown conclusively" that the obscure Agave vivipara L. is the correct name for the Mesoamerican sp. long known as A. angustifolia Haw., and cultivated worldwide under the latter name. We were also sucked in by this argument initially, and used the name A. vivipara in early drafts of the Manual Agavaceae treatment (contrary to Flora mesoamericana, where A. angustifolia was used). However, our subsequent examination of the lectotype illustration of A. vivipara designated by Wijnands (in The botany of the Commelins, 1983) corroborates the suspicion of Gentry (Agaves of continental North America, 1982) that the name applies instead to the Mexican Agave cantala Roxb., another sp. well known in cultivation (though not recorded from Costa Rica). Agave vivipara also has priority over A. cantala, but that is somebody else's problem.

Stevens, W. D. & A. Pool. 1999. A new combination in Ampelocissus (Vitaceae), a victim of historic deforestation in Nicaragua. Novon 9: 423--424.

The authors' efforts "to account for all names based on Nicaraguan material" have led them to neotypify the obscure Vitis javalensis Seem. (1869) on a modern Costa Rican collection of Ampelocissus costaricensis Lundell (1937), a sp. unvouchered from Nicaragua by extant specimens. This action provokes the new combination Ampelocissus javalensis (Seem.) W. D. Stevens & A. Pool, which, according to the neotype, must replace A. costaricensis. The absence of Nicaraguan collections is rationalized with the argument (well supported) that the region of the original holotype collection (in Depto. Chontales), now dry and largely deforested, was covered in wet, evergreen forest during Seemann's time. Still, we have some reservations, e.g., as to the flower color, described as "bright scarlet" by Seemann, but as brownish purple ("morado-cafezuzco") on the label of the neotype (N.B.: some Cissus sp. do have vividly scarlet fls.). The authors themselves point out a discrepancy in leaf pubescence, and we are also mildly bothered by biogeographical considerations [Ampelocissus costaricensis is known from southeasternmost Costa Rica and adjacent Panama, but not from northern Costa Rica; by contrast, Dracontium gigas (Seem.) Engl. (Araceae), with the same type locality as Vitis javalensis, occurs only in northern Costa Rica]. "Serious conflict" with the protologue can be grounds for overturning a neotypification (see Art. 9.13 of the Code). How "serious" is this?

Tissot-Squalli Houssaini, M. L. 1997. Monographische Bearbeitung von Paepalanthus subgenus Platycaulon. Diss. Bot. 280: 1--242.

Paepalanthus subg. Platycaulon, comprising two sections with a total of 52 taxa, is strongly centered in Atlantic Brazil (especially the Serra do Espinhaço) and northern Andean South America. Just one sp., Paepalanthus costaricensis Moldenke, extends northward to Costa Rica. It follows that Paepalanthus kupperi Suess., the only other Costa Rican representative of this genus, must belong to a different subgenus. One new combination, two new varieties, and four new spp. are validated, none relevant to Costa Rica. Features a key to spp., distribution maps, and black-and-white photos of exsiccatae and living material. In German, with English summary.

Zamora, N., R. T. Pennington & C. H. Stirton. 1999. Dussia atropurpurea (Leguminosae--Papilionoideae), a new species from Central America and notes on sarcotesta coloration in Dussia systematics. Edinburgh J. Bot. 56: 175--180.

Dussia atropurpurea N. Zamora, R. T. Penn. & C. H. Stirt., endemic to Costa Rica and eastern Panama, is compared with the Amazonian D. tessmannii Harms, the only other sp. in the genus with a purplish black (rather than orange-red) sarcotesta. The constancy and taxonomic value of sarcotestal coloration in the genus are defended and emphasized, and supplemental differences between Dussia atropurpurea and D. discolor (Benth.) Amshoff (an otherwise similar sp. with orange-red fruits) are tabularized. The new sp. is cordilleran, in Costa Rica, occurring at ca. 600-1000 m elevation (though lower down in Panama). For a long while, it has been listed in the INBio/Manual data-base under the provisional, never-published name "Dussia munda C. H. Stirt." N.B.: Stirton's middle initial is given as "S." in the by-line, and at least one other place in the article; we assume "H." to be correct, following Kew's Authors of Plant Names.

 

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