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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

Bibliography and Sources

Definitions of terms come from various sources, and are commonly cited in the Dictionary. Latin classical definitions are those of Lewis and Short, Cassell's, and Stearn. Greek classical definitions are those of Liddell, H. G. & R. Scott. Additional important sources include Crum & Anderson, Stephani, Webster’s III, Ainsworth, Snell & Dick, and Fernald.

Wikipedia, the Online Encyclopedia, has been a rewarding source for various issues, especially in quickly identifying Latin verb forms (number, tense, voice). Principal parts of Latin verbs derive from Lewis and Short.

Abbreviations used in the text are in bold face type:

Agardh,  Carl Adolf (of Sweden) ... et Petrus Abraham  Asping, Scanus. 1812. Algarum Decas Prima.  Lundae.  Die xix decemb. a. MDCCCXII.  Litteris Berlingianisi. (Lund (Berling) ) . p. [1]-15 (Taxonomic Literature II).

Agardh, Jacob Georg (son of C. A. Agardh). 1842 (Oct.). Algae Maris Mediterranei et Adriatici, Observationes in diagnosin specierum et dispositionem generum. Paris (Fortin, Masson). (Taxonomic Literature II).

[A & H] Abbott, Isabella A. & George J. Hollenberg. 1976. Marine Algae of California. Stanford University Press. Stanford, California.

Ainsworth, G. C. 1961. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi. ed. 5.   Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey.

Albertini, I. B. de & L. D. de Schweiniz. 1805. Conspectus Fungorum in Lusatiae Superioris agro Niskiensi Crescentium, e Methodo Persooniana [sic]. Lipsiae.

Bailey, L. H. 1938. Manual of Cultivated Plants. Macmillan Company, New York.

Bennett, Reginald R. 1914. ed. 2 Medical and Pharmaceutical Latin, for students of medicine and pharmacy, a guide to the grammatical construction and translation of physicians’ prescriptions, including extensive vocabularies and an appendix upon foreign prescriptions. J. & A. Churchill, London.

[B & H] Bentham G. & J.D. Hooker 1862–1883. Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita.  3 vols. London.

Bentley, Robert. 1887. A Manual of Botany, including the structure, classification, properties and uses, and functions of plants. Ed. 5. London. J. & A. Churchill in New Burlinton Street.

Braun, Alexander Karl Heinrich. 1855.  Algarum Unicellularium Genera Nova et Minus Cognita Praemissis Observationibus De Algis Unicellularibus In Genere. Lipsiae.

Bridel, Samuel-Elisée de. (1797).  Muscologia Recentiorum seu Analysis, Historia, et Descriptio Methodica  Omnium Muscorum Frondosorum Hucusque Cognitorum ad Normam Hedwigii. Tom. Igothae, apud Carolum  Guil. Ejttingerum Parisiis apud  Barrois Juniorem MDCCXCVII.

Brown, R. W. Composition of Scientific Words. 1956. Published by the author.

Cash, E. K. 1965. A Mycological English–Latin Glossary. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

Cassell's Latin Dictionary, see Simpson, D. P.

Choate, Helen Al. 1917. The Earliest Glossary of Botanical Terms; Fuchs 1542. Torreya Vol. 17(11) pp. 186-201.

Crum, Howard. 1991. Liverworts and Hornworts of Southern Michigan.  The University of Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, Michigan.

[C&A] Crum, H. A. & L. E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of Eastern North America.  Vols. 1 & 2. Columbia University Press, New York.

Candolle, Aug. Pyramo de. 1824. Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis. Pars I. Sive enumeratio contracta ordlnum generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta.  Pars prima.  Parisiis, Sumptibus Sociorum Treuttel et Würtz, rue de Bourbon, n° 17. Venitque in Eorumdem Bibliopoliis Argentorati  et Londini. MDCCCXXIV.

DeCandolle. See Candolle.

Desfontaines, Renatus. [1798-1799?] Flora Atlantica sive Historia Plantarum,  quae in Atlante Agro Tunetano et  Algeriensi Crescunt.Tomus Primus. Paris. [of Tunesia and Algeria].

Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses. ed. 3.  London.

Ehrlich, Eugene. 1985. A Dictionary of Latin Tags and Phrases. Robert Hale, Pub., London.

Engel, John J. and David Glenny. 2008. A Flora of the Liverworts and Hornworts of New Zealand. Vol. 1. Missouri Botanical Garden, Saint Louis.

Fernald, M. L. (revised). 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany. Ed. 8. American  Book Co., New York. "... my constant adviser on such matters [i.e. meanings of Latin generic and specific names], Arthur Stanley Pease, Pope Professor of the Latin Language and Literature at Harvard University, assures me that no understanding of the simplest Latin words can nowadays be assumed."

Fink, Bruce. 1935. The Lichen Flora of the United States.  University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Follett Latin Dictionary:  see Levine, et al.

Glare, P. G. W. 2006. Oxford Latin Dictionary. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, Oxford and New York.

Gleason, H. A. 1952. The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Vol. 1. New York Botanical Garden, Hafner Press, Macmillan, New York.

Gooder, E. A. 1978. Latin for Local History: an Introduction. Ed. 2. Longman Group, London and New York.

Goodwin, W. W. 1978. A Greek Grammar. St. Martin's Press, London.

Gray, Samuel Frederick. 1812. Introduction to Botany. A natural arrangement of British Plants, according to their relations to each other as pointed out by Jussieu, DeCandolle, Brown, &c. including those cultivated for use with an introduction to botany in which the terms newly introduced are explained; illustrated by figures. Vols. 2 London: Baldwin Cradock & Joy. Paternoster Row. [glossary in vol. 1].

Harris, J. G. & M. W. Harris. 2001. Plant Identification Terminology, an illustrated glossary. Ed. 2.  Spring Lake Publishing, Spring Lake, Utah.

Hedwig, Johannis, M.D. Descriptio Et Adumbratio Microscopico - Analytica Muscorum Frondosorum  Necnon Aliorum Vegetantium  e Classe Cryptogamica Linnaei Novorum Dubiusque Vexatorum. Tomus Primus. Lipsiae.  MDCCLXXXVI I (1787).

ICBN. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. 2006. International Association for Plant Taxonomy (Europe). [Issued 2006, the Vienna Code, adopted in 2005.] A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG, Liechtenstein.

Jackson, Benjamin Daydon. 1928. A Glossary of Botanic Terms. Ed. 4. Hafner Publishing Co., New York. 1960 printing.

Jones, H. W., N. L. Hoerr & A. Osol. 1950. Blakiston's New Gould Medical Dictionary. Ed. 1. Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, Toronto.

Kiger, R. W. & D. M. Porter. 2001. Categorical Glossary for the Flora of North America Project. Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation. Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.

Latham, R. E. 2008. Revised Medieval Latin Word-list from British and Irish Sources. Oxford University Press, London.

Lellinger, D. B. 2002. A Modern Multilingual Glossary for Taxonomic Pteridology. Pteridologia, a publication of the American Fern Society.

Levine, Edwin B., Goodwin B. Beach, Vittore E. Boccetta, David John Plesic. 1967. Latin Dictionary. Follett World-Wide. Follett Publishing Company. Chicago, New York. A compact dictionary offering  new or additional synonyms for Latin words as well as translations of useful Latin phrases.

Lewis, C. T. & C. Short. 1969. A Latin Dictionary. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Liddell, H. G. and R. Scott. 1968. [unabridged] A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Liddell, H. G. & R. Scott: 1997. A Lexicon Abridged from Liddell and Scott's Greek–English Lexicon. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York.

Lindley, John. 1849. ed. 6. The Elements of Botany, Structural, Physiological, & Medical: Being a 6th Ed. of the Outline of the First Principles of Botany, with a Sketch of the Artificial Methods of Classification, and a Glossary of Technical Terms.

Mabberley, D. J. 1987. The Plant-Book, A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Marchant, J. R. V. & J. F. Charles. 1887. Cassell's Latin Dictionary (Latin–English and English–Latin). Funk & Wagnalls, New York. Revised 1928.

Miller, O. K., Jr. 1972. Mushrooms of North America. Ed. 2 Chanticleer Press, E. P. Dutton & Co., New York.

Mitten, William.  1869. Musci Austro-Americani, enumeratio muscorum omnium Austro-Americanorum auctori hucusque cognitorum. London. Reprint Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 7, 1982. Saint Louis.

Mueller, Ferdinandus. 1858-1859. Fragmenta Phytographiae Australae. Vol. 1. Melbourne.

Muldoon, H. C. 1946. Lessons in Pharmaceutical Latin and Prescription Writing and Interpretation. Ed. 4. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York; Chapman & Hall, Ltd., London.

Nicolson, D. H. 1994. Gender of generic names, particularly those ending in -ma, in the 'Names in current use' list. Taxon 43: 97–107.

Nylander, William. (1858-1860) Synopsis Methodica Lichenum [...] Tomus primus. Parisiis : Ex typis L. Martinet, via Dicta Mignon, 2 (Paris—Imprimerie de L. Martinet, rue Mignon, 2) 1858-1860.

Paxton, Joseph, Sir. (1868 edition). Paxton's Botanical Dictionary, comprising the names, history, and culture of all plants known in britain, with a full explanation of technical terms; New Edition, including all the new plants up to the present year. Revised and corrected by Samuel Hereman, Secretary for nearly forty years to the late Sir Joseph Paxton. London: Bradbury, Evans & Co., Bouverie street, E.C. 1868.  Perhaps one of the most plundered text by lesser lexicographers, perhaps because the volume went out of print decades ago. Now digitized and searchable.

Radford, A. E., W. C. Dickison, J. R. Massey, C. R. Bell, et al. 1974. Vascular Plant Systematics. Harper & Row, New York.

Simpson, D. P. 1968. Cassell's Latin Dictionary, Latin–English, English–Latin. Wiley Publishing, Inc., New York.

[S&A] Albertini, I. B. de and L. D. de Schweiniz. 1805. Conspectus Fungorum in Lusatiae Superioris agro Niskiensi crescentium, e methodo Persooniana [sic]. Lipsiae.

[S&D] Snell, W. D. & E. A. Dick. 1971. A Glossary of Mycology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Stace, C. A. 1989. Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics, Ed. 2. Edward Arnold, Hodder and Stoughton Ltd., London.

Stearn, W. T. 1983. Botanical Latin. Ed. 3. David & Charles, Newton Abbot, U.K.

Stearn, W. T. 1993. The gender of the generic name Onosma (Boraginaceae). Taxon 42: 679–681.

Stearn, W. T. 1996. Stearn's Dictionary of Plant Names for Gardeners. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

[Steph.] Stephani, F. 1900–1925. Species Hepaticarum. Vols. 1–6. 2005 reprint with forward by S. R. Gradstein. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India.

Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18: 339–342.

St. John, H. & D. White. 1920. The genus Galinsoga in North America.  Rhodora 22: 97–101.

Swartz, Olavo [Olaf], M.D. [1797 (1798)].  Observations Botánicae quibus plantae indiae occidentalis aliaeque systematis vegetabilium ed. XIV. Illustrantür earumque characteres. Erlangae (sumtu Jo. Jacobi Palmii)  also Londini apud Benj. White et filium.

Uhl, N. W. & J. Dransfield. 1987. Genera Palmarum. L. H. Bailey Hortorium and International Palm Society. Lawrence, Kansas.

Uphof, J. C. T. 1968. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Ed. 2. Verlag von J. Cramer, New York.

Webster, N. 1915. Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language. Harris, W. T., editor in chief & F. S. Allen, general editor. G. & C. Merriam & Co., Springfield, Mass.

[WIII] Webster, N. 1976. Webster's III: Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, unabridged. Philip Babcock Gove, ed. in chief. G. & C. Merriam Co., Springfield, Mass. "utilizing all the experience and resources of more than one hundred years of Merriam-Webster dictionaries."

Wheelock, F. M. 1963. Latin, an Introductory Course Based on Ancient Authors. Ed. 3. Barnes & Noble Outline Series. Harper & Row, New York.

Willdenow, Karl Ludwig. 1811. The Principles of Botany, and of Vegetable Physiology.  Translated from the German of D. C. Willdenow, Professor of Natural History and Botany At Berlin.  Edinburgh University Press, London.

Yatskievych, George. 2006. Steyermark's Flora of Missouri. Vol. 2. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Saint Louis.

Zabinkova, N. 1965. Generic names ending in -ma and family names derived from them. Taxon 14: 184–187.

Zijlstra, G. & J. Tolsma. 1991. (997) Proposal to conserve the spelling of (4618) Euonymus (Celastraceae). Taxon 40: 137–139.

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