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Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica

Main | Family List (MO) | Family List (INBio) | Cutting Edge
Draft Treatments | Guidelines | Checklist | Citing | Editors

Draft Treatments

ARACEAE
By M. H. Grayum
English, final draft: placed 1/May/2000

Alocasia

Burnett, D. 1984. The cultivated Alocasia. Aroideana 7: 67-162.

Engler, A. & K. Krause. 1920. Colocasioideae. In A. Engler (ed.), Das Pflanzenreich IV.23.E (Heft 71): 3-132. Engelmann, Berlin.

Ca. 72 spp. of trop. Asia and Australia, several introduced and sometimes naturalized throughout tropics; 3 spp. in CR.

Terrestrial; stem brief and subterranean to stout and erect, lacking milky sap. Leaves spiraled. Petiole long, sometimes peltately attached, lacking a geniculum. Lead-blades simple, entire to (rarely) pinnately lobed, oblong or elliptical to ovate, sagittate, or hastate, usually with prominent posterior lobes, sometimes variegated or with whitened veins. Infls. 1 or 2 per leaf axil; spathe with tube and distal lamina, the latter abscising after anthesis; spadix with separate male and female regions, medial sterile zone, and distal sterile appendage. Fls. unisexual, naked; male fls. of 3-8(-12) stamens connate in synandria; sterile male fls. of ± elongate synandrodia; female fls. with short style and 2-5-lobed stigma; ovary unilocular (or 3- or 4-locular toward apex); ovules few-numerous, borne basally. Frs. usually reddish, 1-few-seeded.

Alocasia is an Old World genus, with numerous spp. cultivated, and sometimes naturalizing, throughout the tropics. This and the very closely related Colocasia (which see) differ from superficially similar New World genera (especiallly Caladium and Xanthosoma) in having clear or reddish sap (not milky sap) and a sterile apical spadix appendage.

Alocasia longiloba Miq. (Cara de mula) is cultivated in CR as a patio ornamental (Grayum & Hammel 9450; CR, MO). It is easily recognized by its elongate-sagittate leaf-blades, purplish below and with the major veins conspicuously whitened above.

1 Plants usually with erect stems; largest leaf-blades < 45 cm long, peltate, ovate-cordate; sterile spadix appendage shorter than fertile male region...A. cucullata

1' Plants usually acaulescent; larges leaf-blades > 45 cm long, not peltate, sagittate; sterile spadix appendage longer than fertile male region.

2 Leaf-blades bright green (rarely variegated with white or cream), the margins entire; spathe tube uniformly greenish externally; spadix ca. 15-28 cm long...A. macrorrhizos

2' Leaf-blades heavily suffused with purplish, especially below, the margins repand; spathe tube tinged purplish externally; spadix ca. 10-15 cm long...A. plumbea

Alocasia cucullata (Lour.) G. Don, in Sweet, Hort. brit. ed. 3 631. 1839. Arum cucullatum Lour., Fl. cochinch. 2: 536. 1790.

Stems erect, sometimes branching, to at least 30 cm tall, ca. 3-6 cm wide. Petioles ca. 20-60 cm. Leaf-blades mostly 12-35 X 7-20 cm, peltate, ovate-cordate. Peduncles ca. 10-25 cm. Spadix ca. 10-15 cm; sterile appendage ca. 1.8-2.5 cm.

Cult. for ornament, sometimes escaped or persisting, 0-1200+ m; lowlands of both slopes to at least as high as Valle Central. Fl. ?. Native to S and SE Asia. (Voucher).

Alocasia cucullata is easily recognized by its caulescent habit and thickish, glossy, peltate leaf-blades.

Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G. Don, in Sweet, Hort. brit. ed. 3 631. 1839. Arum macrorrhizon L., Sp. pl. 965. 1753. Pato.

Acaulescent, or ultimately developing a stout, simple trunk to 2+ m tall and 20+ cm wide. Petioles to ca. 1 m. Leaf-blades to ca. 90 X 75 cm, impeltate (except on juveniles), sagittate. Peduncles ca. 10-25 cm. Spadix ca. 15-28 cm; sterile appendage ca. 10-14.5 cm. Ripe frs. red-orange.

Occasionally cult., often escaping and forming large colonies, especially along rivers and low, damp sites, 0-700+ m; humid lowlands of both slopes. Fl. Aug. Native to S and SE Asia, but introd. throughout tropics. (Grayum 10692; INB, MO)

This and the following sp. are easily confused with several Xanthosoma spp., native to the New World, but may be distinguished even from a distance by their thickish, glossy leaf-blades with the apices pointing skyward. In addition, foliage of Alocasia spp. has reddish sap (rather than milky sap), and yields a cyanide odor when crushed.

Alocasia macrorrhizos is a secondary "root" crop in the Indo-Pacific region, but is seldom if ever eaten in CR except by pigs and peccaries. This sp. is very rarely seen in fl. in CR, but spreads rampantly via basal cormules.

Alocasia plumbea Van Houtte, Ann. Gén. Hort. 21: 93, t. 2206. 1875. A. macrorrhizos var. rubra (Hassk.) Furtado. Pato morado.

Acaulescent, or ultimately developing a stout, simple stem to 20+ cm tall and 10+ cm wide. Petioles to ca. 1 m. Leaf-blades ca. 30-50 X 19-40 cm, impeltate, sagittate. Peduncles ca. 7.5-30 cm. Spadix ca. 10-15 cm; sterile appendage ca. 6-10 cm.

Occasionally cult. as ornamental, sometimes escaping in pastures and alluvial sites, 0-700+ m; humid lowlands of both slopes. Fl. Jul., Aug. Native to SE Asia. (Croat 43223, CR)

Alocasia plumbea looks like a purplish form of the foregoing sp., and has been so treated taxonomically, but differs also in its somewhat smaller stature, proportionately narrower leaf-blades, and smaller infls. Furthermore, it does not reproduce vegetatively to form extensive clones, as does A. macrorrhizos, and seems to flower more regularly.

Anthurium

Croat, T. B. 1983. A revision of the genus Anthurium (Araceae) of Mexico and Central America. Part I: Mexico and Middle America. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 211-420.

-. 1991. A revision of Anthurium section Pachyneurium (Araceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 78: 539-855.

- & R. Baker. 1979. The genus Anthurium (Araceae) in Costa Rica. Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 1-174.

Ca. 750-1000 spp, throughout the New World tropics; 86 spp. in CR.

Terrestrial or (more commonly) epiphytic; acaulescent or with decumbent to erect or elongate to scandent stems; milky sap lacking. Leaves spiraled. Petioles very rarely peltately attached, with a geniculum. Leaf-blades simple or trifoliolate to palmately or pedately compound, when simple linear to ovate, sagittate, or trilobate. Infls. 1 per axil; spathe ligulate to ovate, deflexed to erect, without a proximal tube, usually persistent; spadix uniform. Fls. bisexual, with perianth of 4 distinct tepals; stamens 4, distinct; style short or absent; stigma ± bilobed; ovary 2-locular; ovules 1-2 per locule, borne medially. Frs. white to green, reddish, or purplish, 2(-4) -seeded.

The largest genus in the family, and morphologically highly diverse, Anthurium is still easily recognized by its aerial stems, frequently epiphytic habit, reticulate leaf venation, and bisexual fls. with a perianth. Occasional spp. may simulate other genera (see, e.g., Anthurium lancifolium).

Unprocessed material of Anthurium sect. Porphyrochitonium Schott (comprising plants with ± elongate, non-cordate, black-glandular leaf-blades), mostly from the Atl. slope of Cord. Talamanca, may include as many as 6-8 additional spp. for the country.

The gaudy "anturio" of floral displays, the Colombian Anthurium andreanum Linden, is frequently grown in CR. Some native spp. are also cultivated as ornamentals, including A. scherzerianum, A. standleyi, and several spp. with elongate leaf-blades known collectively as "tabacón" (principally A. cubense, A. salvinii, and A. upalaense).

1 Leaf-blades palmately or pedately 3-13-foliolate.

2 Petiole > 60 cm long; leaflets with margins sinuate to pinnatifid, the largest (medial) > 35 cm long; spadix usually > 25 cm long, purple...A. clavigerum

2' Petiole < 60 cm long; leaflets with margins entire (lateral leaflets may be subauriculate at base), < 35 cm long; spadix usually < 25 cm long, purple or white to greenish.

3 Leaflets 3; spadix white to greenish...A. trisectum

3' Leaflets > 3 (or, if rarely 3, spadix purplish).

4 Peduncles > 25 cm long; spadix white to grayish, slender and tapered, > 10.5 cm long; Atl. lowlands S from Siquirres...A. kunthii

4' Peduncles < 25 cm long; spadix usually purplish, stout and blunt-tipped, < 10.5 cm long; widespread...A. pentaphyllum

1' Leaf-blades simple (sometimes deeply lobed).

5 Leaf-blades with conspicuous black glandular punctations, at least below.

6 Spadix stipitate by 40-155 mm; leaf-blades > 8.5 cm wide; Pac. lowlands S from R.B. Carara...A. hacumense

6' Spadix sessile or stipitate, but never by as much as 40 mm (or, if so, leaf-blades < 8.5 cm wide and plants of Atl. slope).

7 Spadix becoming ± spirally coiled.

8 Plants erect, terrestrial or low-growing epiphytes, with elongate internodes; leaf-blades broadly elliptic to ovate or suborbicular, acute to rounded or subcordate at base...A. louisii

8' Plants often pendent, epiphytes, with condensed internodes; leaf-blades linear-lanceolate to lance-elliptic, -oblong, or -ovate, cuneate to rounded (but never subcordate at base).

9 Leaf-blades < 35 cm long; spathe oblong to broadly ovate or suborbicular, rose-red to scarlet; spadix < 12 cm long, orange to red...A. scherzerianum

9' Leaf-blades > 35 cm long; spathe narrowly lance-oblong, pinkish to purplish; spadix > 12 cm long, white to tan or grayish...A. wendlingeri

7' Spadix straight to slightly curved, never becoming spirally coiled.

10 Leaf-blades broadly cuneate to (usually) truncate or cordate at base, often with ± prominent basal lobes, usually > 15 cm long and > 9 cm wide.

11 Leaf-blades narrowly to ± broadly deltate-cordate, -hastate, or -pandurate, always cordate at base, the margins straight to concave; one pair of collective veins extending to apex near margin...A. hornitense

11' Leaf-blades ± broadly ovate or elliptic, truncate to cordate at base, the margins convex; usually with 2 or 3+ pairs of arcuate-ascending basal veins, at least one pair extending to apex well inside margin.

12 Leaf-blades black-glandular on both surfaces; spadix at anthesis yellowish green...A. durandii

12' Leaf-blades black-glandular below, not (or very obscurely so) above; spadix at anthesis reddish to purple...A. lentii

10' Leaf-blades attenuate to cuneate or rounded at base, without prominent basal lobes (if subhastate or cordulate at base, < 15 cm long and < 9 cm wide).

13 Cataphylls persisting ± intact (eventually deciduous).

14 Stems brief with internodes condensed; leaf-blades narrowly ovate to oblanceolate, coriaceous; 0-50 m...A. paludosum

14' Stems and internodes slender and elongate; leaf-blades subelliptic to ovate; 1100-1500 m...A. tonduzii

13' Cataphylls weathering to persistent fibers.

15 Stems usually elongate, rigidly erect to subscandent, with ± elongate internodes < 1 cm wide; leaves dispersed along stem.

16 Spathe erect-spreading to -ascending at anthesis; frs. ± ovoid and acute at apex...A. obtusum

16' Spathe reflexed at anthesis; frs. globose and rounded at apex.

17 Peduncles 8-18 cm long; spadix reddish or purplish at anthesis; ripe frs. yellow or orange; 700 m, Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca...A. alticola

17' Peduncles 0.6-6 cm long; spadix white to yellowish at anthesis; ripe frs. white to purple; widespread...A. scandens

15' Stems condensed or, if ± elongate, the internodes condensed, often > 1 cm wide; leaves congested near stem apex.

18 Marginal leaf veins (in life) deeply impressed above, nearly as prominent as midvein; spadix at anthesis white to cream (later becoming greenish).

19 Plants epiphytic, rarely terrestrial; primary lateral leaf veins not deeply impressed above; leaf-blades black-glandular only below, paler below; ripe frs. red...A. bakeri

19' Plants terrestrial, rarely epiphytic; primary lateral leaf veins ± as deeply impressed above as marginal veins; leaf-blades black-glandular on both surfaces, not markedly paler below; ripe frs. white or wine-red to purple...A. lancifolium

18' Marginal leaf veins not deeply impressed above; spadix at anthesis yellowish or pale green to grayish, reddish, or purple (never white).

20 Leaf-blades black-glandular on both surfaces.

21 Petioles keeled on abaxial side, sharply triangular in cross-section...A. pageanum

21' Petioles rounded on abaxial side, terete or subterete.

22 Leaf-blades usually with 2 or 3 pairs of basal veins, usually just one pair (rarely two) running to all the way to apex; spadix yellowish to greenish at anthesis...A. durandii

22' Leaf-blades with one pair (rarely two) of basal veins, these running all the way to apex; spadix reddish to purplish at anthesis.

23 Petiole usually longer than leaf-blade; leaf-blade elliptic to obovate, < 3? longer than wide; rare, Cord. Talamanca...A. alticola

23' Petiole usually shorter than leaf-blade; leaf-blade ± narrowly oblong-elliptic to (rarely) oblanceolate, the larger ones > 3? longer than wide.

24 Leaf-blades 5.8-32.5 X 2-5.8 cm; spadix at anthesis 2.9-13.7 cm long; ripe frs. orange; 800-1700 m, Cord. Tilarán...A. utleyorum

24' Leaf-blades 12.5-59 X 2-11.9 cm; spadix at anthesis (4.1-)6.1-27.5 cm long; ripe frs. red or (A. chiriquense) unknown; 1900-2400 m, Cord. Talamanca.

25 Leaf-blades 23-40 X 7.2-11.9 cm, < 6? longer than wide; spathe 5.6-7 X 1.1-1.9 cm; spadix stipitate by 1-18 mm; Pac. slope...A. chiriquense

25' Leaf-blades 12.8-59 X 2-8 cm, > 6? longer than wide; spathe 3.3-11.5 X 0.6-1.2 cm; spadix stipitate by (7-)13-56 mm; Atl. slope...A. longistipitatum

20' Leaf-blades black-glandular only below.

26 Petioles with margins acute, rounded to keeled abaxially.

27 Spadix relatively stout, > 6 mm wide and < 20? longer than wide at anthesis; spathe ovate to lanceolate, > 1 cm wide, yellow-green to green; rare, (100-)500-800 m, N Atl. slope (Llanura de Los Guatusos, Cord. Central)...A. dwyeri

27' Spadix relatively slender, < 6 mm wide and > 20? longer than wide at anthesis; spathe linear-lanceolate, < 1 cm wide, tinged reddish; widespread.

28 Petioles rounded abaxially; leaf-blades < 6.5 cm wide; spathe 1.8-6.5 cm long; ripe frs. white (purplish at apex)...A. austin-smithii

28' Petioles rounded to keeled abaxially; larger leaf-blades usually > 6.5 cm wide; spathe 3-11.5 cm long; ripe frs. white to red.

29 Petioles frequently rounded abaxially, occasionally keeled; peduncles terete to irregularly angled; spadix yellow-green at anthesis; ripe frs. pale orange to rose-red; Atl. slope and N Pac. slope...A. acutangulum

29' Petioles always sharply keeled abaxially; peduncles sharply 3-6-ribbed; spadix reddish at anthesis; ripe frs. white; S Pac. slope...A. alatipedunculatum

26' Petioles with margins rounded or obtuse, rounded abaxially.

30 Peduncles sharply 2- or 3-ribbed (rarely terete); ripe frs. white (purplish at apex)...A. austin-smithii

30' Peduncles terete; ripe frs. pale orange to red.

31 Petioles sulcate above; leaf-blades > 6 cm wide; spadix at anthesis usually > 10 cm long; ripe frs. purplish to red...A. ramonense

31' Petioles terete, sometimes slightly flattened or canaliculate above; leaf-blades < 6 cm wide; spadix at anthesis < 10 cm long; ripe frs. pale orange to orange.

32 Petioles always < 1/3 as long as leaf-blade; not known from Cord. Guanacaste...A. friedrichsthalii

32' Petioles always > 1/3 and usually > half as long as leaf-blade; Cord. Guanacaste...A. utleyorum

5' Leaf-blades lacking black glandular punctations.

33 Leaf-blades cordate, sagittate, hastate, or pandurate at base, with posterior sinus > 2 cm deep and/or with prominent basal lobes > 20% total length.

34 Margins of leaf-blades ± prominently concave, the leaf-blades hastately to pandurately trilobed with basal lobes directed laterally or forward.

35 Plants with elongate [to 0.4-2(-4) m], erect to subscandent stems, with elongate internodes; leaf-blades usually < 25 cm long; spadix < 4 cm long...[Proceed to couplet 45.]

35' Plants acaulescent or with relatively shorter, stouter stems, with condensed internodes; larger leaf-blades usually > 25 cm long; spadix virtually always > 4 cm long.

36 Plants terrestrial; cataphylls persistent as fibers.

37 Spadix at anthesis bright yellow; ripe frs. white (wine-red apically)...A. ochranthum

37' Spadix at anthesis white or cream-yellowish to purple; ripe frs. orange...A. watermaliense

36' Plants epiphytic (rarely epilithic); if rarely terrestrial, cataphylls persistent intact.

38 Cataphylls persistent intact; spadix at anthesis cream- or ivory-white (soon becoming pinkish in A. obtusilobum).

39 Leaf-blades deeply lobed, with narrow, usually falcate (directed forward) basal lobes; ripe frs. red...A. tilaranense

39' Leaf-blades shallowly lobed, with broad basal lobes directed backward; ripe frs. pinkish to purplish...A. obtusilobum

38' Cataphylls deciduous or persistent as fibers; spadix at anthesis yellowish green to yellow-orange, or purple.

40 Spadix at anthesis purple; ripe frs. red...A. brownii

40' Spadix at anthesis yellowish green to yellow or yellow-orange; ripe frs. greenish to purplish.

41 Cataphylls mostly deciduous leaving scant, whitish fibers; leaf-blades without evident raphides adaxially; collective veins arising well below marginal leaf-blade constriction; anterior lobe with > 10 primary lateral veins per side; spadix subsessile (stipe mostly adnate to spathe); 400-1350 m...A. panduriforme

41' Cataphylls persisting as prominent, reddish brown fibers; leaf-blades with conspicuous raphides adaxially; collective veins arising well above marginal leaf-blade constriction; anterior lobe with < 10 primary lateral veins per side; spadix subsessile or stipitate by up to 28 mm; 0-350 m...A. subsignatum

34' Margins of leaf-blades straight to convex, the leaf-blades cordately to sagittately lobed with basal lobes directed backward.

42 Petioles quadrangular in cross-section, the angles prominently winged; 350-700 m, Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca...A. teribense

42' Petioles terete or subterete, often sulcate above or with margins acute, but always rounded below.

43 Plants with elongate (to 0.4-4 m), erect to appressed-climbing stems, with elongate internodes; larger leaf-blades usually < 25 cm long.

44 Internodal roots present, plants appressed-climbing vines; peduncles < 2 cm long; ripe frs. orange to red...A. clidemioides

44'Internodal roots lacking, plants terrestrial to loosely scandent; peduncles > 2 cm long; ripe frs. greenish to yellowish, or purple.

45 Cataphylls thickish, persistent intact; spadix at anthesis reddish; rare, 900-1000 m, Pac. slope (Fila Costeña, Cerro Nara)...A. erythrostachyum

45' Cataphylls thin, eventually weathering to fibers; spadix at anthesis white to green or yellowish; widespread...[Proceed to couplet 81.]

43' Plants acaulescent or with stout stems, with condensed internodes; larger leaf-blades often > 25 cm long.

46 Spadix ± clavate (widest at or above the middle), thickish, < 5? longer than wide.

47 Plants usually terrestrial; spathe erect and hooding spadix, > 6.5 cm wide, red; spadix pinkish to red; anthers ca. 0.8-0.9 mm...A. bittneri

47' Plants usually epiphytic; spathe erect-spreading, not hooding spadix, < 6.5 cm wide, pale green; spadix cream-white to greenish; anthers ca. 0.4-0.5 mm...A. clavatum

46' Spadix not clavate, widest at or below the middle, usually > 5? longer than wide.

48 Cataphylls persistent (and ultimately deciduous) ± intact.

49 Leaf-blades with continuous collective veins arising from near base of basal lobes and extending to blade apex...A. obtusilobum

49' Leaf-blades with collective veins arising from upper basal veins.

50 Spathe erect and hooding spadix, (2.1-)3-8.5 cm wide, white to pale purple; spadix white to purplish...A. formosum

50' Spathe reflexed to erect-spreading, not hooding spadix (or, if so, < 2.5 cm wide and green, and spadix whitish to yellowish-green).

51 Peduncles 5-25 cm long; spadix at anthesis pinkish to maroon or purple; 0-700(-900?) m.

52 Spadix 17.3-35.5 cm; 600-700 m, Pac. slope...A. sp. A

52' Spadix (3.5-)5.7-17.6 cm; 0-200(-900?) m, Atl. slope.

53 Plants epiphytic; petioles < 50 cm, terete; largest leaf-blades < 50 cm long and < 30 cm wide; spadix ca. (3.5-)5.7-8.5 cm; N Atl. slope...A. limonense

53' Plants terrestrial; petioles > 50 cm, broadly sulcate above; largest leaf-blades > 50 cm long and > 30 cm wide; spadix ca. 7.2-17.6 cm; S Atl. slope (possibly also Cord. Tilarán)...A. schottianum

51' Peduncles 12-75 cm long; spadix at anthesis white to yellowish or green; 0-1750(-2000) m.

54 Leaf-blades with posterior ribs winged to the petiole, or naked for < 1 cm.

55 Plants epiphytic; petioles (24-)30-49 cm long; leaf-blades 24-37 X 10-20 cm; peduncles (40-)59-72 cm long; spathe 5-10 cm long; spadix 3.5-10.5 cm long...A. cucullispathum

55' Plants usually terrestrial; petioles 45-109 cm long; leaf-blades 38-53 X 24-38 cm; peduncles 12-44 cm long; spathe ca. 11-20 cm long; spadix 11.4-14.7 cm long...A. orteganum

54' Leaf-blades with posterior ribs prominently naked, for > 1 cm.

56 Cataphylls usually leaving some basal fibers on stem; largest leaf-blades usually > 53 cm long and > 35 cm wide; spathe reflexed, brittle and quickly deciduous; spadix usually > 12? as long as wide...A. ravenii

56' Cataphylls not leaving basal fibers on stem; leaf-blades usually < 53 cm long and < 35 cm wide; spathe reflexed to erect-spreading, persistent well beyond anthesis; spadix usually < 12? as long as wide.

57 Spathe 1.1-3.7(-4.5) cm wide, lance-ovate to -oblong, pale green at anthesis; 0-1750(-2000) m, Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca (very rare), Pac. slope S from San José...A. hoffmannii

57' Spathe (1.6-)2.6-8 cm wide, broadly elliptic to ovate, white at anthesis (later becoming green); 1300-1700 m, Cord. Tilarán...A. monteverdense

48' Cataphylls weathering to persistent fibers.

58 Peduncles < 10 cm, < 1/5 as long as petioles...A. limonense

58' Peduncles > 10 cm, > 1/5 as long as petioles.

59 Leaf-blades with posterior ribs winged to the petiole, or naked for < 2 cm; spadix at anthesis reddish to purple.

60 Plants nearly always epiphytic; leaf-blades narrowly ovate to lance-cordate, usually > 2? longer than wide, with basal lobes not overlapping; widespread... A. cuspidatum

60' Plants often terrestrial; leaf-blades ovate-cordate, < 2? longer than wide, with prominent, overlapping basal lobes; Atl. slope Cords. Central and Talamanca...A. propinquum

59' Leaf-blades with posterior ribs prominently naked, for > 2 cm on larger leaves; spadix white to yellow, greenish, or purplish.

61 Leaf-blades usually ± bullate, with collective veins arising from base of basal lobes and extending (within < 1 cm of margin) to apex; spathe pale green, reflexed and curled, promptly deciduous; spadix at anthesis pale green; ripe frs. yellow-green...A. caperatum

61' Leaf-blades plane to coarsely undulate, not bullate, with collective veins arising above basal lobes (or, if apparently from below, spadix reddish to purple); spathe pale green to purple, deciduous to persistent; spadix at anthesis white or yellow to green or purplish; ripe frs. white or yellow-orange to red or purple.

62 Leaf-blades relatively narrow, usually > 1.8? longer than wide, with small basal lobes usually < 1/4 total length...A. ranchoanum

62' Leaf-blades relatively wide, usually < 1.8? longer than wide, with prominent basal lobes usually > 1/4 total length.

63 Spadix arching on curved stipe to 2.5 cm long; stamens prominently exserted; (1350-)1800-2950 m, Cords. Central and Talamanca...A. concinnatum

63' Spadix erect, sessile or stipitate; stamens included or exserted; 0-2000 m, widespread.

64 Plants epiphytic.

65 Leaf-blades usually coarsely undulate; spathe reflexed to erect-spreading, ± persistent, 0.8-2.7 cm wide; spadix at anthesis 4-6 mm wide, ca. 22-45? longer than wide, purple...A. brownii

65' Leaf-blades ± plane; spathe reflexed and promptly deciduous, 1.5-4.4 cm wide; spadix at anthesis 6-11 mm wide, ca. 13-21? longer than wide, white to yellowish or pale green...A. ravenii

64' Plants terrestrial or epilithic (perhaps exceptionally epiphytic).

66 Spadix at anthesis bright yellow; frs. whitish (purplish at apex)...A. ochranthum

66' Spadix at anthesis cream-yellowish or greenish to purplish; ripe frs. orange (or plants not in fr.).

67 Spathe at anthesis usually dark, glossy purple (rarely green) and contrasting with white to cream-yellowish (rarely purplish) spadix; free portion of stipe 0-45 mm long; stamens exserted, with anthers ca. 1 mm long; Atl. slope and near Continental Divide...A. watermaliense

67' Spathe at anthesis yellow-green or green to purplish, not strongly contrasting with green or sordid to pinkish or purplish spadix; free portion of stipe usually < 10 mm long, rarely to 15(-22) mm or (post-anthesis) longer; stamens included or, if exserted, with anthers to ca. 0.5 mm long.

68 Petioles finely ribbed-striate all around, especially proximally; Atl. lowlands S from Siquirres...A. ochranthum

68' Petioles subterete to weakly sulcate above, but otherwise smooth; Pac. slope.

69 Plants often epilithic, with brief stems usually < 20 cm long; petioles < 50 cm long; leaf-blades with broad, open posterior sinus, the basal lobes never overlapping; spathe lance-ovate, 6.5-13.5 X 1.4-5.1 cm; spadix at anthesis < 20 cm long...A. cotobrusii

69' Plants terrestrial, with erect stems to at least 1 m long; petioles > 50 cm long; leaf-blades with narrow, deep posterior sinus, the basal lobes usually overlapping; spathe lanceolate, 9-26+ X 0.8-3.5 cm; spadix at anthesis 10-30 cm long...A. standleyi

33' Leaf-blades attenuate to cuneate, rounded, or truncate at base, occasionally cordulate but then with posterior sinus < 2 cm deep and basal lobes < 20% total length.

70 Petioles with geniculum 5.5-17 cm below leaf-blade; 400-1450 m, Pac. slope...A. oerstedianum

70' Petioles with geniculum immediately subtending leaf-blade; widespread.

71 Plants erect to loosely scandent or appressed-climbing, with slender, elongate stems < 1 cm wide and nodes well separated.

72 Roots borne along at least some internodes; leaf-blades rounded to truncate or cordulate at base; ripe frs. bright red-orange.

73 Petioles 1.5-9 cm long; leaf-blades usually widest below middle; peduncles obsolete to 1.3 cm long...A. clidemioides

73' Petioles 3.3-17 cm long; leaf-blades usually widest at or above middle; peduncles 6-23 cm long...A. flexile

72' Roots restricted to nodes; leaf-blades acute to rounded, truncate, or cordulate at base; ripe frs. green or yellow to red-orange, red, or purple.

74 Stems with several condensed internodes alternating with elongate (3.5-23 cm) internode...A. interruptum

74' Stems with internodes of various lengths, not alternating between condensed and elongate.

75 Peduncles often > 25 cm long; spadix at anthesis purple, often > 7 cm long; ripe frs. red to purplish.

76 Leaf-blades usually cordulate at base, rarely rounded or truncate; spathe usually > 3/4 as long as spadix; 0-1600 m...A. cuspidatum

76' Leaf-blades broadly cuneate to rounded or (rarely) truncate at base, never cordulate; spathe usually < 3/4 as long as spadix; 1050-1900+ m...A. testaceum

75' Peduncles < 25 cm long; spadix at anthesis whitish to yellow or green, 7 cm or less long; ripe frs. yellow to green or red-orange.

77 Spathe decurrent on stipe by 0.6-4 cm...A. pittieri

77' Spathe not decurrent on stipe, or scarcely so.

78 Cataphylls persistent ± intact; petioles 1-10 cm long; spadix at anthesis green.

79 Petioles 3-10 cm long; leaf-blades narrowly elliptic or ovate to oblong, 2-7.3 cm wide; peduncles 7-17 cm long; 1700-2700 m, both slopes Cord. Talamanca...A. carnosum

79' Petioles 1-3 cm long; leaf-blades lanceolate, 1.4-2.5 cm wide; peduncles 2.5-4.5 cm long; 850-1800 m, Atl. slope Cords. Tilarán, Central, and Talamanca...A. tenerum

78' Cataphylls (at least basal portions) weathering to persistent fibers; petioles 2-29 cm long; spadix at anthesis whitish or yellow-green to yellow or yellow-orange.

80 Petioles of larger leaves usually 2/3 or more as long as leaf-blades; leaf-blades narrowly cuneate to rounded at base, never cordulate; spadix at anthesis bright yellow to yellow-orange, stipitate by 1-3 mm; 1600-2500 m, Cords. Tilarán, Central, and Talamanca...A. pallens

80' Petioles often < 2/3 as long as leaf-blades; leaf-blades narrowly cuneate to (more frequently) rounded, truncate, or cordulate at base; spadix at anthesis whitish to yellow-green, stipitate by 1-12(-17) mm; 600-2150(-2800) m, widespread.

81 Plants often terrestrial, sometimes epiphytic; all leaf-blades cordate at base, sometimes ± bullate...A. davidsoniae

81' Plants often epiphytic, sometimes terrestrial; only some leaf-blades cordate at base, never bullate...A. microspadix

71' Plants acaulescent or with stout stems, not scandent, occasionally appressed-climbing, but then stems > 1 cm wide and nodes condensed.

82 Petioles sharply triangular to quadrangular or pentagonal in cross-section, flat to 1-3+-ribbed abaxially (not rounded).

83 Spathe erect at anthesis, ovate to lance-ovate or oblong, ± hooding spadix; spadix < 5? longer than wide, cylindrical to fusiform or clavate.

84 Petioles ± quadrangular in cross-section; leaf-blades narrowly to broadly elliptic, rhomboid, or obovate, < 5? longer than wide; collective veins obscure, much less prominent than primary lateral veins; peduncles angled, not winged; spadix deflexed...A. bradeanum

84' Petioles triangular in cross-section; leaf-blades linear to narrowly lance-oblong or oblanceolate, > 5? longer than wide; collective veins as prominent as primary lateral veins; peduncles with at least 2 prominently winged angles; spadix erect...A. spathiphyllum

83' Spathe spreading to reflexed at anthesis, not hooding spadix; spadix > 5? longer than wide, usually tapering to apex.

85 Cataphylls persisting intact (sometimes ultimately dilacerating); 0-1350 m, mainly on Atl. slope.

86 Leaf-blades ± bicolored (silvery- or milky-green below), with collective veins evident from base of blade; spadix at anthesis stipitate by 1-35(-65) mm, green; ripe frs. purple...A. michelii

86' Leaf-blades not conspicuously bicolored, with collective veins not evident, or only in apical half of blade; spadix at anthesis green to purple, sessile or stipitate by up to 17 mm; ripe frs. yellowish to red.

87 Petioles < 10 cm long; spadix at anthesis yellow-green to pale green; ripe frs. yellowish to pale orange; 0-1350 m, Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca...A. fatoense

87' Petioles of at least some larger leaves > 10 cm long; spadix at anthesis purplish; ripe frs. red-orange to red; 0-850(-1300) m, entire Atl. slope...A. upalaense

85' Cataphylls weathering to persistent fibers; widespread.

88 Peduncles < 2? longer than spadix; both slopes.

89 Leaf-blades obtuse to broadly cuneate at base, with 5-8 primary lateral veins per side; spadix at anthesis 4-19 cm long; ripe frs. red; 0-700 m, Pac. slope...A. cubense

89' Leaf-blades broadly cuneate to rounded or subcordate at base, with > 15 primary lateral veins per side; spadix at anthesis 19-45+ cm long; ripe frs. orange; 300-800 m, Atl. slope...A. spectabile

88' Peduncles > 2? longer than spadix; Pac. slope.

90 Leaf-blades attenuate at base, without prominent collective veins extending from base; spadix white to yellowish green; ripe frs. greenish yellow; 0-1000+ m...A. acutifolium

90' Leaf-blades narrowly cuneate to rounded at base, with prominent collective veins extending from base; spadix purplish; ripe frs. orange; (1000-)1500-2300 m...A. seibertii

82' Petioles terete, or flat to sulcate above with margins rounded to acute, always rounded on abaxial side.

91 Cataphylls persistent or deciduous intact (sometimes ultimately dilacerating), or leaving a few fibers.

92 Adaxial surface of spathe decurrent on stipe by 0.6-4 cm...A. pittieri

92' Adaxial surface of spathe not or scarcely decurrent on stipe (the margins may be decurrent).

93 Leaf-blades with collective veins not evident, or only in apical half; petioles < 15 cm long, much less than 1/2 as long as leaf-blades.

94 Cataphylls cucullate, fist-like; leaf-blades to > 100 cm long and > 30 cm wide; peduncles at anthesis to > 60 cm long, limp and usually pendent; spadix at anthesis usually > 15 cm long, purple; ripe frs. pinkish to red...A. salvinii

94' Cataphylls ± erect, lanceolate; leaf-blades < 100 cm long and < 30 cm wide; peduncles at anthesis < 60 cm long, erect to spreading; spadix at anthesis 2.5-15 cm long, white or greenish (sometimes becoming pinkish); ripe frs. greenish white to yellow-orange.

95 Spadix at anthesis relatively stout, < 15? longer than wide, scarcely tapered, greenish to white becoming pinkish or purplish; pistils prominently exserted, giving spadix a prickly appearance; ripe frs. greenish white; 0-850 m, entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope Cord. Guanacaste...A. consobrinum

95' Spadix at anthesis slender, > 15? longer than wide, tapered to apex, yellowish green becoming gray-green; pistils not prominently exserted; ripe frs. yellow to yellow-orange; 0-1350 m, Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca...A. fatoense

93' Leaf-blades with collective veins evident, extending from near base to apex; absolute and relative petiole length variable.

96 Leaf-blades ± bicolored, silvery- or milky-green below; spadix at anthesis stipitate by 1-35(-65) mm, green; ripe frs. purple...A. michelii

96' Leaf-blades not significantly bicolored; spadix at anthesis sessile or subsessile, cream-white or yellowish white to purple or dull reddish; ripe frs. pinkish to red or red-orange.

97 Petioles much < 1/2 as long as leaf-blades; spadix at anthesis relatively stout, < 10? longer than wide, scarcely tapered, cream-white to yellowish white; 0-1000 m, Pac. slope S from R.B. Carara...A. eximium

97' Petioles often > 1/2 as long as leaf-blades; spadix at anthesis relatively slender, > 10? longer than wide, ± tapered to apex, purplish or dull reddish; widespread.

98 Leaf-blades with midvein convex above, the larger ones > 35 cm long; spadix at anthesis usually > 6 cm long, purple; 1000-1150 m, Fila Costeña...A. burgeri

98' Leaf-blades with midvein narrowly keeled above, the larger ones < 35 cm long; spadix at anthesis < 6 cm long, dull reddish; widespread...A. gracile

91' Cataphylls weathering to persistent fibers.

99 Petioles ca. 6-11 cm long; spathe ovate to lance-oblong, cordulate at base; spadix at anthesis < 2 cm long, stipitate by 5-12(-25) mm, green; ripe frs. wine-red; 50-900 m, Atl. slope Cords. Central and Talamanca...A. llanense

99' Petioles of at least some larger leaves > 11 cm long; spathe ovate to lanceolate, occasionally cordulate at base; spadix at anthesis usually > 2 cm long, sessile to stipitate by up to 25(-33) mm, white or yellow to green or purple; ripe frs. whitish or greenish to orange, red, or purplish; widespread.

100 Peduncles angled; spathe at anthesis erect, ± ovate to oblong, ± hooding spadix; spadix at anthesis < 5? longer than wide, cylindrical to fusiform or clavate, deflexed, white to yellowish green; 0-850 m, Atl. slope...A. bradeanum

100' Peduncles terete or subterete; spathe at anthesis erect-spreading to deflexed, ovate to lanceolate, not hooding spadix; spadix at anthesis 5? or more longer than wide, cylindrical or (usually) ± tapered to apex, erect to erect-spreading or reflexed (relative to peduncle), white or yellow to green or purple; widespread.

101 Leaf-blades 83-142 cm long; spadix at anthesis 18-59 cm long; pendent epiphytes; 200-1600 m, Atl. slope Cords. Central and Talamanca...A. prolatum

101' Leaf-blades 15-101 cm long; spadix at anthesis (1.7-)1.8-21 cm long; terrestrial plants or erect to pendent epiphytes; widespread.

102 Leaf-blades < 3.5? longer than wide, narrowly cuneate to rounded, truncate, or cordulate at base.

103 Plants acaulescent; leaf-blades widest at or above middle, narrowly to broadly cuneate at base, without collective veins; primary lateral veins 5-8 per side; peduncle < 2.5? longer than spadix; ripe frs. orange-red; 0-700 m, Pac. slope... A. cubense

103' Plants usually conspicuously caulescent; leaf-blades widest at or below middle, very broadly cuneate to rounded, truncate, or cordulate at base, with or without obvious collective veins; primary lateral veins often > 8 per side; peduncles > 2.5? longer than spadix; ripe frs. orange or reddish to purple; widespread.

104 Plants usually epiphytic; leaf-blades ± chartaceous, usually with > 10 primary lateral veins per side and collective veins arising from base; spathe lanceolate to lance-oblong, 0.8-2.8 cm wide; spadix at anthesis 13-25? longer than wide, subsessile or stipitate to 10 mm; 0-1600 m...A. cuspidatum

104' Plants epiphytic, terrestrial, or epilithic; leaf-blades coriaceous, with 5-10 primary lateral veins per side and conspicuous collective veins often lacking; spathe lance-ovate, 1.7-8.4 cm wide; spadix at anthesis 7.5-15? longer than wide, stipitate by 3-33 mm; ripe frs. orange; 1000-2800 m...A. ranchoanum

102' Leaf-blades > 3.5? longer than wide, attenuate or narrowly cuneate to rounded or truncate at base (never cordulate).

105 Spathe 0.4-1.2 cm wide; spadix at anthesis greenish or cream-yellowish to yellow or yellow-orange; ripe frs. yellowish green or greenish yellow.

106 Peduncles 20-44 cm long; spadix at anthesis 4.5-12 cm long, 20-40? longer than wide, cream-yellow to greenish; 1000-1750+ m, Pac. slope S from Cerro Turrubares...A. angustispadix

106' Peduncles 9-19 cm long; spadix at anthesis 2.3-4.5 cm long, 6-10? longer than wide, yellow to yellow-orange; 1600-2500 m, Cords. Tilarán, Central, and Talamanca...A. pallens

105' Spathe 0.4-5.5 cm wide; spadix at anthesis greenish or (more commonly) greenish tinged purplish to entirely purple; ripe frs. orange or red.

107 Plants epiphytic or terrestrial; petioles ca. 2/3 as long to as long or longer than leaf-blades; leaf-blades ± thin, chartaceous; spadix at anthesis very slender, to ca. 30-40? longer than wide; ripe frs. narrowly ovoid to ellipsoidal, bright red...A. testaceum

107' Plants epiphytic, often pendent; petioles ca. 2/3 as long as leaf-blades or less; leaf-blades subcoriaceous to coriaceous; spadix at anthesis ca. 5-29? longer than wide; ripe frs. ovoid or obovoid, orange.

108 Leaf-blades with midrib convex above; spathe ± ovate, 3-8.5 X 1.7-5.5 cm, < 2? longer than wide; spadix at anthesis 3-8 cm long, ca. 4-7? longer than wide; Cords. Guanacaste and Tilarán...A. brenesii

108' Leaf-blades with midrib convex to triangular above; spathe lanceolate to lance-ovate, 4.1-21+ X 0.7-4.7 cm, > 2? longer than wide; spadix at anthesis (2.2-)2.6-20 cm long, 6.5-29? longer than wide; S from Cord. Tilarán.

109 Leaf-blades 4.5-17? longer than wide, attenuate or narrowly to broadly cuneate to (rarely) narrowly rounded at base; midrib ± sharply triangular above; spathe at anthesis usually erect to erect-spreading (relative to peduncle), sometimes later becoming reflexed; widespread...A. protensum

109' Leaf-blades 3.5-5? longer than wide, broadly cuneate to rounded or truncate at base; midrib convex to triangular above; spathe at anthesis reflexed; 1140-1700 m, S Pac. slope (S Cord. Talamanca, S Fila Costeña)...A. validifolium

Anthurium acutangulum Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 371. 1898. A. porschianum K. Krause.

Epiphytes, subacaulescent, often clasping by numerous, greenish roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 2-22 cm, sulcate above with the margins usually acute, rounded or sharply keeled below. Leaf-blades simple, 15-34 X 5-14 cm, lanceolate to oblanceolate or obovate, black-glandular only below. Peduncles 12-61 cm, spreading to pendent, reddish, ± terete to angled. Spathe 3.5-11.5 X 0.3-0.8 cm, linear-lanceolate, green tinged reddish. Spadix 7-21 cm, subsessile or briefly stipitate, yellow-green. Ripe frs. pale orange to rose-red.

Wet forests, 0-900(-1300) m; entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope Cords. Guanacaste and Tilarán. Fl. Jan.-Dec. Hond. to NW Col. (E. Rojas 140, INB)

Its understory habit and delicate, often pendent peduncles distinguish A. acutangulum from other spp. with non-cordate, black-glandular leaf-blades. It is most commonly confused with the sympatric A. ramonense, comprising more robust plants with obtuse to rounded petiole margins and stouter, erect peduncles. Compare also with A. alatipedunculatum, A. austin-smithii, and A. pageanum.

Anthurium acutifolium Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 365. 1898. A. scopulicola Standl. & L. O. Williams.

Terrestrial, epilithic, or on logs, acaulescent, with thick, whitish roots; cataphylls persistent as fibrous reticulum (rarely ± intact). Petioles 3-22 cm, flat to broadly sulcate above with the margins acute, 3-ribbed below. Leaf-blades simple, 15-70 X 4-30 cm, narrowly or broadly elliptic to oblanceolate, attenuate at base, eglandular. Peduncles 11.5-53 cm, erect, angled. Spathe (2-)5-12 X 0.5-1.3 cm, linear-lanceolate, green. Spadix (2.5-)7-16 cm, sessile, white to yellowish or greenish. Ripe frs. greenish yellow.

Rocky slopes and along creeks, often on limestone, 0-1000+ m; Pac. slope S from vic. Esparza and San RamÛn. Fl. Jan.-Jul., Sep.-Dec. CR and W Pan. (Grayum & Sleeper 6098; CR, MO)

Its terrestrial or epilithic habit and Pac. lowland range suffice to distinguish A. acutifolium from similar spp. with non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades, such as A. consobrinum and A. fatoense (see under those entries). The Pac. A. angustispadix might be confused, but occurs at higher elevations and has petioles rounded below.

The dubiously distinct var. herrerae Croat (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 78: 595. 1991) is known only from the type (Herrera Ch. 372; CR, MO), collected at 300-400 m elevation near Macacona de Esparza. It differs in minor details of leaf-blade shape and color upon drying.

Anthurium alatipedunculatum Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 19. 1979.

Epiphytes, acaulescent, with thick, whitish roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 3.5-30.5 cm, sulcate above with the margins acute, sharply keeled below. Leaf-blades simple, 13-38 X 4.5-17.5 cm, lanceolate or narrowly ovate to elliptic, black-glandular only below. Peduncles 7.5-43 cm, erect-spreading, reddish, with 3-6 ribs or angles. Spathe 3-10.6 X 0.4-0.8 cm, linear-lanceolate, caducous, green or yellowish tinged reddish. Spadix 4.5-15.5 cm, sessile or stipitate to ca. 2 mm, reddish. Ripe frs. white.

Wet forests, 0-1200(-1800) m; Pac. slope S from Dota region. Fl. Jan., Mar., Jun.-Dec. ENDEMIC. (Herrera 4441; CR, INB, MO)

This sp. is only weakly distinguished from A. acutangulum of the Atl. slope (see key, couplet 29), and is also very similar to the rare A. dwyeri (see under that entry). However, it is most frequently confused with the sympatric A. durandii, distinguished by its abaxially rounded petioles and leaf-blades black-glandular on both surfaces.

Anthurium alticola Croat, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 14: 29. 1986.

Epiphytes; stems to 25 cm long and 1.5-2.5 cm wide, with long, slender roots; cataphylls persistent ± intact or weathering to fibers. Petioles 6-16 cm, sulcate above with the margins acute, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 8-15 X 3.5-6.5 cm, ± elliptic to obovate, black-glandular on both sides. Peduncles 8-18 cm, erect-spreading, subterete. Spathe 1.8-4.5 X 0.3-1 cm, oblong-lanceolate, green or tinged reddish. Spadix 3.8-9 cm, stipitate by 1-3 mm, reddish or purplish. Ripe frs. yellow or orange.

Wet forest, 700 m; Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca (between Río Sukut and Río Carbri). Fl. Jul. CR to NW Col. (Herrera 3287; CR, MO)

Due to its ± elongate stems, fibrous cataphylls, and smallish leaf-blades with black-glandular punctations, this rare sp. most resembles A. obtusum and A. scandens. It differs from these in its generally longer peduncles and yellow or orange (rather than white or purplish) frs.

Anthurium angustispadix Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 23. 1979.

Terrestrial, epilithic, epiphytic, or on logs; stems 18-30 cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide, with thick, whitish roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 5-22 cm, sulcate above with the margins acute, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 20-45 X 3.3-10.5 cm, linear-lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, eglandular. Peduncles 20-44 cm, erect-spreading, terete. Spathe 4.5-11.5 X 0.4-1.2 cm, linear-lanceolate, reflexed, green. Spadix 4.5-12 cm, sessile to short-stipitate, cream-yellow to greenish. Ripe frs. pale yellow-green.

Rocky slopes and along creeks, 1000-1750+ m; Pac. slope, Cord. Talamanca S from División, Cerro Turrubares, S Fila Costeña. Fl. Jan.-Mar., Aug.-Dec. CR and W Pan. (G. Mora 78; CR, MO)

Its frequently terrestrial habit, non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades, slender, whitish infls., and mid-elevation, Pac. slope range combine to distinguish A. angustispadix. It might be confused with the lower-elevation A. acutifolium (which has abaxially ribbed petioles and less extensive collective veins), or the higher-elevation A. seibertii (with abaxially ribbed petioles and purple spadices).

Anthurium austin-smithii Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 25. 1979.

Epiphytes, acaulescent, with slender roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 3-27 cm, canaliculate above with margins obtuse to acute, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 11-31 X 1.4-6.5 cm, linear-lanceolate to narrowly elliptic or ovate, black-glandular only below. Peduncles 6.5-36 cm, erect-spreading, reddish, ± sharply 2- or 3-ribbed (rarely terete). Spathe 1.8-6.5 X 0.3-0.8 cm, linear-lanceolate to lance-deltate, pale green sometimes tinged pinkish. Spadix 5.4-11.5 cm, subsessile, pale greenish to grayish or purple. Ripe frs. white, purplish at apex.

Wet forests, 0-1700 m; Atl. slope Cords. Tilarán, Central (to R.N.F.S. Barra del Colorado and P.N. Tortuguero), and Talamanca. Fl. Jan.-Dec. Nic. (?) and CR (possibly ENDEMIC). (Haber & Bello 7127; CR, MO)

The combination of abaxially rounded petioles and (usually) ribbed or winged peduncles distinguishes this sp. from all congeners with non-cordate, black-glandular leaf-blades. Anthurium austin-smithii is most similar to A. friedrichsthalii and, especially, A. acutangulum (which may sometimes have ribbed peduncles), but differs from both by its proportionately longer petioles (relative to the leaf-blades). It has also been frequently confused in the Cord. Tilarán with A. utleyorum, but the leaf-blades of the latter sp. are black-glandular on both surfaces.

Anthurium bakeri Hook. f., Bot. Mag. 102: pl. 6261. 1876. A. turrialbense Engl.

Trunk epiphytes (rarely epilithic or terrestrial), subacaulescent, with ± slender roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles (1.5-)8-27 cm, flat above with margins ± acute, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, (13.5-)19-60 X (1.7-)2.3-10.5 cm, narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, paler and black-glandular below. Peduncles 5.5-31 cm, erect-spreading, terete. Spathe 1.5-4.2 X 0.4-1.3 cm, oblong-lanceolate, reflexed, green. Spadix 1.2-9.5 cm, subsessile or stipitate to ca. 4 mm, white. Ripe frs. red.

Wet forests, 0-1450; throughout. Fl. Jan.-Dec. S Mex. (Chis.) to Ecua. and Ven. (Kernan 1185; CR, MO)

This common and widespread sp. is distinguished by its low-growing habit, narrow leaf-blades paler and black-glandular below with the collective veins impressed above, white spadix, and red frs. The only sp. it might be confused with is A. lancifolium (see key, couplet 19).

Anthurium bittneri Grayum, Aroideana 15: 40. 1993 ('1992').

Terrestrial; stems erect, to ca. 8 cm wide, with prop roots; cataphylls persistent intact. Petioles (70-)119-166 cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, (34-)45-85 X (23-)33-46 cm, narrowly ovate-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles 23-53 cm, erect, terete. Spathe 7.7-10.3 cm long, to at least 13.5 cm wide (circumferentially), subglobose and hooding the spadix, red. Spadix 3.9-7.3 X 1-2.7 cm, clavate, stipitate ca. 3-9 mm, pinkish to red. Ripe frs. unknown.

Oak forests, 1500-1900 m; Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca [basin of Río Coén, Río Dapari (Río Pare), and Rio Lari]. Fl. Mar. ENDEMIC. (A. Fernández 730; CR, INB)

This rare and local sp. is unique in its combination of cordate leaf-blades, red spathe, and clavate spadix. It is most similar to A. clavatum (see key, couplet 47).

Anthurium bradeanum Croat & Grayum, in Croat, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 78: 616. 1991. A. cuneatissimum sensu Croat (1983), non (Engl.) Croat (fide type).

Epiphytes or occasionally terrestrial, acaulescent, with ± thick, whitish roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 6-40 cm, subterete (sulcate above with the angles acute) to ± quadrangular. Leaf-blades simple, 30-60 X 8-23 cm, narrowly to broadly elliptic, rhomboid, or ± obovate, acute to attenuate at base, eglandular. Peduncles 19-58 cm, ± spreading, ± acutely angled. Spathe 2.5-7(-9) X 1.5-4 cm, ± ovate to oblong, ± hooding the spadix at first, green. Spadix 1.9-5.2 X 0.5-1.5 cm, clavate, subsessile, nodding, white to yellowish or greenish. Ripe frs. greenish yellow to white.

Wet forests, 0-850 m; entire Atl. slope. Fl. Jan., Apr.-Sep., Nov. Nic. to Pan. (Herrera 2069; CR, MO)

This and the very similar A. spathiphyllum (see key, couplet 84) differ from all other sp. with fibrous cataphylls and non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades in their erect, hooding spathes and and thickish, clavate spadices.

Anthurium brenesii Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 28. 1979.

Epiphytes, usually pendent; stems to ca. 10 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, with few, thick roots; cataphylls persistent as fibrous reticulum. Petioles 7.5-45 cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, 16-81 X 2.5-11.5(-14.5) cm, narrowly oblong or elliptic to oblanceolate, eglandular. Peduncles 7-51 cm, pendent, terete. Spathe 3-8.5 X 1.7-5.5 cm, ± ovate, green suffused purplish especially within. Spadix 3-8 cm, subsessile or stipitate to 5 mm, purplish. Ripe frs. orange.

Wet forests, 700-1300(-1560) m; both slopes, Cords. Guanacaste and Tilarán. Fl. Jan.-Jul., Sep., Nov. ENDEMIC. (Herrera et al. 4936; INB, MO)

This sp. is extremely similar to the widespread A. protensum (especially subsp. arcuatum), from which it differs in having leaf-blades with the midrib convex (rather than sharply triangular) above, a proportionately wider spathe, and shorter, proportionately thicker spadix. The two spp. occur sympatrically in the Cord. Tilarán (as at Monteverde).

Anthurium brownii Mast., Gard. Chron., n. s. 6: 744. 1876. A. denudatum sensu Fl. Panama, non Engl.

Epiphytes, subacaulescent, with few, thick roots; cataphylls persistent as fibrous reticulum. Petioles 16-77 cm, sulcate above with margins obtuse, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 13-60 X 11-45 cm, narrowly deltate-cordate to sagittate- or hastate-trilobate, eglandular. Peduncles 29-100 cm, eÉérect, terete. Spathe 4.5-12.3 X 0.8-2.7 cm, lanceolate, green suffused purple. Spadix 7.5-30.5 cm, stipitate to ca. 11 mm, purple. Ripe frs. red-orange to red.

Wet forests, 0-1000(-1400) m; entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope S from Fila Chonta. Fl. Mar.-Jul., Sep.-Nov. CR to Ecua. and Ven. (Kernan 1175; CR, MO)

This distinctive sp. is easily recognized by its epiphytic habit, cordate to hastate-trilobate (with the margins usually straight to concave), usually coarsely undulate leaf-blades, and slender, purple spadices. Though widespread in CR, it is nowhere abundant. Plants from the Cord. Guanacaste tend to be unusually small.

Anthurium burgeri Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 30. 1979.

Epiphytic (or sometimes terrestrial on steep banks?), subacaulescent, with few roots; cataphylls deciduous intact. Petioles 13-21.5 cm, terete. Leaf-blades simple, 36-48 X 6-8 cm, narrowly oblanceolate, eglandular, the midrib convex on both sides. Peduncles 21-53 cm, spreading, terete. Spathe 5.5-9 X 0.9-2.3 cm, lanceolate, ± curled, light green tinged purplish. Spadix 5.2-12.2 cm, sessile, brownish to purplish. Ripe frs. red-orange.

Wet forests, 1000-1150; S Pac. slope (Fila Costeña). Fl. Nov., Dic. ENDEMIC. (Grayum 10654, INB, MO)

This rare and local sp. (known from just two collections) is distinguished by its intact cataphylls, abaxially rounded petioles, narrow, eglandular leaf-blades, and purplish spadix. It most resembles the Atl. A. upalaense (which has abaxially ribbed petioles), or a robust version of A. gracile (see key, couplet 98).

Anthurium caperatum Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 32. 1979.

Trunk epiphytes or terrestrial, rarely epilithic; stems to ca. 120 cm long, 2.5-5 cm wide; cataphylls persistent as fine fibers. Petioles 34-109 cm, subterete (canaliculate above). Leaf-blades simple, 34-120 X 21.5-69 cm, ovate-cordate, ± bullate, eglandular. Peduncles 10-54 cm, erect, terete. Spathe 10-20 X 1.2-4 cm, lance-ovate to -oblong, reflexed and curled, caducous, pale green. Spadix 6.9-25.5 cm, subsessile, pale green. Ripe frs. ochroleucous, greenish at apex.

Wet forests, 500-2200 m; both slopes (not below 1000 m on Pac. slope), Cords. Tilarán, Central, and Talamanca, Montes del Aguacate, Fila Costeña. Fl. Jan.-Apr., Jun., Sep.-Dec. CR and Pan. (Liesner & Judziewicz 14820; CR, MO)

This sp., abundant at some sites, is distinctive in its cordate, usually ± bullate leaf-blades with marginal collective veins, reflexed, caducous, green spathe, and green spadix with ± exserted styles. The most similar sp. is A. ravenii, which has plane leaf-blades lacking conspicuous collective veins, styles included at anthesis, and orange-red frs., and occurs at generally lower elevations. The two spp. may rarely grow sympatrically, as at Las Cruces. The sympatric A. obtusilobum, which shares prominent collective veins, might also be confused (see under that entry).

Anthurium carnosum Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 36. 1979.

Terrestrial or epiphytic, ± scandent; stems to 1.3 m long and 5-7 mm wide, with slender, elongate roots; cataphylls deciduous ± intact or eventually weathering to fibers. Petioles 3-10 cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, 7.5-20.5 X 2-7.3 cm, narrowly elliptic or ovate to oblong, subsucculent, eglandular. Peduncles 7-17 cm, spreading, terete. Spathe 2.2-5.6 X 0.7-2 cm, lance-ovate to lanceolate, pale green. Spadix 2.2-6.5 cm, stipitate by 2-6 mm, green. Ripe frs. red-orange.

Oak forests, 1700-2700 m; both slopes Cord. Talamanca. Fl. Jan.-Jun., Aug.-Nov. CR and W Pan. (Davidse et al. 25702; CR, MO)

This sp. is generally readily recognized by its low-growing, scandent habit, smallish, non-cordate, eglandular, subsucculent leaf-blades, and high-elevation habitat. It is most similar to A. interruptum and A. pittieri (see under those entries), as well as the very rare A. tenerum (see key, couplet 79).

Anthurium chiriquense Standl., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 22: 67. 1940.

Epiphytic, epilithic, or terrestrial, with stems to at least 5 cm long and 1.5 cm wide, with thickish, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as long, reddish brown fibers. Petioles ca. 19-36 cm, terete. Leaf-blades simple, 23-40 X 7.2-11.9 cm, lanceolate to narrrowly oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate, black-glandular on both sides. Peduncles 20-40.5 cm, [± erect-spreading?], reddish (at least distally), terete. Spathe ca. 5.6-7 X 1.1-1.9 cm, lanceolate, reflexed, pink to dull reddish or purplish. Spadix ca. 10-28 cm, stipitate by 1-18 mm, magenta to red or purplish. Ripe frs. unknown.

Oak forests, 2400 m; Pac. slope Cord. Talamanca (Z.P. Las Tablas). Fl. Mar. CR and W Pan. (Navarro V. & Picado 673, INB)

This rare sp., until recently considered a Panamanian endemic, is distinguished by its long petioles, narrow leaf-blades black-glandular on both surfaces, potentially long-stipitate spadix, and high elevation habitat. It is very similar to Anthurium utleyorum and, especially, A. longistipitatum (see key, couplets 24 and 25). Like the latter sp., A. chiriquense is known from CR by just one collection.

Anthurium clavatum Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 39. 1979.

Epiphytes, or occasionally terrestrial; stems to 1 m long, 2-3 cm wide, with few, thick roots; cataphylls persistent ± intact. Petioles 42-125 cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, 23.5-70 X 14.5-50 cm, ovate-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles 20-110 cm, erect, terete. Spathe 4.5-10 X 1.8-6.5 cm, ovate-elliptic, pale green. Spadix 3-6.5 X 0.5-1.8 cm, clavate, stipitate by 5-21 mm, cream-white to greenish. Ripe frs. yellow-orange.

Wet forests, 1500-1950 m; Atl. slope and near Continental Divide, Cord. Talamanca. Fl. Feb., Mar., Jun., Jul., Sep., Oct., Dec. ENDEMIC. (Grayum & Sleeper 3479; CR, MO)

This rare and local sp. is distinct in its cordate leaf-blades, green spathe, and clavate spadix. The only similar sp. is A. bittneri (see key, couplet 47), even less likely to be encountered.

Anthurium clavigerum Poepp., Nov. gen. sp. pl. 3: 84. 1845. A. holtonianum Schott; A. wendlandii Schott.

Epiphytes; stems to 2 m long and 3-4 cm wide, with thick roots; cataphylls weathering to fibers, eventually deciduous. Petioles 60-150 cm, terete. Leaf-blades pedately compound, ca. 0.5-2 m wide, orbicular to reniform in outline; leaflets ca. 7-13, petiolulate, 25-100+ X 4-27 cm, eglandular, the margins sinuate to pinnatifid. Peduncles 25-90 cm, arching to pendent, terete. Spathe 18-65 X 1-3.5 cm, linear-lanceolate, greenish to purple. Spadix 20-75 cm, sessile, grayish to purple. Ripe frs. purple.

Wet forests, 0-600 m; entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope Cord. Guanacaste and Pen. Osa. Fl. Jan.-Dec. Nic. to Bol., Guianas, and Braz. (Herrera 4302; CR, INB, MO)

Its large, pedately compound leaf-blades, ± lobed leaflets, and long, purplish spadices make this one of the most distinctive CR Anthurium spp. The only sp. it might be compared with is A. pentaphyllum, which has unlobed leaflets and is smaller in all of its parts.

Anthurium clidemioides Standl., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 22: 3. 1940.

Appressed-climbing trunk epiphytes (or rooted in ground); stems to ca. 2-4 m long with slender, elongate (2-15 cm), root-bearing internodes; cataphylls absent. Petioles 1.5-9 cm, flat to sulcate above with margins acute to obtuse, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 6.6-27.1 X 3.5-12.6 cm, ovate- or deltate-cordate to lance-ovate or -deltate, truncate to cordate at base, bullate, eglandular. Peduncles obsolete to 1.3 cm and spreading, terete. Spathe ca. 2.1-9 X 0.5-1.4 cm, lanceolate, green. Spadix 2.8-10.8 cm, subsessile, green or purplish. Ripe frs. orange to red.

Wet forests, 0-650(-800) m; Atl. slope Cord. Central (to R.N.F.S. Barra del Colorado and P.N. Tortuguero), Pac. slope S from R.B. Carara. Fl. Jan., Mar., May-Oct. CR and W Pan. (Prov. Bocas del Toro). (Stevens & Montiel 24526; CR, MO)

Its appressed-climbing habit, internodal roots, obsolete or very short peduncles, and orange to red frs. amount to a unique combination of characters. The only sp. sharing most of these attributes is the relatively long-peduncled A. flexile (see key, couplet 73).

Plants from the Atl. have thin, cordate, conspicuously bullate, dark green leaf-blades, and superficially resemble some sp. of Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae), Clidemia (Melastomataceae), or Smilax (Smilacaceae). Pac. slope populations (Marín 95, INB), distinguished as subsp. pacificum Croat & Grayum (in Grayum, Phytologia 82: 31. 1997), differ consistently in having generally larger, relatively narrower, less bullate and less deeply cordate leaf-blades, as well as purple (rather than green) spadices.

Anthurium concinnatum Schott, Prodr. syst. Aroid. 522. 1860.

Epiphytic or terrestrial; stems to 1+ m long and 2.5-4 cm wide, with long, thick roots; cataphylls weathering to fibers. Petioles 35-105 cm, sulcate above with margins obtuse, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 30-70 X 16-48 cm, narrowly ovate- to deltate-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles 35-65 cm, ± spreading, subterete. Spathe (4.5-)7.5-27 X 1.5-5.5 cm, lanceolate, pale green often tinged purplish. Spadix (3.5-)5-32.5 cm, stipitate by 2-25 mm, green to purplish, often ± arching. Ripe frs. yellow-orange.

Oak and elfin forests, (1350-)1800-2950 m; Cords. Central and Talamanca, Cerros de Escaz?. Fl. Jan.-Dec. CR and W Pan. (Davidse et al. 25812; CR, MO)

This sp. attains higher elevations than any other CR aroid. It is otherwise distinguished by its caulescent habit, cordate leaf-blades, and arching, stipitate spadix with prominently exserted stamens. It may be confused with A. ranchoanum, which overlaps elevationally, but the latter sp. has more coriaceous, usually proportionately narrower leaf-blades with relatively smaller basal lobes (see key, couplet 62).

Anthurium consobrinum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 5: 66. 1855. A. consobrinum var. cuneatissimum Engl.; A. cuneatissimum (Engl.) Croat.

Epiphytes (rarely epilithic), acaulescent or with stems to ca. 15 cm long, with numerous, dense roots; cataphylls persistent intact, ultimately deciduous. Petioles 2-11 cm, flat to broadly sulcate above with margins obtuse, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 19-84 X 3.5-23.5 cm, oblanceolate to rhomboid, attenuate at base, eglandular. Peduncles 9.5-55 cm, erect to spreading, terete. Spathe 1.5-9 X 0.3-1.4 cm, oblong-ovate to linear-lanceolate, green. Spadix 2.5-10 cm, sessile, green to white turning pinkish or purplish. Ripe frs. pointed, greenish white, reddish at apex.

Wet forests, 0-850 m; entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope Cord. Guanacaste. Fl. Jan.-Dec. Nic. to Pan. (A. Chacón 621; CR, MO)

This sp., abundant in the Atl. lowlands, is easily identified by its ± rosulate habit, non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades, and relatively stout, cylindrical, usually whitish spadix with the styles prominently exserted. It most resembles A. acutifolium of the Pac. slope and the sympatric A. fatoense, both of which have relatively more slender spadices with included styles (see key, couplet 95).

Anthurium cotobrusii Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 43. 1979.

Epilithic or terrestrial, perhaps rarely epiphytic; stems to ca. 15 cm, 1-3 cm wide, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls weathering to fibers. Petioles 21-56 cm, subterete (weakly sulcate above). Leaf-blades simple, 22-42 X 13-30 cm, narrowly ovate- to broadly deltate-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles 30-65 cm, erect-spreading, terete. Spathe 6.5-13.5 X 1.4-5.1 cm, lance-ovate, green or purplish. Spadix ca. 9-19 cm, stipitate by 1-10 mm, brownish to purple. Ripe frs. pale orange.

Forested slopes and ridges, 500-1800 m; Pac. slope, S Cord. Talamanca (Coto Brus region), S Fila Costeña. Fl. Jan.-Mar., Jul.-Sep. CR and W Pan. (G. Mora 36; CR, MO)

Except by geography, this local sp. is scarcely to be distinguished from the highly variable Atl. slope A. watermaliense, from which it differs in having a generally longer, less prominently stipitate spadix with the anthers less prominently exserted on shorter filaments. It is also quite similar to the potentially sympatric A. standleyi (see key, couplet 69).

Anthurium cubense Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 364. 1898. Tabacón.

Epiphytes, acaulescent, with dense, ascending, whitish roots; cataphylls eventually weathering into fibers. Petioles 4-27 cm, broadly channeled above, rounded to several-ribbed below. Leaf-blades simple, 26-95 X 9.5-38 cm, narrowly elliptic to obovate, eglandular. Peduncles 5-33 cm, erect, terete. Spathe 3.5-16 X 0.8-5 cm, lance-ovate to lanceolate, whitish to green tinged purplish. Spadix 4-19 cm, stipitate by 1-16 mm, purplish. Ripe frs. orange-red.

Dry and moist forests, 0-700 m; NW Atl. slope (Río Sapoá basin), Pac. slope S to vic. Quepos, Pen. Nicoya. Fl. Jan., Dec. S Mex. (Yuc.) to Col. and Ven., Cuba. (Haber & Zuchowski 9661; CR, INB, MO)

This is one of several familiar CR Anthurium spp. of rosulate habit with non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades known collectively as tabacón (see also A. salvinii, A. upalaense). Among these, A. cubense is distinct in its relatively short peduncles (<2.5? longer than spadix) and dry to moist forest habitat. This is usually the only Anthurium, and one of very few aroids, occurring in the drier regions of NW CR. It is seen in cultivation much more frequently than in the wild.

Anthurium cucullispathum Croat, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 14: 77. 1986.

Epiphytes; stems to at least 15 cm long and 2.5 cm diam., with thickish, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent ± intact. Petioles (24-)30-49 cm, terete. Leaf-blades simple, 24-37 X 10-20 cm, ovate- to oblong-cordate, eglandular (may be indistinctly punctate below). Peduncles (40-)59-72 cm, spreading, terete. Spathe 5-10 X 1.5-2.5 cm, lance-oblong, erect and ± hooding the spadix, green. Spadix 3.5-10.5 cm, subsessile or stipitate by up to ca. 15 mm, nodding, whitish to yellowish green. Ripe frs. red-orange.

Wet forests, ca. 550-1500+ m; Atl. slope and near Continental Divide, Cords. Tilarán (Monteverde, R.B. Brenes), Central (Volcán Barva), and Talamanca (Jicotea, Platanillo, Río Lari). Fl. Feb., Mar., Jul.-Sep., Nov., Dec. CR and Pan. (Herrera 5282, INB, MO)

This rare sp. is most similar to A. hoffmannii, from which it differs in its leaf-blades lacking a prominent naked posterior rib, longer peduncles, and erect spathe ± hooding the generally smaller spadix.

Anthurium cuspidatum Mast., Gard. Chron., n. s. 3: 428. 1875. A. donnell-smithii Engl.; A. johnii Engl.; A. talamancae Engl.

Epiphytes (rarely epilithic or terrestrial); stems to ca. 50 cm long and 3 cm wide, with few, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 12-80 cm, terete. Leaf-blades simple, 19-90 X 6-40 cm, narrowly ovate- to lance-cordate (rarely cordulate or subtruncate at base), eglandular. Peduncles 11-80 cm, erect-spreading, terete. Spathe 4-21 X 0.8-2.8 cm, lanceolate to lance-oblong, green (sometimes tinged purple). Spadix 4-21 cm, subsessile or stipitate to 1 cm and ± decurrent on spathe, reddish or purplish. Ripe frs. red-violet to purple.

Wet forests, 0-1600 m; entire Atl. slope, rare on Pac. slope (Cord. Tilarán > 1050 m, Volcán Barva, Fila Costeña > 950 m). Fl. Jan.-Dec. Nic. to Ecua. (Liesner 14341; CR, MO)

A widespread and common sp., distinguished by its epiphytic, caulescent habit, fibrous cataphylls, relatively narrow, eglandular leaf-blades with small, non-overlapping basal lobes, and purplish spadix. It most apt to be confused with A. orteganum and A. propinquum (see under those entries) and A. testaceum (see key, couplet 76).

Anthurium davidsoniae Standl., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 22: 4. 1940.

Terrestrial or epiphytic, subscandent; stems to ca. 0.5 m long and < 1 cm wide, with few, elongate roots; cataphylls eventually weathering to fibers. Petioles 11.5-27 cm, shallowly sulcate above with the margins acute, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 12.5-23 X 5-15.5 cm, narrowly ovate-cordate to oblong-, deltate-, or lance-cordate or (rarely) -hastate, slightly paler below and sometimes ± bullate, eglandular. Peduncles 6-25 cm, erect, terete. Spathe 1.5-3.6 X 0.4-1 cm, lanceolate, pale green. Spadix 1.7-3.7 cm, stipitate by 1-7 mm, pale yellow-green to yellow. Ripe frs. greenish yellow.

Cloud forests, ca. 1100-1850 m; mainly Atl. slope and near Continental Divide, Cords. Tilarán, Central, and Talamanca. Fl. Jan.-Dec. CR and W Pan. (Grayum 3929; CR, MO)

This sp. is only weakly distinguished from the highly variable and sympatric A. microspadix (see key, couplet 81). It might also conceivably be confused with the very local A. erythrostachyum (see key, couplet 45) or small specimens of A. panduriforme, which has concave lateral leaf-blade margins.

Anthurium durandii Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 401.. 1898. A. bicollectivum Croat; A. littorale Engl.

Epiphytes (occasionally terrestrial or epilithic), acaulescent or with stems to ca. 27 cm long, with few, elongate roots; cataphylls weathering to fibrous reticulum. Petioles 1.5-27 cm, broadly channeled above with the margins acute, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 9.5-31 X 3.3-15 cm, elliptic, black-glandular on both sides. Peduncles 10-43 cm, spreading, reddish, terete. Spathe 3.4-8.3 X 0.3-1.5 cm, narrowly lanceolate to oblanceolate, caducous, pale green, sometimes pinkish-tinged. Spadix (5-)8.7-22.5 cm, sessile to stipitate by ca. 1 mm, yellowish green becoming brownish. Ripe frs. orange.

Wet forests, 0-1250(-1600+) m; Atl. slope Cords. Tilarán (800-1200 m) and Talamanca (Río Dapari, 1250 m), Pac. slope S from R.B. Carara (Montañas Jamaica). Fl. Jan.-Dec. CR and Pan. (Grayum et al. 8332; CR, MO)

This sp. may be distinguished from similar ones by its abaxially rounded petioles and leaf-blades black-glandular on both surfaces and with at least two pairs of collective veins at the base (though usually only one pair extends to the apex). It bears some resemblance to A. lentii (see key, couplet 12), a rare sp. of the Atl. slope, but is most often confused with the broadly sympatric A. alatipedunculatum (see under those entries).

Anthurium dwyeri Croat, Selbyana 5: 323. 1981.

Epiphytes, acaulescent or with stout stems to ca. 12 cm long, with numerous, thick roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 4-21 cm, flat to broadly sulcate above with margins acute to narrowly winged, sharply keeled below. Leaf-blades simple, 24-40 X 6-11 cm, elliptic to oblanceolate, black-glandular only below. Peduncles 6-44 cm, erect-spreading, sharply triangular with angles narrowly winged. Spathe 3-11 X 1.1-4.1 cm, ovate to lanceolate, yellow-green to green. Spadix 7-16.5 cm, subsessile or stipitate by 1-3 mm, pale green. Ripe frs. pale lavender, whitish at apex.

Wet forest, (100-)500-800 m; Atl. slope Cord. Central (Volcán Barva), Llanura de Los Guatusos (La Cureña). Fl. Apr.-Jun. CR to Col. (Grayum 6699, MO)

The combination of abaxially keeled petioles, leaf-blades black-glandular only below, and winged peduncles distinguishes this rare sp. from all congeners save the Pac. A. alatipedunculatum. The latter differs in its smaller leaf-blades, narrower spathe, and proportionately narrower, reddish (rather than green) spadix.

Anthurium erythrostachyum Croat, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 14: 89. 1986.

Terrestrial; stems to 50 cm long (internodes to at least 7 cm long) and ca. 1 cm wide, with thick, elongate, grayish roots (red when new); cataphylls persisting ± intact, reddish brown. Petioles 14.5-24 cm, [subterete?]. Leaf-blades simple, 14-19.5 X 8-11 cm, ± deltate-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles 6-11.5 cm, ± erect, [subterete?]. Spathe 3.1-4.6 X 0.85-1.2 cm, narrowly elliptic, pinkish to purple. Spadix 2.1-2.8 cm, stipitate by 2-7 mm, reddish to purplish. Ripe frs. violet-purple (Pan.).

Wet forests, 900-1000 m; Pac. slope Fila Costeña (Cerro Nara). Fl. Apr., Dec. {check!!!}. CR and E Pan. (Valverde et al. 440, CR)

Anthurium erythrostachyum, very local in CR, much resembles a small-leaved version of the more familiar A. obtusilobum, from which it differs in its elongate internodes and less extensive laminar collective veins. It is also superficially similar to A. davidsoniae (see key, couplet 45).

All of the measurements in the above description are taken strictly from Costa Rican collections; Panamanian material of A. erythrostachyum (including the type) is mostly rather larger in most dimensions, and more than one sp. may be involved.

Anthurium eximium Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 412. 1898.

Epiphytes; stems 10-100 cm long and ca. 1 cm wide, ± pendent, with thick, whitish roots; cataphylls persistent intact. Petioles 4.5-15 cm, subterete (± flat to sulcate above). Leaf-blades simple, 23-80 X 2.7-10 cm, narrowly oblanceolate, eglandular. Peduncles 13-55 cm, spreading, reddish, terete. Spathe 4.6-10 X 0.7-3.7 cm, ovate- to lance-cordate, green often tinged pinkish. Spadix 3-6.3 X 0.4-1.2 cm, sessile, cream- to yellowish white or grayish. Ripe frs. pinkish to red.

Wet forests, 0-1000 m; Pac. slope S from R.B. Carara. Fl. Jan., Feb., May-Dec. ENDEMIC. (Fco. Quesada 228, INB)

A common sp. of the Pac. lowlands, recognized by its usually pendent, epiphytic habit, thick whitish roots, intact cataphylls, narrow, non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades, and thick, whitish spadix. It somewhat resembles the smaller A. gracile in all but the last-mentioned feature, and might also be compared with the Atl. A. spathiphyllum (see under that entry).

Anthurium fatoense K. Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 611. 1932.

Epiphytes; stem 10-60 cm long and 1-2 cm wide, with ascending, whitish roots; cataphylls persistent ± intact, soon deciduous. Petioles 2-9.5 cm, U-shaped to quadrangular with subacute angles. Leaf-blades simple, 24-83 X 4-26 cm, narrowly to broadly oblanceolate, eglandular. Peduncles 14-48 cm, ± erect, subterete. Spathe 5.5-9 X 0.5-1.5 cm, linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, light green. Spadix 5-15 cm, sessile, yellow-green becoming gray-green. Ripe frs. yellowish to pale orange.

Wet forests and swamp forests, 0-1350 m; Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca. Fl. Jan., Feb., May-Aug. CR and Pan. (Grayum 11026; CR, INB, MO)

From other short-stemmed spp. with non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades, this is distinct in its ± intact cataphylls and slender, greenish spadix. It is perhaps most similar to the Pac. A. acutifolium (terrestrial and with fibrous cataphylls), but more apt to be confused with the sympatric A. consobrinum (stout spadix with exserted styles).

Anthurium flexile Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 180. 1858. A. myosuroides sensu Fl. Guatemala, Standl. (1937), non (Kunth) Schott; A. myosuroides var. angustifolium Engl.

Scandent epiphytes; stems to ca. 1.5 m long with slender, elongate (2-8 cm), root-bearing internodes; cataphylls persistent intact, eventually deciduousually Petioles 3.3-17 cm, subterete (slightly flattened above). Leaf-blades simple, 13-26 X 3-9.5 cm, lanceolate to narrowly or broadly elliptic or obovate, cordulate at base, eglandular. Peduncles 6-23 cm, ± arching, terete. Spathe 3.5-10.5 X 0.7-1.8 cm, lanceolate, green. Spadix (1.3-)4.5-10 cm, subsessile, purple. Ripe frs. orange to red.

Wet forests, 0-1100 m; entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope Cord. Guanacaste, R.B. Carara. Fl. Jan., Apr., Jun., Jul., Dec. Mex. to Pan. (Liesner 14100; CR, MO)

Its scandent habit, internodal roots, smallish leaves, and bright orange to red frs. separate this sp. from all others except the short-peduncled A. clidemioides (see key, couplet 73).

Anthurium formosum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 181. 1858.

Terrestrial or epiphytic; stems to 1+ m long and 4 cm wide, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls persisting intact. Petioles 55-140 cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, 38-83 X 25-54 cm, ovate- to rhomboid-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles 14-58 cm, erect-spreading, often ± verrucate, subterete. Spathe 11-25 X (2.1-)3-8.5 cm, ovate to oblong-elliptic, erect and ± hooding the spadix, white to pale violet. Spadix 7-18 X 0.8-2 cm, subsessile or stipitate to ca. 8 mm, white or tan to purplish. Ripe frs. purple, often reddish orange at base.

Wet forests, 0-1450 m; Atl. slope Cords. Central (to R.N.F.S. Barra del Colorado) and Talamanca. Fl. Feb., Apr.-Nov. CR to Col. and possibly Ecua., Ven., and Per?. (Gómez et al. 23070; CR, MO)

This sp. is distinctive by virtue of its large size, caulescent habit, cordate leaf-blades, and (especially) erect spathe ± broadly hooding the spadix. The plants are typically terrestrial, with erect stems supported by long prop-roots, but may be epiphytic (especially at lower elevations). The large infls. are among the showiest of CR Anthurium spp., with either the spathe or spadix (if not both) pinkish to purplish.

Anthurium friedrichsthalii Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 5: 65. 1855. A. gracile sensu Fl. Panama, non (Rudge) Schott.

Epiphytes, subacaulescent or stems to ca. 15 cm long, usually pendent, with few, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 2-17 cm, terete. Leaf-blades simple, 15-60 X 0.7-4 cm, linear to narrowly lanceolate with margins ± revolute, black-glandular only below. Peduncles 12-40 cm, pendent, reddish, terete. Spathe 1.5-6.6 X 0.2-0.8 cm, linear, caducous, white to pale green (sometimes tinged purplish). Spadix 2-10 cm, subsessile, reddish. Ripe frs. pale orange.

Wet forests, 0-600 m; Atl. slope Cords. Central (to R.N.F.S. Barra del Colorado) and Talamanca, Pac. slope S from R.B. Carara. Fl. Jan.-Apr., Jun., Sep.-Dec. CR to Ecua. (Grayum et al. 8949; CR, MO)

This sp. is generally easily recognized by its pendent, epiphytic habit (usually high in canopy), relatively short petioles, very narrow leaf-blades black-glandular only below, and lowland habitat. It has sometimes been confused with narrow-leaved plants of A. utleyorum, but that sp. has longer petioles (relative to the leaf-blades) and leaf-blades usually black-glandular on both surfaces. The two spp. are not known to occur sympatrically.

Material from the Pac. slope (Golfo Dulce region) tends to have larger and proportionately wider leaf-blades.

Anthurium gracile (Rudge) Schott, Wiener Z. Kunst 1829: 828. 1829. Pothos gracilis Rudge, Pl. Guian. 23, t. 32. 1805; A. scolopendrinum (Ham.) Kunth.

Epiphytes, acaulescent or with stems to ca. 16 cm long, with thick, white roots; cataphylls persisting intact. Petioles 1.5-23 cm, flat above with margins obtuse, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 6-32 X 0.7-11.5 cm, narrowly (rarely broadly) elliptic to oblanceolate, eglandular, the midrib narrowly keeled above, convex below. Peduncles 5.5-43 cm, ± erect, reddish, subterete. Spathe 0.7-3.7 X 0.2-0.7 cm, broadly to narrowly lance-oblong, reflexed, pink to reddish. Spadix 0.7-5.5 cm (to ca. 16 cm in fr.), subsessile, dull reddish. Ripe frs. red.

Wet forests, 0-200(-1200+) m; entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope (rare) S from R.B. Carara. Fl. Feb., Apr.-Sep., Nov., Dec. Guat. and Bel. to Bol., Guianas, and S Braz., WI. (Robles et al. 2069; CR, MO)

Though somewhat nondescript, this sp. is nonetheless well distinguished by its small size, short-stemmed, epiphytic habit, thick, whitish roots, intact cataphylls, and non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades The only somewhat similar CR spp. are A. burgeri and A. eximium (see under those entries).

Anthurium hacumense Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 363. 1898.

Epiphytes, subacaulescent, with abundant roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 2-18 cm, subterete (canaliculate to shallowly sulcate above). Leaf-blades simple, 32.5-67 X 9-21 cm, oblanceolate to obovate, attenuate at base, black-glandular only below. Peduncles 11-33 cm, erect-spreading, terete. Spathe 4.4-12.5 X 0.7-1.9 cm, lanceolate to lance-oblong, pale green, withering and promptly deciduous. Spadix 5.9-18.5 cm, stipitate by 40-155 mm, pinkish to purple. Ripe frs. red.

Wet forests, 0-1100+ m; Pac. slope S from R.B. Carara. Fl. Jan.-Mar., May, Jul., Aug., Oct., Nov. CR to NW Col. (Davidse & Herrera 26336; CR, MO)

This is one of our most distinctive Anthurium sp., and is confused with nothing else. The leaf-blades are among the largest of any sp. with black-glandular punctations (see also A. ramonense and A. wendlingeri), and the stipe length is unique (but see A. longistipitatum). This sp. is occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes.

Anthurium hoffmannii Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 181. 1858. A. torresianum Engl.

Epiphytic or terrestrial; stems to ca. 75 cm long and 3.5 cm wide, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls persisting intact. Petioles 19-80(-102) cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, 14-53.5 X 9-37 cm, ovate- to ± deltate-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles 16-55(-82) cm, erect to ± arching, terete. Spathe 6.5-15 X 1.1-3.7(-4.5) cm, lance-ovate to -oblong, yellow-green. Spadix 5.3-15.5(-17.5) cm, stipitate by 2-15 mm, white to yellowish or pale green. Ripe frs. red.

Wet forests, 0-1750(-2000) m; Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca (Río Lari, 1300 m), Pac. slope (more common) S from Valle Central (vic. San José). Fl. Jan.-Dec. CR and Pan. (Picado 15, INB)

Its caulescent habit, intact cataphylls, coriaceous, cordate leaf-blades, usually greenish spathe and spadix, and near restriction to the Pac. slope combine to distinguish A. hoffmannii. It is most similar to A. cucullispathum, A. monteverdense, and A. obtusilobum (see under those entries), with all of which it is allopatric, or virtually so. The only broadly sympatric sp. with which it might be confused is A. ravenii (see key, couplet 56).

Some specimens with extremely long spadices (e.g., Herrera 5215, INB) approach the Panamanian A. curvispadix Croat.

Anthurium hornitense Croat, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 14: 114. 1986.

Epiphytic or (rarely) terrestrial; stems to 20 cm long and ca. 4 cm wide, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 16-55 cm, subterete (weakly flattened to canaliculate above). Leaf-blades simple, 18-44 X 9-26 cm, narrowly to broadly deltate-cordate, -hastate, or -pandurate, black-glandular only below. Peduncles 16-50 cm, arching-pendent, terete. Spathe 5.5-12 X 0.6-1.6 cm, lanceolate, pale green sometimes tinged red. Spadix (3.4-)6.5-21.5 cm, subsessile or stipitate by up to 3 mm, purple. Ripe frs. white.

Wet forests, 1150-1300 m; Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca (basin of Río Lari and Río Urén). Fl. Mar., Jul. CR and W Pan. (Herrera 5171; INB, MO)

This rare sp. is the only CR Anthurium with black-glandular leaf-blades cordate at the base. It is most likely to be confused with the sympatric A. lentii (see key, couplet 11), which may have subcordate-based leaf-blades. Anthurium obtusilobum may have leaf-blades of similar shape with obscure abaxial punctations, but its cataphylls are persistent intact.

Anthurium interruptum Sodiro, Anales Univ. Centr. Ecuador 15: 5. 1901.

Scandent epiphytes, rarely epilithic or terrestrial; stems slender, elongate, with condensed internodes alternating with long (3.5-23 cm) internodes, with slender, elongate nodal roots; cataphylls deciduous ± intact (leaving a few fibers). Petioles 1.8-13 cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, 5.5-22 X 1.7-11 cm, narrowly to broadly elliptic or oblong (rarely ovate or obovate to oblanceolate), eglandular. Peduncles 4-20 cm, erect-spreading, terete. Spathe 1.2-5 X 0.4-1.7 cm, lance-ovate or -oblong to lanceolate, green. Spadix 3-12 cm (to at least 19 cm in fr.), subsessile or stipitate by 1-2 mm, yellow-green becoming purplish. Ripe frs. red.

Wet forests, 0-1400 m; entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope Cord. Guanacaste, Pen. Osa. Fl. Jan.-Dec. Guat. to Ecua. (Grayum 6704; CR, MO)

Anthurium interruptum is unique among CR Anthurium sp. in its scandent habit and sets of condensed internodes alternating with solitary elongate internodes. It is most similar to A. pittieri and especially the high-elevation A. carnosum, from which the internode character is the chief distinction.

Anthurium kunthii Poepp., Nov. gen. sp. pl. 3: 84. 1845.

Scandent epiphytes; stems to 1+ m long and 0.6-1.5 cm wide, with numerous nodal roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 25-61 cm, subterete (sulcate above distally). Leaf-blades palmately compound, 22-60 X 20-40 cm, ovate in outline; leaflets 5-9, on petiolules 1.5-10.5 cm, 12-27 X 2.6-8 cm, elliptic to oblong, eglandular. Peduncles 38-75 cm, spreading, terete. Spathe 15.5-25 X 1.3-1.5 cm, narrowly lanceolate, reflexed, green (sometimes tinged reddish). Spadix 11-23.5 cm, stipitate by ca. 2-4 mm, white to grayish. Ripe frs. purple.

Wet forests, 0-500 m; Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca (S from Siquirres). Fl. Mar., Jun., Aug., Nov. CR to Bol. and Ven. (Grayum et al. 5790; CR, MO)

The palmately 5-9-foliolate leaf-blades and slender, elongate, whitish spadices represent a unique combination in CR Anthurium. Somewhat similar spp. are A. pentaphyllum (with shorter, stouter, usually purplish spadices) and A. trisectum (with trifoliolate leaf-blades).

Anthurium lancifolium Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 180. 1858. A. allenii Standl.; A. densinervium Engl.; A. firmum Engl.

Terrestrial (occasionally epilithic or epiphytic, to ca. 2 m above ground), subacaulescent or with ± decumbent stem to ca. 12 cm long, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 7-51 cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, 18-47 X 3-20.7 cm, narrowly lanceolate to broadly elliptic or ovate, black-glandular on both sides (more conspicuously so below). Peduncles 17.5-60 cm, ± erect, terete. Spathe 2.9-10 X 0.7-1.5 cm, lance-ovate to lanceolate, reflexed, green. Spadix 2.8-12.5 cm, subsessile or stipitate by 1-2 mm, white to cream becoming green. Ripe frs. white or (more commonly) wine-red to purple.

Wet forests, 100-1350 m; Atl. slope Cords. Guanacaste (vic. Lago de Cote), Central, and Talamanca, Pac. slope Fila Costeña and Golfo Dulce region. Fl. Jan.-Dec. SE Nic. to Col. (Grayum & Schatz 3575; CR, MO)

This is one of the very few CR Anthurium spp. with black-glandular leaf-blades that is characteristically terrestrial (see also A. louisii). It is further distinguished by its thickish leaf-blades with the collective and primary lateral veins conspicuously impressed above, and whitish spadices. The only other Anthurium sp. it might be confused with is A. bakeri (see key, couplet 19). Because of its terrestrial habit and often lanceolate to elliptic leaf-blades with numerous primary lateral veins, this sp. might well be mistaken for a Spathiphyllum sp. (e.g., S. fulvovirens or S. silvicola). From these it may be told by its fibrous cataphylls, black-glandular punctations, collective veins, and 4 (rather than 6) tepals.

This sp. is highly polymorphic for several features, including leaf-bladeshape and venation and fr. color. Occasional specimens with white frs. (e.g., Grayum 3884, MO; P.N. Tapantí) may be referable to var. albifructum Croat (Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 14: 125. 1986), otherwise known only from W Pan.

Anthurium lentii Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 56. 1979.

Epiphytes, acaulescent or with stems to at least 10 cm long, with thick roots; cataphylls persisting intact, eventually dilacerating. Petioles 15-62 cm, sulcate above with margins acute, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 13.7-45 X 8.4-31 cm, ovate or broadly elliptic, broadly cuneate to (usually) subcordate at base, black-glandular below (obscurely so above). Peduncles 25-70 cm, erect to spreading, terete. Spathe (3.5-)8-14 X 1.1-3.9 cm, narrowly ovate to lanceolate, green tinged purple. Spadix (3.6-)9-25 cm, subsessile or stipitate to 13 mm, reddish to purple. Ripe frs. white.

Wet forests, 300-1650 m; Atl. slope Cords. Central and Talamanca. Fl. Mar., Jun.-Aug., Oct. CR to extreme NW Col. (I. Chacón et al. 1482; CR, MO)

This uncommon sp. is easily recognized by its coriaceous, ovate or broadly elliptic, ± strongly bicolored leaf-blades that are black-glandular only below and often subcordate at the base, and have 2 or 3 or more pairs of arcuate-ascending basal veins. Smaller specimens might be confused with A. durandii (see key, couplet 12), while larger specimens with more deeply cordate leaf-bases could be mistaken for A. hornitense (see key, couplet 11).

Anthurium limonense Grayum, Phytologia 82: 32. 1997.

Epiphytes, apparently ± appressed-climbing; stems to at least 2.5 cm wide, with elongate roots; cataphylls thin, eventually weathering to few, fine, reddish brown fibers. Petioles ca. (17-)29-34 cm, terete. Leaf-blades simple, ca. (22.5-)33-48 X (11.5-)16-21 cm, lance-ovate or -deltate, deeply cordate at base, eglandular. Peduncles 6.4-7.5 cm, erect. Spathe 5-9.5 X 1.2-2.5 cm, lance-oblong to ± oblanceolate, greenish white to yellow-green. Spadix (3.5-)5.7-8.5 cm, stipitate by 2-6 mm, pinkish purple to violet. Ripe frs. unknown.

Wet forests, 0-50 m; N Atl. slope (Llanuras de San Carlos and Tortuguero). Fl. Mar., Apr., Aug. ENDEMIC. (Liesner 14098, CR)

Its very short peduncles, absolutely and relative to the petioles, immediately distinguish Anthurium limonense from all other CR congeners with large, cordate, eglandular leaf-blades, with the exception of the very different A. schottianum and A. sp. A (both much larger plants with much larger infls.). Generally, A. limonense is most similar to the sympatric A. cuspidatum and A. ravenii, though both have longer peduncles; the former differs additionally in its non-cordate to shallowly cordate leaf-blades with more numerous primary lateral veins, the latter in its longer, whitish to yellowish or greenish spadices.

Anthurium llanense Croat, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 14: 128. 1986.

Understory epiphytes, acaulescent or with stems to ca. 16 cm long, with long, thin, clasping roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 6-11 cm, subterete (somewhat flattened above). Leaf-blades simple, 16-27 X 5.2-9 cm, obovate to oblanceolate, eglandular. Peduncles 13-21 cm, erect, terete or weakly 1-ribbed. Spathe 2.5-4.2 X 0.9-1.6 cm, ovate to lance-oblong, cordulate at base, green. Spadix 1.5-1.8 cm, stipitate by 5-12(-25) mm, dark green. Ripe frs. wine-red.

Wet forests, 50-900 m; Atl. slope Cords. Central (Volcán Barva) and Talamanca (Cerro Tigre). Fl. Mar.-May, Jul., Nov. CR and Pan. (Grayum et al. 5357; CR, MO)

This sp. is recognized by its understory habit, non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades widest above the middle, and (especially) by its ± ovate, cordulate-based spathe, stumpy, long-stipitate, green spadix and wine-red frs. It is perhaps most similar to A. michelii, comprising generally larger plants with ± intact cataphylls, leaf-blades widest at or below the middle, and longer spadices on shorter stipes.

In CR, this sp. is best known from E.B. La Selva and adjacent sites. CR material differs in several respects from Panamanian material and may be subspecifically distinct.

Anthurium longistipitatum Croat, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 14: 129. 1986.

Epiphytic, with stems to at least 25 cm long and 1.5 cm wide, with thickish, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as long, brownish fibers. Petioles 7.5-35.5 cm, terete. Leaf-blades simple, ca. 12.8-59 X 2-8 cm, narrowly lance-elliptic to oblong-lanceolate or ligulate, black-glandular on both sides. Peduncles 10-38 cm, [± erect-spreading?], terete. Spathe ca. 3.3-11.5 X 0.6-1.2 cm, narrowly lanceolate, green or pinkish to red or purplish, withering and promptly deciduous. Spadix ca. (4.1-)6.1-27.5 cm, stipitate by (7-)13-56 mm, reddish to purplish or brownish. Ripe frs. red (Pan.).

Cloud forests, 1900 m; Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca (Río Lori). Fl. Mar. CR and W Pan. (A. Fernández 782, INB)

Anthurium longistipitatum is distinguished by its ± strap-shaped, non-cordate leaf-blades, black-glandular on both sides, usually reddish spadices with potentially very long stipes (exceeded in CR only by those of A. hacumense), and upland, Atl. slope habitat. It is very similar to A. chiriquense (see key, couplet 25) and the generally smaller A. utleyorum, though not sympatric with either.

This sp., formerly considered a Panamanian endemic, is known definitely from CR by a single collection.

Anthurium louisii Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 59. 1979.

Terrestrial or (more rarely) epiphytic; stems to at least 50 cm long and 1.5 cm wide, with few, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 14-38 cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, 10-26 X 5-14 cm, broadly elliptic to ovate or suborbicular, acute to rounded, truncate, or subcordate at base, black-glandular on both sides. Peduncles 18-43 cm, erect-spreading, subterete. Spathe 3.5-8 X 0.5-1 cm, lance-oblong to lanceolate, reflexed and curling, reddish. Spadix 4-15 cm, subsessile or stipitate by up to 5 mm, spirally coiled, yellow-green. Ripe frs. pinkish orange.

Cloud forests, 1400-1900 m; Atl. slope and near Continental Divide, Cords. Central and Talamanca. Fl. Mar., Aug., Oct., Dec. ENDEMIC. (Grayum & Herrera 7743; CR, MO)

Of the three CR Anthurium spp. with spirally coiled spadices, this is the only one with broadly elliptic to ovate leaf-blades. Its elongate stems and leaf-blade shape recall A. tonduzii, but that sp. has intact cataphylls and straight spadices.

Anthurium louisii is known mainly from the Cord. Talamanca. It is vouchered for the Cord. Central by a single, historical collection (Wercklé s.n., CR; La Palma).

Anthurium michelii Guillaumin, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 31: 263. 1925. A. amethystinum Croat & R. A. Baker.

Epiphytic, epilithic, or terrestrial; acaulescent or with stems to 25 cm long and 3 cm wide, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent ± intact, eventually weathering to fibers. Petioles 6-54 cm, flat to sulcate above with margins acute, rounded to sharply keeled below. Leaf-blades simple, 15-56 X 3.9-23.5 cm, narrowly elliptic or lanceolate to broadly ovate, silvery- or milky-green below, eglandular. Peduncles 17-86 cm, arching to pendent, ± angled. Spathe 2.4-14.5 X 0.7-2 cm, lance-ovate to lanceolate, green. Spadix (1.5-)3-20 cm, stipitate by 1-35(-65) mm, green. Ripe frs. purple.

Wet forests, (100-)350-1350 m; entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope Fila Costeña, vic. Golfito, Pen. Osa. Fl. Jan.-Dec. CR to Ecua. (Liesner et al. 15302; CR, MO)

This widespread and variable sp. is characterized by its thin, ± intact cataphylls, ± bicolored leaf-blades with collective veins extending from the base, stipitate, green spadix, and purple frs. The only sp. with which it might be confused is A. llanense (see under that entry), of lower elevations.

Anthurium microspadix Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 180. 1858. A. barbanum K. Krause; A. gracilens Standl.; A. porrectum Schott; A. tuerckheimii Engl.

Subscandent epiphytes or terrestrial (rarely epilithic); stems to 0.4-2(-4) m long and 4-8 mm wide, with few, elongate nodal roots; cataphylls weathering to deciduous fibers. Petioles 2-20(-25) cm, subterete (obscurely canaliculate above). Leaf-blades simple, 9-28.5(-36) X 1.4-12 cm, narrowly lanceolate to elliptic, oblong, or ovate, acute to truncate or (rarely) subcordate at base, silvery green below, eglandular. Peduncles 3.4-17.5 cm, erect, terete. Spathe 2-5.2 X 0.4-1.2 cm, lance-ovate to lanceolate, green (sometimes tinged reddish). Spadix 1.7-4.8(-5.8) cm, stipitate by 1-12(-17) mm, whitish to yellow or green. Ripe frs. yellowish green.

Wet forests, 600-2150(-2800) m (not below 900 m on Pac. slope); both slopes all main cords., Cerro Azahar, Montes del Aguacate, Tablazo, Cerros de Escaz?, Cerro Turrubares, Fila Costeña. Fl. Jan.-Dec. Mex. to Ecua. (Liesner & Judziewicz 14964; CR, MO)

A variable sp. characterized by its elongate, subscandent stems, smallish, ± bicolored, eglandular leaf-blades, and short, yellowish spadices. It is very similar to and only weakly separated from both A. davidsoniae (see key, couplet 81) and A. pallens (see under that entry).

Because of its small size and abundance at certain well-botanized mid-elevation sites, this is one of the most frequently collected CR Anthurium spp.

Anthurium monteverdense Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 62. 1979.

Epiphytes or occasionally terrestrial, subacaulescent or with stems to ca. 20 cm long, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls persisting intact. Petioles 17-85 cm, terete. Leaf-blades simple, 14-47 X 10-31 cm, deltate- to ovate-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles 14-75 cm, ± erect, subterete. Spathe 6.3-14.5 X (1.6-)2.6-8 cm, broadly elliptic to ovate, white becoming green. Spadix 4.3-15 cm, stipitate to 5 mm, white to orange-yellow. Ripe frs. unknown.

Cloud forests, 1300-1700 m; Atl. slope and near Continental Divide, Cord. Tilarán. Fl. Mar, Jun.-Nov. ENDEMIC. (Haber & Zuchowski 8617; CR, MO)

This taxon is scarcely distinct from the allopatric A. hoffmannii (see key, couplet 57), and should perhaps be considered only a local race of that sp.

Anthurium obtusilobum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 181. 1858.

Epiphytic or occasionally terrestrial or epilithic; stems to 30 cm long and ca. 1.5 cm wide, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls persisting intact. Petioles 16-75 cm, subterete (± sulcate above). Leaf-blades simple, 15-50 X 9.5-30 cm, deltate- to ovate-cordate or subhastate, eglandular (sometimes obscurely punctate abaxially). Peduncles 6-43 cm, spreading, subterete (may be ± angled). Spathe 4.5-14.5 X 1.2-3.4 cm, lance-ovate to -oblong or obovate, greenish white to white, becoming green. Spadix 3.5-10.5 cm, stipitate by 2-10 mm, cream-white becoming pinkish or purplish. Ripe frs. pinkish to purplish (or red?).

Wet forests, (190-)300-1600 m; Atl. slope and near Continental divide, all main cords., Pac. slope (rare) Cords. Guanacaste and Talamanca (R.L.B. La Amistad). Fl. Jan.-Dec. CR to NW Ecua. (Grayum & Sleeper 3693; CR, MO)

This sp., frequent at mid-elevation sites on the Atl. slope, is distinguished by its generally epiphytic habit, intact cataphylls, and cordate, eglandular leaf-blades with the collective veins arising from near the base. Both spathe and spadix are usually white, with the latter rapidly becoming pinkish. Though most similar to the rare A. erythrostachyum (see under that entry), A. obtusilobum is more likely to be confused with the the sympatric A. caperatum, which also has collective veins arising from near the base of the leaf-blades, but cataphylls weathering to fibers. The largely allopatric A. hoffmannii is also similar, but has more coriaceous leaf-blades with the collective veins arising much higher.

Specimens of A. obtusilobum with ± punctate abaxial leaf-blade surfaces may resemble the rare A. hornitense, which differs in having cataphylls weathering to fibers.

Anthurium obtusum (Engl.) Grayum, Phytologia 82: 35. 1997. A. trinerve Miq. var. obtusum Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 357. 1898; A. trinerve Miq. nom. illeg., non A. trinervium Kunth.

Erect to trailing or pendent epiphytes, subacaulescent or with stems to at least 72 cm long and 2-9 mm wide, with thickish, elongate roots; cataphylls weathering to persistent fibrous reticulum. Petioles 0.8-8.8(-13.5) cm, sulcate above with margins acute, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 6-19.5 X 1-6.7 cm, narrowly to broadly elliptic (rarely lanceolate or oblanceolate), black-glandular only below, rarely (Pac. lowlands) also above. Peduncles 1.3-12 cm, erect, terete. Spathe 1-3.8 X 0.4-1.3 cm, ovate to lance-ovate or -oblong, erect to erect-spreading or -ascending at anthesis, white to greenish. Spadix 1.1-5.4 cm, subsessile, white to greenish (Pac. lowlands) or (usually) purplish. Ripe frs. white (or bluish, in Pac. lowlands).

Wet forests, 0-1000+ m; entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope S from R.B. Carara. Fl. Jan.-Oct. Bel. and El Salv. to Per? and Guianas. (Liesner 14080; CR, MO)

This sp. is characterized by slender, elongate stems, fibrous cataphylls, and smallish, black-glandular leaf-blades. It is very similar in all respects to A. scandens, from which it is here distinguished on the basis of its erect (rather than reflexed) spathes and ovoid, apiculate (rather than subglobose or obovoid) frs. The two entities behave as separate spp. at sites where they co-occur, e.g., E.B. La Selva.

Atl. slope populations of A. obtusum differ additionally from A. scandens in having purple (at anthesis) rather than white spadices. However, material from the Pac. lowlands (Segura & Quesada 64, INB) comprising the endemic subsp. puntarenense Grayum (Phytologia 82: 35. 1997) has consistently white or greenish spadices, and also tends to have narrower leaf-blades that may be black-glandular on both surfaces.

Anthurium ochranthum K. Koch, in A. Braun et al., Append. sp. Hort. berol. 1853 6. 1853-1854. A. baileyi Standl.; A. pluricostatum Croat & R. A. Baker; A. triangulum Engl.; A. tsakianum Engl.

Terrestrial (rarely epilithic); stems to ca. 25 cm long and 2-5 cm wide, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 21-91 cm, subterete (often weakly ribbed especially toward base, sometimes flattened and/or canaliculate above). Leaf-blades simple, 30-76 X 17-45 cm, narrowly to broadly ovate- or deltate-cordate (rarely subhastate), eglandular. Peduncles 13-53(-58) cm, erect, subterete (often finely ribbed especially toward base). Spathe 7.5-18+ X 0.9-2.3 cm, lanceolate, green to purple. Spadix 6.5-23.5 cm, stipitate by 1-15(-22) mm, greenish to golden yellow, or sordid to pinkish or purplish. Ripe frs. white, wine-red at apex.

Wet forests, 0-1000(-1200+) m; entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope Cord. Guanacaste and S from R.B. Carara. Fl. Jan.-Dec. SE Nic. to NW Col. (Grayum et al. 6230; CR, MO)

The terrestrial habit, often finely ribbed petioles, cordate leaf-blades, and bright yellow spadices usually combine to distinguish this sp. However, some plants from 0-550 m on the Atl. slope S from Siquirres (e.g., Grayum & Sleeper 4355; CR, MO) have sordid to pinkish or purplish spadices, and should thus be compared with the sympatric and superficially similar A. watermaliense (see key, couplet 67). These plants, corresponding to A. pluricostatum, also tend to have the cut stems pinkish (not white) within and leaf-blades ± glossy (rather than matte) abaxially, and with more abundant raphides adaxially. While A. pluricostatum may prove to be a distinct taxon, it is synonymized here for practical purposes, as most collections from the S Atl. slope cannot be determined due to lack of flowering spadices and/or of adequate notes.

Material from the SW Pac. lowlands (S from R.B. Carara) has yellow spadices, but is ± consistently distinct in having the petioles usually flattened and/or canaliculate above and leaf-blades with convex margins.

Anthurium oerstedianum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 180. 1858. A. cuspidifolium Schott.

Terrestrial; stems to 30 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls weathering ± intact, eventually deciduous. Petioles 32-83 cm, ± flat to canaliculate above with margins rounded to obtuse, rounded to 3-ribbed below, with geniculum 5.5-17 cm below blade. Leaf-blades simple, 30-53 X 14-30.5 cm, narrowly to broadly ovate, attenuate to rounded or subcordate at base, eglandular. Peduncles 57-92 cm, erect, subterete. Spathe 5.5-12 X 1.6-3.8 cm, lance-ovate to lanceolate, cordulate at base, pale green. Spadix 5-11 cm, subsessile or stipitate to ca. 2 mm, sordid to greenish. Ripe frs. ochroleucous, green apically.

Wet forests, 400-1450 m; Pac. slope S from R.B. Carara and Puriscal region. Fl. Jan., Mar., May., Jul.-Sep., Nov., Dic. ENDEMIC. (Grayum & Baker 4693; CR, MO)

This sp. somewhat resembles the sympatric A. acutifolium, but differs from that and all other CR Anthurium sp. in its remote geniculum. Presumably the geniculum is located in its usual spot, but the laminar tissue is excavated to the midrib in the basal portion of the leaf-blade.

The type locality of A. oerstedianum (near Juan Viñas, Prov. Cartago) is well outside the presently known geographical range of the sp.

Anthurium orteganum Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 387. 1898.

Terrestrial or occasionally epiphytic; stems to ca. 1 m long and 4.5 cm wide, with few, elongate roots; cataphylls deciduous intact. Petioles 45-109 cm, terete. Leaf-blades simple, 38-53 X 24-38 cm, broadly to ± narrowly ovate-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles 12-44 cm, erect, terete. Spathe ca. 11-20 X 1.1-2.9 cm, lanceolate to lance-oblong or oblanceolate, pale green sometimes with purplish cast. Spadix 11.4-14.7 cm, subsessile or stipitate to 3 mm, pale yellow or cream to greenish. Ripe frs. wine-red.

Wet forests, 600-1150 m; Atl. slope Cords. Central and Talamanca. Fl. Feb.-Apr., Jul. CR to SW Col. (Grayum 6766; CR, MO)

This uncommon sp. is most similar to (and has been confused with) A. cuspidatum and A. propinquum, but differs from both in its intact cataphylls and cream to greenish (rather than reddish to purplish) spadix.

Anthurium pageanum Croat, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 14: 146. 1986.

Epiphytic (to at least 2 m above the ground), ocassionally terrestrial or on rotting logs, acaulescent or with stems to ca. 6 cm long, with slender, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 6-19.5(-25) cm, sulcate and acutely ridged above with margins acute, acutely keeled below, usually with undulate rib on geniculum. Leaf-blades simple, 11-32 X 3.3-9.5 cm, ± narrowly elliptic, black-glandular on both sides, ± paler below, the midrib triangular on both sides. Peduncles 4-39(-56) cm, ± erect, terete (pluricostate proximally). Spathe 1.4-7.2 X 0.3-1.4 cm, lanceolate to lance-oblong, green sometimes tinged reddish. Spadix 1.8-9.7 cm, sessile or stipitate to 1 mm, yellowish to green. Ripe frs. orange.

Wet forests, 300-1400 m; Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca. Fl. Mar.-May, Jul., Aug. CR and W Pan. (Herrera 5365; INB, MO)

This is the only CR Anthurium with abaxially keeled petioles and leaf-blades black-glandular on both surfaces. The undulate rib on the abaxial side of the geniculum is also characteristic.

Anthurium pallens Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 180. 1858.

Climbing trunk epiphytes to pendent branch epiphytes, occasionally erect and terrestrial; stems to 1.5 m long and 1.5 cm wide, with slender, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 7-29 cm, flat above with margins acute to obtuse, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 19-34.5 X 3-7.5 cm, narrowly lanceolate to elliptic or oblanceolate, paler below, eglandular. Peduncles 9-19 cm, ± erect, terete. Spathe 2.5-4 X 0.4-0.7 cm, lanceolate, pale green. Spadix 2.3-4.5 cm, stipitate by 1-3 mm, yellow. Ripe frs. unknown.

Wet forests, 1600-2500 m; Cords. Tilarán (Fila Volcán Viejo), Central (Volcán Barva), and Talamanca (Tapantí). Fl. Jan.-Dec. CR and W Pan. (Grayum 7089; CR, MO)

This sp. is scarcely, though consistently distinct from the sympatric A. microspadix in its usually longer petioles (relative to the leaf-blades) and narrower leaf-blades that are never cordulate at the base. Furthermore, the spadix is at best short-stipitate (vs. potentially long-stipitate in A. microspadix), and is consistently described on labels as yellow to yellow-orange (never whitish, pale yellow, or green).

This sp. is locally abundant about the summit of Volcán Barva, but seems rare throughout the rest of its range.

Anthurium paludosum Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 401. 1898. A. littorale sensu Standl. (1937), Fl. BCI, non Engl.

Epiphytes; stems to 10+ cm long and 1.5 cm wide, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls persisting intact, eventually deciduous. Petioles 3.5-11.5 cm, flat to broadly sulcate above with margins obtuse to acute, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 20-34 X 3.5-13.5 cm, narrowly ovate to oblanceolate, coriaceous, sparsely black-glandular on both sides. Peduncles 24-27 cm, erect-spreading, terete. Spathe 4.4-5 X 0.6-0.8 cm, lanceolate, whitish to green or purplish, marcescent. Spadix 13.7-18.7 cm, subsessile or stipitate to 2 mm, greenish to purplish. Ripe frs. pale orange to red-orange.

Secondary and riparian forests, 0-50 m; Atl. coast S from Puerto Limón. Fl. Jan., Apr., Nov. CR to Col. (Baker & Burger 175; CR, MO)

This is one of only two CR Anthurium spp. with intact cataphylls and black-glandular leaf-blades (the other being the very different A. tonduzii). It is further characterized by its short-stemmed, epiphytic habit, thick, narrow leaf-blades, and Atl. coastal habitat.

Anthurium panduriforme Schott, Prodr. syst. Aroid. 536. 1860. A. panduratum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 182. 1858 (non Mart. ex Schott, 1855).

Epiphytic, occasionally terrestrial or epilithic; stems to 25+ cm long and ca. 2.5 cm wide, with slender, elongate roots; cataphylls mostly deciduous, with few fibers persisting. Petioles 36-59 cm, terete. Leaf-blades simple, 39-65 X 25-43 cm, pandurate to hastate-trilobate, paler below and ± shiny, eglandular. Peduncles 6-21 cm, erect, terete. Spathe 6.5-16 X 0.9-2.9 cm, lanceolate, green. Spadix (3-)5.6-13.3 cm, stipitate by 1-6 mm (with stipe mostly adnate to spathe), yellow-orange becoming greenish. Ripe frs. pale green.

Wet forests, 400-1350 m; entire Atl. slope. Fl. Feb.-May, Aug., Nov. CR to Ecua. (Liesner & Judziewicz 14700; CR, MO)

Its epiphytic habit, unusual leaf-blade shape, and yellow spadices combine to distinguish this sp. from all CR congeners but the lower-elevation A. subsignatum (see key, couplet 41). Small specimens might possibly be confused with A. davidsoniae (see under that entry).

Anthurium pentaphyllum (Aubl.) G. Don, in Sweet, Hort. brit. ed. 3 633. 1839. Dracontium pentaphyllum Aubl., Hist. pl. Guiane 2: 837, pl. 326. 1775; A. aemulum Schott.

Appressed-climbing epiphytes (rarely epilithic); stems to 1+ m long and ca. 1 cm wide, with slender to thickish, elongate roots; cataphylls deciduous, or persistent as fibers. Petioles 10-48 cm, terete (sometimes finely ribbed or keeled below) to flat or sulculate above with margins subacute. Leaf-blades pedately compound, 20-48 X 14-50 cm, ovate to subcircular in outline; leaflets (1-)3-9(10), subsessile or on petiolules to 6 cm, 8-34 X 2.2-18.5 cm, narrowly or broadly elliptic to oblanceolate or (rarely) obovate, cuneate to attenuate at base (basal pair often subauriculate), eglandular. Peduncles 1-23 cm, erect, subterete (± flat on one side). Spathe 3.6-7.2 X 0.6-2 cm, ovate to lanceolate, caducous, greenish to pink or purple. Spadix 2.3-10.4 cm, subsessile, whitish or greenish to (usually) purple. Ripe frs. wine-red.

Wet forests, 0-1100 m; entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope Cord. Guanacaste and S from R.B. Carara. Fl. Jan.-Dec. Central Mex. to Bol., Guianas, and Braz., Trinidad. (Liesner & Judziewicz 14941; CR, MO)

This common sp. is the only compound-leaved CR Anthurium which characteristically has purple spadices, except for the much larger A. clavigerum. Occasional specimens with whitish spadices might be compared with A. kunthii, which has much longer infls.

This is a highly polymorphic sp., even at a single site (e.g., E.B. La Selva). Material from Pac. lowlands (especially Pen. Osa, e.g., Herrera 4523; CR, MO) tends to have longer petiolules, peduncles, and spadices. A few collections from Atl. slope Cords. Central and Talamanca have trifoliolate leaf-blades with very wide leaflets (e.g., Grayum et al. 5811; CR, MO), and might be compared with A. trisectum (which has whitish spadices).

CR material represents Anthurium pentaphyllum var. bombacifolium (Schott) Madison (Selbyana 2: 278. 1978; A. bombacifolium Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 182. 1858), which ranges from Mex. to Pan.

Anthurium pittieri Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 372. 1898.

Epiphytes (rarely terrestrial or on logs); stems to 20+ cm long and 0.7-1.5 cm wide, with thickish, elongate roots; cataphylls deciduous ± intact, with few persistent fibers. Petioles 3-17 cm, subterete (may be ± flat above with margins obtuse to acute). Leaf-blades simple, 6-27 X 2-7.6 cm, narrowly to broadly elliptic or oblong to oblanceolate or obovate, eglandular. Peduncles 4.5-20 cm, erect to erect-spreading, terete. Spathe 2.7-12.5 X 0.6-2.3 cm, elliptic to lanceolate, decurrent on peduncle by 0.6-4 cm, green. Spadix 1.7-7 cm, stipitate by 2-70 mm (including decurrent portion), green. Ripe frs. yellow to red-orange.

Wet forests, 350-2100 m; Atl. slope and near Continental Divide, all main cords., Cerros de La Carpintera, Pac. slope (rare) Cords. Guanacaste, Central, and Talamanca, Cerro Azahar, Fila Costeña. Fl. Jan.-Dec. CR and Pan., possibly to Ecua., Bol. (Gómez 19759; CR, MO)

In its often ± elongate stems, non-dilacerating cataphylls, non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades, green spadices, and reddish frs., this sp. most closely resembles A. carnosum and A. interruptum. It differs from both of these, however, in its prominently decurrent spathes.

Smallish plants from Cords. Guanacaste and Tilarán with broadly elliptic, oblong, or obovate leaf-blades with the veins prominently etched on the adaxial surface comprise the endemic var. fogdeniorum Croat [Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 350. 1983 (as 'fogdenii')].

Some material from Atl. slope Cord. Talamanca at ca. 1200 m (e.g., Gómez & Herrera 23534, 23541, MO) approaches the Panamanian var. morii Croat in having ± elongate internodes.

Anthurium prolatum Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 72. 1979.

Epiphytes, subacaulescent or with stems to ca. 15 cm long, with thick, elongate, tesellate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles ca. 25-50 cm, subterete (slightly flattened above). Leaf-blades simple, 83-142 X 6.6-14.7 cm, lance-elliptic, pendent, eglandular. Peduncles 14-39 cm, pendent. Spathe to at least 29 cm X 2.4 cm, linear-lanceolate, pale green. Spadix 18-59 cm, stipitate by 2-12 mm, brownish. Ripe frs. orange.

Wet forests, 200-1600 m; Atl. slope Cords. Central and Talamanca. Fl. Jan.-Apr., Jul.-Sep., Nov. CR and W Pan. (Gómez et al. 23155; CR, MO)

A rare sp. of the Atl. slope characterized by its pendent habit, subterete petioles, fibrous cataphylls, elongate, eglandular leaf-blades, very long spadix, and orange frs. It most closely resembles A. protensum, but differs in its tessellate roots and longer leaf-blades and infls. The sympatric A. spectabile has abaxially ribbed petioles and wider, often cordate-based leaf-blades.

Anthurium propinquum Sodiro, Anturios ecuator., Adic. 5-6. 1903. A. williamsii K. Krause.

Terrestrial or epiphytic; stems to at least 15 cm long and 1.5 cm wide, with few, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 25-68 cm, flat or narrowly canaliculate above with the margins acute, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 20-40 X 12.3-28 cm, ovate-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles 13.5-50 cm, erect. Spathe 1.8-8 X 0.8-1.2 cm, lance-oblong, green. Spadix ca. 5.5-7.1 cm, stipitate by 1-2 mm, purplish. Ripe frs. deep red-violet.

Wet forests, 300-1300 m; Atl. slope, Cords. Central (Volcán Barva) and Talamanca. Fl. Mar., Apr., Jun.-Aug. CR to Ecua. (Gómez et al. 23425; CR, MO)

This rare sp. is distinguished by its fibrous cataphylls, cordate leaf-blades lacking naked posterior ribs, and purplish spadices. It is most similar to A. cuspidatum (see key, couplet 60) and A. orteganum (see under that entry).

Anthurium protensum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 181. 1858. A. costaricense Engl.; A. joseanum Engl.

Epiphytes, usually pendent; stem < 20 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, with thick, descending roots; cataphylls persistent as fibrous reticulum. Petioles (6-)10-39.5 cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, 32-101 X (2.3-)4-11.5 cm, very narrowly elliptic to narrowly or broadly oblanceolate, eglandular. Peduncles (10-)13-49 cm, spreading-pendent, subterete. Spathe (4.5-)7.5-21+ X (0.7-)1.2-4.7 cm, lance-ovate to lanceolate, usually erect to erect-spreading, yellow-green to purplish. Spadix (2.2-)6.5-20 cm, subsessile or stipitate to 4(-40?) mm, greenish to purplish. Ripe frs. orange.

Wet forests, 700-2200 m; Atl. slope and near Continental Divide, Cords. Tilarán, Central, and Talamanca, Pac. slope Tablazo, Cerros de Escaz?. Fl. Jan.-Dec. CR and W Pan. (Herrera & Schik 3787; CR, MO)

This is the most common and widespread sp. among a group characterized by their often pendent, epiphytic habit, fibrous cataphylls, subterete petioles, elongate, non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades, usually purplish or purplish-tinged spathes and/or spadices, and orange frs. The other CR spp. sharing these features are A. brenesii, A. prolatum, and A. validifolium (see under those entries, and also A. seibertii and A. spectabile, which have abaxially ribbed petioles).

A number of CR specimens from widely scattered localities (e.g., Haber et al. 6501, MO; Monteverde) agree well with the Panamanian subsp. arcuatum Croat, characterized by smaller leaves and infls. Herrera 6046 (INB), from 1650 m elevation on the Atl. slope of Cord. Talamanca, is remarkable for its extremely long (ca. 4 cm) infl. stipe; it may represent an undescribed sp.

Anthurium ramonense Engl. ex K. Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 611. 1932. A. isonervium Standl. & L. O. Williams.

Epiphytes, acaulescent, with dense, branching roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 4-27 cm, narrowly sulcate above with margins rounded, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 22-62 X 8-22.5 cm, narrowly to broadly elliptic to oblanceolate, black-glandular only below. Peduncles 9-56 cm, spreading-pendent, terete. Spathe 4.4-17 X 0.5-2.1 cm, lanceolate to lance-oblong, pale green sometimes tinged pinkish or purplish. Spadix 9.5-38 cm, subsessile or stipitate to 10 mm, grayish or green becoming reddish. Ripe frs. pinkish to red.

Wet forests, 0-1550 m; both slopes all main cords., Fila Costeña (not below 600 m on Pac. slope). Fl. Jan.-Dec. Nic. to NW Col. (Herrera 2093; CR, MO)

This is a common sp., characterized by its epiphytic, acaulescent habit, abaxially rounded petioles, black-glandular (below) leaf-blades, terete peduncles, and long (> 10 cm) spadices. On the Atl. slope it is most likely to be confused with A. acutangulum (see under that entry), on the Pac. with A. durandii (with leaf-blades black-glandular on both surfaces).

Anthurium ranchoanum Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 421. 1898. A. valerii Standl.; A. vinicolor Standl. & L. O. Williams.

Epiphytic or terrestrial, sometimes epilithic; stems to ca. 1 m long and 4.5 cm wide, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls persisting as fibers. Petioles 9-111 cm, subterete (flat to broadly sulcate adaxially with margins rounded). Leaf-blades simple, 20.5-67 X 10-37 cm, lanceolate to deltate or ovate, cuneate or truncate to cordate (usually shallowly) at base, eglandular. Peduncles 7-59 cm, erect to erect-spreading, subterete. Spathe 3.9-21.2 X 1.2-8.4 cm, lanceolate to ovate, cordulate at base, green usually tinged (especially adaxially) purplish to entirely purplish. Spadix 3.2-18.5 cm, stipitate by 3-33 mm, greenish to brownish or purple. Ripe frs. orange.

Oak forests, 1000-2800 m; both slopes Cords. Central and Talamanca, Pac. slope Cord. Tilarán, Montes del Aguacate. Fl. Jan.-Dec. CR and Pan. (Gómez 20225; CR, MO)

A variable sp. distinguished by its fibrous cataphylls, subterete petioles, coriaceous, ± narrow leaf-blades usually shallowly cordate at the base, ± broad spathe and stipitate spadix (both often purplish or purplish tinged), and orange frs. It is perhaps most similar to A. cotobrusii and especially A. standleyi (see key, couplet 62), but might also be compared with A. concinnatum (at higher elevations), A. spectabile, or A. watermaliense (see under those entries).

Anthurium ravenii Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 75. 1979.

Trunk epiphytes, occasionally terrestrial; stems to at least 25 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, with thickish, elongate roots; cataphylls deciduous ± intact, leaving a few fibers. Petioles 38-82 cm, terete. Leaf-blades simple, 36-87 X 24-50 cm, ovate- or deltate-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles 17-42 cm, erect-spreading, subterete. Spathe 7.9-19 X 1.5-4.4 cm, lanceolate to lance-ovate, reflexed, brittle, and breaking off, cream- or yellowish-white to pale green. Spadix 9-21.2 cm, subsessile or stipitate to 6 mm, cream to yellow or greenish. Ripe frs. orange-red.

Wet forests, 0-700(-1200) m; entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope S from R.B. Carara. Fl. Jan.-Dec. Hond. to W Col. (Grayum et al. 5470; CR, MO)

A rather nondescript sp. best recognized by its epiphytic habit, cordate leaf-blades, reflexed, caducous, white to greenish spathe, white to yellowish spadix, and orange-red frs. It is perhaps most similar to the rare A. limonense (which see), but also likely to be confused with A. caperatum (see under that entry) and (on the Pac. slope) A. hoffmannii (see key, couplet 56).

Anthurium salvinii Hemsl., Diagn. pl. nov. mexic. 36. 1879 (as 'salviniae'). A. agnatum sensu Fl. Panama, non necessarie Schott; A. crassinervium sensu Fl. Guatemala (pro parte), Fl. Panama (pro parte), non (Jacq.) Schott; A. maximum sensu Fl. Panama, non (Desf.) Engl.; A. schlechtendalii sensu Standl. (1937), Fl. Panama, non Kunth; A. tetragonum sensu Fl. BCI, Fl. Panama, non Hook. ex Schott. Tabacón.

Epiphytic or epilithic, acaulescent, with dense, whitish roots; cataphylls cucullate, persistent ± intact. Petioles 3-15 cm, subterete (often ± flat adaxially with margins obtuse). Leaf-blades simple, 50-170 X 14-52 cm, oblanceolate to narrowly obovate, narrowly cuneate to truncate or cordulate at base, eglandular. Peduncles 31-117 cm, usually pendent, terete. Spathe 13-44 X 1-3.8 cm, linear-lanceolate to lance-elliptic, greenish often tinged purplish (especially adaxially). Spadix 14.5-45 cm, stipitate by (1-)3-30 mm, purplish. Ripe frs. pink to red.

Wet or moist forests, 200-1650 m; both slopes Cords. Guanacaste, Tilarán, and Talamanca, Pac. slope Cerros de Escaz?, Fila Bustamante, S Fila Costeña. Fl. Jan.-May, Sep., Dec. S Mex. (Chis.) to Col. (Haber & Zuchowski 10485, INB, MO)

This familiar sp. is well-marked by its large size, acaulescent habit, unusual, fist-like cataphylls, narrow, eglandular leaf-blades often cordulate at the base, long, usually pendent (at anthesis) peduncles, and long, purplish spadices. The pendent flowering peduncles immediately distinguish this sp. from the other tabacones. Like A. cubense, this sp. is seen much more frequently in cultivation than in the wild.

The distribution of Anthurium salvinii becomes very spotty in CR S of the Cord. Tilarán.

Anthurium scandens (Aubl.) Engl., in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(2): 78. 1878. Dracontium scandens Aubl., Hist. pl. Guiane 2: 836. 1775; A. rigidulum Schott. Elotillo, maicillo.

Erect to pendent or subscandent epiphytes, rarely terrestrial; stems to ca. 1 m long and 4 mm wide, with thickish, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibrous reticulum. Petioles 0.3-9 cm, canaliculate above with margins acute, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 2-14 X 0.8-5.5 cm, lanceolate to elliptic or ovate, black-glandular below, and often also above. Peduncles 0.6-6 cm, erect to pendent, terete. Spathe 0.3-1.9 X 0.1-0.8 cm, deltate or oblong to narrowly lanceolate, reflexed at anthesis, pale green (sometimes tinged purplish). Spadix 0.3-3.1 cm, subsessile, greenish white to greenish at anthesis (tepals becoming purplish in fr.). Ripe frs. nearly white to purple.

Wet forests, 0-2800+ m; entire Atl. slope, Pac. slope Cords. Guanacaste and Tilarán, Montes del Aguacate, Cerro Turrubares, Cerro Caraigres, S Fila Costeña, Osa Pen., Isla del Coco. Fl. Jan.-Dec. S Mex. (Veracruz, Guerrero) to Bol. and S Braz., Gr. Ant., Trin. (Campos 120, INB)

Its elongate stems, fibrous cataphylls, and smallish leaf-blades with black-glandular punctations distinguish this common sp. from all other CR congeners except A. alticola and A. obtusum (see under those entries).

CR material comprises both subsp. scandens and subsp. pusillum Sheffer (in Sheffer, W. L. Theob. & Kamem., Aroideana 3: 91. 1980), both wide-ranging outside CR. The latter (R. Quirós 33, INB), generally of higher altitudes, differs in having generally smaller leaf-blades and spadices. The nominate subsp. is unusually variable in characters usually constant in Anthurium spp., e.g., presence or absence of black glandular punctations on the adaxial leaf-blade surface and color of frs.

Anthurium scherzerianum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 54. 1857. Lengua de diablo.

Epiphytes or occasionally terrestrial or on exposed tree roots, subacaulescent or with stems to ca. 20+ cm, with elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 2.7-33 cm, subterete (sometimes canaliculate above). Leaf-blades simple, 8-33.1 X 1.5-7.2 cm, linear-lanceolate to lance-elliptic, -oblong, or -ovate, cuneate to rounded at base, black-glandular on both sides. Peduncles 12-58 cm, erect, reddish distally, terete. Spathe 1.9-9 X 1.1-6.1 cm, oblong to broadly ovate or suborbicular, cordulate at base, rose- or orange-red to scarlet. Spadix 2-7.5(-10.5) cm, sessile or stipitate to ca. 3 mm, usually curved to coiled, orange to red. Ripe frs. orange to red.

Cloud forests, 700-1800 m; Atl. slope and near Continental Divide, all major cords. Fl. Feb.-Aug., Oct.-Dec. ENDEMIC. (Liesner & Judziewicz 14615; CR, MO)

Its epiphytic, short-stemmed habit, narrow leaf-blades, and spirally coiled spadix distinguish this from every other CR Anthurium save the much larger A. wendlingeri (see key, couplet 9).

This is a well known horticultural sp. worldwide, and the subject of many hybrids and cultivars (which may often deviate, especially in infl. details, from the above description). Even in CR, it is much less frequently encountered in the wild than in cultivation.

Anthurium schottianum Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 83. 1979.

Terrestrial; stems to ca. 1 m long and 4 cm wide, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls persisting ± intact, eventually deciduous. Petioles ca. 80-150 cm, broadly sulcate above with margins rounded, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 45-100 X 28-62+ cm, ovate-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles 5-25 cm, erect, subterete. Spathe 6-14 X 1.5-2.7 cm, lanceolate, revolute and ± twisted, purple or greenish heavily tinged purplish. Spadix 7.2-17.6 cm, stipitate by 1-6 mm, maroon to purple. Ripe frs. becoming pinkish (whitish with red cap?).

Wet forests, slopes near rivers or streams, 50-200(-900?) m; Atl. slope Cords. Tilarán (?) and Talamanca (S from R.B. Hitoy-Cerere). Fl. Feb., Jul., Aug., Nov. ENDEMIC. (Grayum & Hammel 5764; CR, MO)

This rare sp., known definitely from just five collections, is characterized by its terrestrial habit, intact cataphylls, long, subterete petioles, large, cordate leaf-blades, relatively short peduncles, twisted, purplish spathe, purple spadix, and Atl. lowland habitat. It is superficially most similar to Anthurium sp. A (which see), of the Pac. slope, but more apt to be confused with the sympatric A. watermaliense, which is generally smaller, with fibrous cataphylls and relatively longer peduncles.

A poor collection (Bello et al. 4091, INB) from 900 m on the Atl. slope of Cord. Tilarán agrees best with this sp., although described as epiphytic. It is referred here tentatively.

Anthurium seibertii Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 85. 1979.

Terrestrial or epiphytic, occasionally epilithic or on rotting logs; subacaulescent or with stems to ca. 10 cm long, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 8.5-39 cm, ± quadrangular or pentagonal in section. Leaf-blades simple, 33-92 X 5-23 cm, narrowly to broadly lance-elliptic, eglandular. Peduncles 18-51 cm, erect to spreading, terete. Spathe 5-16 X 0.8-3.5 cm, lanceolate to oblanceolate, green sometimes tinged purplish. Spadix 5-19.5 cm, stipitate by 1-8 mm, pinkish to purplish or brownish. Ripe frs. orange.

Oak forests, (1000-)1500-2300 m; Pac. slope Cord. Talamanca S from Tarraz? region. Fl. Feb., Mar., May, Jun., Aug., Sep., Dec. CR and W Pan. (Davidse et al. 25613; CR, MO)

By virtue of its persistent cataphylls, narrow, eglandular leaf-blades, purplish spadix, and orange frs., this sp. is most similar to A. protensum (very rare within the range of A. seibertii) and the other spp. listed thereunder. It differs from those in its abaxially ribbed petioles, and also has more of a tendency to grow terrestrially. It should be compared also with the allopatric A. spectabile and, at lower elevations, with the parapatric A. angustispadix (see under those entries).

Anthurium spathiphyllum N. E. Br., Gard. Chron., n. s. 7: 652. 1877.

Epiphytes, acaulescent or with stems to ca. 10 cm long and 2 cm wide, with thickish, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 8.5-32 cm, broadly sulcate above with margins narrowly winged, sharply keeled below with keel narrowly winged. Leaf-blades simple, 45-107 X 3.4-17 cm, linear to narrowly lance-oblong or oblanceolate with margins decurrent on petiole, eglandular. Peduncles 40-63 cm, spreading, with 2 or 3 prominently winged angles and up to 3 lesser, unwinged angles. Spathe 4.5-12.5 X 1.9-3 cm, ovate to lance-ovate, erect and ± hooding the spadix, green. Spadix 2.5-4.2 X 0.7-1.2 cm, subsessile or stipitate by up to ca. 1.5 mm, white to pale yellow. Ripe frs. translucent white, light green apically.

Wet forests, 0-700(-1350+) m; Atl. slope Cords. Guanacaste, Central (to R.N.F.S. Barra del Colorado and P.N. Tortuguero), and Talamanca. Fl. Jan.-Mar., May., Jul., Sep.-Nov. Nic. to Pan. (Robles et al. 2003; CR, MO)

This and the very similar A. bradeanum (see key, couplet 84) differ from all other CR congeners with fibrous cataphylls and non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades in their erect, hooding spathes and thickish, clavate spadices. Anthurium spathiphyllum is also rather similar to the Pac. A. eximium, but that sp. has cataphylls persisting intact.

Anthurium spectabile Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 181. 1858.

Epiphytes, subacaulescent, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls weathering to persistent fibers. Petioles 14-72 cm, flat to broadly sulcate above with margins obtuse to acute, acutely 3-ribbed below. Leaf-blades simple, 55-132 X 13.5-36 cm, pendent, lance-elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, broadly cuneate to rounded or subcordate at base, eglandular. Peduncles 13-40 cm, spreading, subterete. Spathe ca. 15-30 X 3-4 cm, lanceolate, cordulate at base, ± spirally curled, green often tinged purplish. Spadix 19-45+ cm, subsessile or stipitate to 10 mm, yellowish green becoming brownish. Ripe frs. orange.

Wet forests, 300-800 m; Atl. slope Cords. Central and Talamanca. Fl. Jan., Feb., Apr., May., Jul., Aug., Oct. ENDEMIC. (Grayum et al. 7939; CR, MO)

A rare sp. of the Atl. slope, recognized by its epiphytic, pendent habit, abaxially ribbed petioles, fibrous cataphylls, broad, elongate, eglandular leaf-blades often subcordate at the base, curled spathe, relatively short peduncles, and orange frs. Though quite distinct from any other CR spp., it is most similar to A. ranchoanum and the spp. listed under A. protensum, all of which have terete petioles except for A. seibertii (which has smaller infls. on relatively longer peduncles).

Anthurium standleyi Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 88. 1979.

Terrestrial; stems to 1 m long and 2.5-4 cm wide, with very thick, elongate roots; cataphylls weathering to fibrous reticulum. Petioles 51-120 cm, subterete (may be flat to broadly sulcate above with margins rounded). Leaf-blades simple, 35-65 X 24-42 cm, ovate-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles 19-85 cm, erect to spreading, subterete. Spathe 9-26+ X 0.8-3.5 cm, lanceolate, ± recurved, yellow-green to green. Spadix 10-30 cm, stipitate by 2-57 mm (with stipe ± adnate to spathe), green to purplish. Ripe frs. orange.

Wet forests, slopes (often near creeks), 900-1600+ m; Pac. slope Cord. Talamanca (upper Valle de El General), N slope Cerros de Escaz? and S edge Valle Central. Fl. Mar., Aug., Oct., Dec. Possibly ENDEMIC (unsubstantiated reports from Pan. and Per?). (Grayum et al. 9329; CR, MO)

A rare, terrestrial sp. most similar to A. ranchoanum, from which it differs in its proportionately broader, more deeply cordate leaf-blades (see key, couplet 62), proportionately narrower spathes, and longer, proportionately more slender spadices. It should also be compared with the potentially sympatric A. cotobrusii (see key, couplet 69). Although not particularly showy, this sp. is occasionally seen in cultivation in the Valle Central.

Anthurium subsignatum Schott, Bonplandia 9: 368. 1861. A. garagaranum Standl.

Appressed-climbing trunk epiphytes; stems to 15+ cm long and 2 cm wide, with slender, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles (11.5-)21.5-60 cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, (14.5-)25.5-66 X (6-)24.5-60 cm, scarcely to deeply hastate-trilobate, much paler below, eglandular. Peduncles (10.5-)13-37 cm, erect, subterete. Spathe (3.9-)7-29 X (0.8-)1-3.1 cm, lanceolate to ligulate, light green. Spadix (4-)7.5-28.8 cm, subsessile or stipitate to 28 mm, yellow or yellowish green. Ripe frs. white, purple apically.

Wet forests, 0-350 m; Atl. slope Cords. Central (to R.N.F.S. Barra del Colorado and P.N. Tortuguero) and Talamanca. Fl. Mar., Apr., Jul., Sep. SE Nic. to E Pan. (and possibly Pac. Col.). (Solano 148; INB, MO)

Due to its epiphytic habit, unusual leaf-blade shape, and yellow spadices, this sp. can only be confused with the more upland A. panduriforme (see key, couplet 41); but compare also with A. tilaranense, which may have a similar leaf-blade shape.

Anthurium tenerum Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 377. 1898.

Subscandent epiphytes; stems to at least 85 cm long and 3 mm wide, with ca. 2-4 slender, elongate roots per node; cataphylls persisting ± intact. Petioles 1-3 cm, terete. Leaf-blades simple, 6.5-11 X 1.4-2.5 cm, lanceolate, eglandular. Peduncles 2.5-4.5 cm, sheathed proximally by subtending petiole, spreading. Spathe 1.1-2 X 0.2-0.9 cm, ovate to oblong, green. Spadix ca. 1.5-3.5 cm, subsessile or stipitate by up to ca. 2 mm, green. Ripe frs. apparently green.

Wet forests, 850-1800 m; Atl. slope Cords. Tilarán (Río Peñas Blancas), Central (Vara Blanca), and Talamanca (vicinity Orosi and Cachí). Fl. Feb., Jul. CR and Col. (Croat 47089; CR, MO)

This sp. is well marked by its subscandent habit and elongate stems, intact cataphylls, short petioles, small, non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades, and short, green spadices. The only comparable CR Anthurium is A. carnosum, of higher elevations (see key, couplet 79).

A very rare sp., known from just seven collections throughout its range, four of these from CR.

Anthurium teribense Croat, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 14: 187. 1986.

Terrestrial; stem unknown; roots unknown; cataphylls weathering to reddish brown fibers. Petioles ca. 109-115 cm, quadrangular, the angles prominently winged. Leaf-blades simple, ca. 81-96 X 44-59 cm, narrowly deltate-cordate, eglandular. Peduncles ca. 52-54 cm, [erect?], terete. Spathe deciduous, described as brown. Spadix ca. 23-39 cm, stipitate by 3 mm, red or pinkish purple. Ripe frs. red apically, white toward base.

Wet forests, 350-700 m; Atl. slope S Cord. Talamanca (Río Urén, Croriña). Fl. ? CR and W Pan. (A. Chacón 267, CR; Hammel et al. 17607, CR)

The combination of cordate leaf-blades and winged-quadrangular petioles is unique among CR Anthurium spp. The two collections cited above are the only ones known, other than the fragmentary Panamanian type.

Anthurium testaceum Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 92. 1979.

Epiphytic or terrestrial, occasionally epilithic; stems to ca. 1 m long and 1-2 cm wide, with thickish, elongate roots; cataphylls persisting as fibers, eventually deciduous. Petioles 10.5-47 cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, 15-43 X 4.2-14.2 cm, narrowly to broadly lanceolate, lance-elliptic or lance-oblong, broadly cuneate to rounded or truncate at base, eglandular. Peduncles 5.5-47 cm, spreading, terete. Spathe 2.4-6.3 X 0.4-1.4 cm, lance-ovate to lanceolate, green sometimes tinged purplish Spadix 1.8-10 cm, stipitate by 1-25 mm, purplish. Ripe frs. oblong-ellipsoidal, red.

Wet forests, 1050-1900+ m; Atl. slope and near Continental Divide, Cords. Guanacaste, Tilarán (Monteverde region) and Central (Volcán Barva), Pac. slope Cord. Talamanca, Fila Cruces. Fl. Jan., Nov. CR to NW Ecua. (Davidse et al. 28294; CR, MO)

This sp. is distinguished by its slender, ± elongate stems, fibrous cataphylls, ± narrow, non-cordate, eglandular leaf-blades, very slender, purplish spadices and esp. by its ellipsoidal, bright red frs. It is most similar to A. cuspidatum (see key, couplet 76), and may be difficult to distinguish from depauperate specimens of that sp.

Though widespread in CR, this sp. seems nowhere to be common. For some reason, very few CR collections are in fl. (most are fruiting).

Anthurium tilaranense Standl., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 17: 245. 1927. A. latihastatum Engl. ex K. Krause.

Epiphytes, occasionally terrestrial; subacaulescent or with stems to ca. 10+ cm long and 2.5 cm wide, with thickish, elongate roots; cataphylls persisting intact. Petioles 18-75 cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, 14.4-41 X 14-35 cm, deeply hastately trilobed with lobes usually directed forward, broadly cuneate to subcordate at base, eglandular. Peduncles 5-26 cm, ± erect, terete. Spathe 4.8-12 X 1.5-3 cm, lance-ovate to -elliptic or lanceolate, pale green. Spadix 4.2-18.1 cm, subsessile or stipitate to 15 mm, cream- or ivory-white becoming green. Ripe frs. red.

Wet forests, 275-1560 m; both slopes Cords. Guanacaste and Tilarán, Atl. slope Cords. Central and Talamanca. Fl. Jan.-May, Jun.-Aug., Oct. Extr. SE Nic. to W Pan. (Grayum et al. 4879; CR, MO)

The combination of intact cataphylls, deeply trilobate leaf-blades (with the basal lobes often directed forward), and whitish spadices is unique among CR Anthurium spp. Only A. subsignatum may occasional have similarly shaped leaf-blades, but differs in its fibrous cataphylls, yellow spadices, and generally more lowland habitat.

Anthurium tonduzii Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 376. 1898.

Epiphytic or occasionally terrestrial, ± creeping; stems to at least 77 cm long and 6 mm thick with slender, elongate nodal roots; cataphylls deciduous ± intact. Petioles 1.5-12.5 cm, canaliculate above with margins acute, rounded below. Leaf-blades simple, 5.5-12.7 X 3-8.8 cm, ovate to subelliptic, broadly cuneate to rounded or cordulate at base, black-glandular only below. Peduncles 11-20.5 cm, erect-spreading. Spathe 3.5-4.5 X 0.9-1.2 cm, lance-oblong, green sometimes with pinkish lines or margins. Spadix 3.2-3.7 cm, stipitate by 4-10 mm, reddish or purplish. Ripe frs. white.

Wet forests, 1100-1500 m; Atl. slope (Río Lari, Río Urén) and Pac. slope (San Marcos region) Cord. Talamanca, Fila Costeña. Fl. Mar., Jul. CR to NW Col. (Herrera 5376; CR, INB, MO)

The combination of intact cataphylls and black-glandular leaf-blades occurs in just one other CR Anthurium sp., A. paludosum, from which this sp. differs considerably in its more slender, elongate stems, ovate to subelliptic leaf-blades, and much higher elevation habitat.

Anthurium trisectum Sodiro, Anales Univ. Centr. Ecuador 20: 100. 1905.

Terrestrial, epilithic, epiphytic, or on logs; stems to ca. 1 m long and 1.5 cm wide, with slender, elongate roots; cataphylls weathering to fibers. Petioles 7-44 cm, canaliculate above with margins acute, rounded below. Leaf-blades trifoliolate, 13.5-25 X 12-28.2 cm, broadly ovate in outline; leaflets sessile or petiolulate to 1.5 cm, 11-25 X 4-10 cm, elliptic to ± ovate, eglandular. Peduncles 8.5-16.5 cm, erect, subterete (may be finely ribbed). Spathe 2.1-3.7 X 0.8-1.1 cm, lance-ovate, reflexed, green. Spadix 2-6 cm, stipitate by 2-5 mm, white becoming yellowish or greenish. Ripe frs. wine-red.

Wet forests, 50-1460 m; Atl. slope Cord. Central (Volcán Barva). Fl. Mar., Jul., Sep., Dec. CR to W Ecua. (McDowell 1036, MO)

This is the only CR Anthurium sp. that regularly has trifoliolate leaf-blades (but see under A. pentaphyllum). In CR, it is best known from E.B. La Selva, where it may be locally abundant.

Anthurium upalaense Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 97. 1979. TABAC"N.

Epiphytes (rarely on ground), acaulescent or with stems to ca. 10 cm long and 1.5-3.5 cm wide, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls persisting ± intact, or eventually weathering to fibers. Petioles 7.5-43 cm, ± quadrangular or pentagonal in section, sulcate above with margins acute, usually 3-ribbed below. Leaf-blades simple, 30-104 X 4.2-32.5 cm, narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, eglandular. Peduncles 10.5-52 cm, erect to spreading or ± pendent. Spathe 2.8-26 X 0.7-3.7 cm, lanceolate to lance-oblong, reflexed, green sometimes tinged purplish (especially above). Spadix 3.2-32 cm, sessile or stipitate to 17 mm, purple to brownish. Ripe frs. red-orange to red.

Wet forests, 0-850(-1300) m; entire Atl. slope. Fl. Jan.-Dec. Nic. and CR (though the Panamanian A. purpureospathum Croat is perhaps synonymous). (Davidse & Herrera 31271; CR, MO)

This sp., common in the Atl. lowlands, is distinguished by its epiphytic, acaulescent habit, usually ± intact cataphylls, abaxially ribbed petioles, narrow leaf-blades usually widest at or above the middle, slender, purplish spadices, and reddish frs. It is not generally confused with any other sp. in its range, but resembles the Pac. slope A. burgeri (with terete petioles).

Individuals of this sp. may flower when quite small and very different in appearance from full-sized specimens.

This is one of the tabacones, and is frequently grown as an ornamental on the Atl. slope. The two other most common tabacones differ in having relatively shorter (A. cubense) or pendent (A. salvinii) peduncles.

Anthurium utleyorum Croat & R. A. Baker, Brenesia 16, Supl. 1: 100. 1979 (as 'utleyi').

Epiphytes, acaulescent or with stems < 10 cm long, with elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 2.4-24.5 cm, subterete. Leaf-blades simple, 5.8-32.5 X 1.2-5.8 cm, ± narrowly oblong or oblong-elliptic to (rarely) oblanceolate, black-glandular on both sides or (Cord. Guanacaste) only below. Peduncles 5.5-33 cm, ± erect-spreading, reddish, terete. Spathe 2.1-7.6 X 0.5-1.2 cm, narrowly lanceolate, cream or green to pinkish. Spadix 1.5-13.7 cm, subsessile or stipitate by 1-15 mm, purplish. Ripe frs. orange.

Wet forests, 800-1700 m; both slopes Cords. Guanacaste (Volcán Santa María) and Tilarán, Cerro Azahar. Fl. Jan.-Dec. ENDEMIC. (Haber & Zuchowski 8745; CR, MO)

Anthurium utleyorum is characterized by its small size, epiphytic, subacaulescent habit, fibrous cataphylls, subterete petioles, narrow, non-cordate leaf-blades usually black-glandular on both surfaces, and purplish spadices. It is most similar to the allopatric A. chiriquense and, especially, A. longistipitatum (see key, couplet 24), both comprising generally larger plants. Collections of this sp. from Cord. Tilarán have frequently been misdetermined as A. austin-smithii or A. friedrichsthalii, but differ from both in having black-glandular punctations on both leaf-bladesurfaces.

Collections from Cord. Guanacaste (Volcán Santa María) here referred to A. utleyorum comprise relatively small plants with the leaf-blades eglandular above (Herrera 1409; CR, MO). These are treated as A. utleyorum, rather than A. friedrichsthalii, on the basis of their proportionately longer petioles (see key, couplet 32), but may merit separate taxonomic recognition.

Anthurium validifolium K. Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 607. 1932.

Epiphytes; stems to 16 cm long and 4 cm wide, with thick, elongate roots; cataphylls weathering to fibers. Petioles 6-44.5 cm, terete (or flat to sulcate above with margins obtuse). Leaf-blades simple, 17-69 X 3.5-19 cm, narrowly oblong-elliptic to lance-oblong, cuneate to rounded or truncate at base, eglandular. Peduncles 20.5-49 cm, spreading, terete. Spathe 4.1-15+ X 0.8-3.6 cm, lanceolate, reflexed, green sometimes tinged purplish. Spadix 2.6-18 cm, stipitate by 2-13 mm, greenish to pale lavender or purple. Ripe frs. orange.

Wet forests, 1140-1700 m; Pac. slope Cord. Talamanca in Coto Brus region, S Fila Costeña. Fl. Jan.-Mar., Oct. CR and W Pan. (Grayum 9278; CR, MO)

This sp., rare in CR, shares the basic characteristics of A. protensum (see under that entry), from which it differs as detailed in the key (couplet 109). It might also be confused with the potentially sympatric A. seibertii, but that sp. has abaxially ribbed petioles.

Anthurium watermaliense hort. ex L. H. Bailey & Nash, in L. H. Bailey, Stand. cycl. hort. 303. 1914.

Terrestrial, or occasionally epiphytic; acaulescent or with stems to 20 cm long and 1.5-3 cm wide, with thick, dense roots; cataphylls weathering to fibers. Petioles 33-131 cm, terete (may be canaliculate above with margins rounded). Leaf-blades simple, 16.5-67 X 12-51 cm, ovate- or deltate-cordate to sagittate or hastately trilobed, eglandular. Peduncles 12.5-53 cm, spreading, purplish (especially distally), terete. Spathe 5.1-15.6 X 1.4-4.7(-7.6) cm, narrowly ovate or (rarely) broadly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, dark purple or maroon (occasionally green). Spadix 3.9-15.5 cm, stipitate by 1-58 mm (the stipe scarcely to ± fully decurrent on spathe), white or cream-yellowish to purple becoming greenish. Ripe frs. yellow-orange to orange.

Wet forests, 0-2000 m; Atl. slope and near Continental Divide, Cords. Tilarán (Monteverde), Central, and Talamanca. Fl. Jan.-Apr., Jul.-Sep., Nov. CR and W Pan. (Liesner & Judziewicz 14455; CR, MO)

This striking sp. is usually easily recognized by its terrestrial habit, coriaceous, prominently cordate to hastate leaf-blades, usually glossy, purplish spathe, and whitish or purplish, stipitate spadix. It is most similar to A. cotobrusii, but might also be confused locally with A. schottianum (see under those entries). Compare also A. ochranthum (with striate petioles and thinner leaf-blades) and A. ranchoanum (with less prominent basal lobes).

Anthurium watermaliense is extremely variable, even within a single population, in features such as leaf-blade shape, spathe color, and stipe length.

S from vic. Puerto Limón, this sp. grows down to the very edge of the sea, but is not known from below ca. 550 m in Cord. Central.

Anthurium wendlingeri G. M. Barroso, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 26: 151. 1965.

Pendent epiphytes; stems to at least 17 cm long and 2 cm wide, with thickish, elongate roots; cataphylls persistent as fibers. Petioles 14-41 cm, subterete (slightly flat or canaliculate above). Leaf-blades simple, 47-140+ X 3.7-10.5 cm, narrowly lance-oblong or -elliptic, black-glandular on both sides. Peduncles 18-46 cm, spreading to pendent, terete. Spathe 8-14.5 X 0.8-2.1 cm, narrowly lance-oblong, pinkish to purplish. Spadix 15-50 cm, subsessile or stipitate to 10 mm, becoming spirally coiled, white to tan or grayish. Ripe frs. orange.

Wet forests, 375-900(-1750) m; Atl. slope Cords. Tilarán (R.B. Brenes), Central, and Talamanca. Fl. Mar.-May, Jul.-Oct. Extr. SE Nic. to extreme NW Col. (Grayum et al. 8807; CR, MO)

The combination of very long, narrow, pendent leaf-blades and a spirally coiled spadix is unique among CR Anthurium spp. The only sp. with which it could conceivably be confused is the much smaller A. scherzerianum (see key, couplet 9).

Anthurium sp. A.

Epilithic or epiphytic; stems unknown; cataphylls reported as deciduous ("caedizas"). Petioles reported as "60 cm", otherwise unknown. Leaf-blades simple, ca. 60-71 X 45-53 cm, broadly ovate-cordate, eglandular, drying blackish. Peduncles ca. 13-16.5 cm, ± erect, [terete?]. Spathe to at least 2.3 cm wide, apparently reflexed and caducous, otherwise unknown. Spadix ca. 17.3-35.5 cm, stipitate by 2-10 mm, reddish. Ripe frs. unknown.

Wet forests, 600-700 m; Pac. slope Fila Costeña (vic. Tinamaste). Fl. May. ENDEMIC? (Valverde 960, CR)

This is a distinctive sp., recognized by its large, broadly ovate-cordate, blackish drying leaf-blades and long, ± attenuate, reddish spadices borne on relatively short peduncles. In these respects, it is superficially somewhat similar to Anthurium limonense and A. schottianum, among CR congeners, but both of those spp. are restricted to the Atl. slope and differ in having shorter spadices (see key, couplet 52), and also in numerous other details.

It cannot be decided, from the material presently available, whether Anthurium sp. A is new to science or corresponds to some sp. already described from South Amer. Clearly, however, it represents a taxon not previously recorded from the Mesoamerican region.

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