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Missouri Exotic Pest Plants

A list of non-native plants that threaten Missouri's native biodiversity

Updated 08/23/2002

This worksheet is permanently under construction.

This worksheet was created to rate candidate exotic invasive species. Rating suggestions that are emailed to me by committee members will be posted here as soon as possible. Use this sheet to note comments, other members ratings, and to keep track of which species are being worked on. A majority consensus on this page means that the rating is official and will be posted on the main page.

To add candidate species to this list, send an email to John Gaskin.

Species suggested for rating as exotic invasives in Missouri

"Native or Exotic, present / not present in Missouri" refers to the list of species in: Yatskievych, G. and J. Turner. 1990. Catalogue of the Flora of Missouri. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden. Vol. 37.

Information and rating classes of exotics on Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands are taken directly from: Ladd, D. and B. Churchwell 1999. Ecological and Floristic Assessment of Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands. The Nature Conservancy Missouri Field Office (http://www.moprairie.org/eco/)

Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands Ratings:
[Class 1 - accidentals; Class 2 - obligate ruderals; Class 3 - potentially persistent ruderals; Class 4 - weak to moderate grassland competitors; Class 5 - aggressive grassland invaders]

Candidate Species are listed in bold.

List Format:
Genus species Author - common name [Family; MOEPPC rating (initials of person suggesting rating category); notes]--synonym


Abutilon theophrasti Medikus - velvet leaf [Malvaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic; present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, casual weed of new ground and crop fields (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Acer ginnala Maxim. - amur ample [Aceraceae; MOEPPC Category A-3; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle - tree of heaven [Simaroubaceae; MOEPPC Category B (TS); Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Agrostis gigantea Roth - redtop [Poacea; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic; present in Missouri; Class 4 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, nearly cosmopolitan on disturbed Missouri prairies, especially on mesic to dry-mesic sites (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]
--A. alba L.

Albizia julibrissin Durazz. - mimosa [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category C (TS); Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande - garlic mustard [Brassicaceae; MOEPPC Category A-2 (TS); Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]
--A. officinalus Andrz.

Allium vineale L.- field garlic [Liliaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, confined to severely disturbed areas; capable of persisting in but not invading native vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. - sticky alder [Betulaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Watch List in Tennessee]

Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. - alligatorweed [Amaranthaceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Amaranthus retroflexus L. - redroot amaranth [Amaranthaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Amaranthus tricolor L. - Chinese spinach [Amaranthaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, cropland weed occasionally in open, usually high-nutrient soil (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Anagallis arvensis L. - scarlet pimpernel [Primulaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic; present in Missouri]

Anthoxanthum odoratum L. - sweet vernal grass [Poacea; Exotic; MOEPPC Category E; present in Missouri; Class 1 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, rare meadow weed in Missouri; known from a single small population at Gayfeather Prairie (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. - mouse-ear cress [Brassicaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic; present in Missouri]

Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. - common burdock [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, invasive weed in rich open soil and severely disturbed woods; will not persist in prairie restorations (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Arenaria serpyllifolia L. - thyme-leaved sandwort [Caryophyllaceae; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, inoffensive weed in disturbed uplands, in open low vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Artemisia vulgaris L. - mugwort [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino - hairy jointgrass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Arundo donax L. - giant reed, elephant grass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Asparagus officinalis L. - asparagus [Liliaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 1 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, casual accidental; not persistent or spreading except along weedy fence rows and roadsides (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. - garden yellowracket [Brassicaceae; MOEPPC Category B (TS); Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, common but seldom abundant, in disturbed sites, particularly among Old World grasses (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Belamcanda chinensis L. (DC.) - blackberrry lily [Iridaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, surprisingly invasive in low shaded ground at Gayfeather Prairie; not typically a problem weed in Missouri (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Berberis thunbergii DC. - Japanese barberry [Berberidaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Bidens bipinnata L. - Spanish needles [Asteraceae; Native in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, uncommon opportunistic weed of previously degraded, somewhat mesic or moist sites with sparse vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S.T. Blake - Eurasian bluestem [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category A-3; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Bromus catharticus Vahl - rescugrass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Bromus commutatus Schrad. - meadow brome [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Bromus hordeaceus L. - soft brome [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]
--Bromus mollis L.

Bromus inermis Leyss. - Hungarian bromegrass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 4 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, deep-rooted perennial grass; sometimes problematical once established but not capable of invading native prairie this far south (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Bromus japonicus Thunb. ex Murray - Japanese bromegrass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, common in disturbed weedy grasslands and along thicket edges where partial shading reduces prairie vigor (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Bromus racemosus L. - bald brome [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, common in disturbed weedy grasslands and along thicket edges where partial shading reduces prairie vigor (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Bromus secalinus L. - rye brome [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Bromus sterilis L. - bromegrass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category A-2; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Bromus tectorum L. - thatch bromegrass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category A-2 (TS); Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, locally abundant in newly disturbed soil; yielding in time to perennial vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. - paper mulberry [Moraceae; MOEPPC Category C (TS); Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 1 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, uncommon tree in thickets and fencerows (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Buglossoides arvense (L.) I.M. Johnston - corn gromwell [Boraginaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]
--Lithospermum arvense L.

Bupleurum rotundifolium L. - hound's-ear [Apiaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Cannabis sativa L. - hemp, marijuana [Cannabaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic; present in Missouri]

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medikus - shepard's purse [Brassicaceae; MOEPPC Category C (TS); Exotic; present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, restricted to newly exposed soils or heavily compacted sites, such as along roadsides and parking areas (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Cardiospermum halicacabum L. - balloonvine [Sapindaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Native to U.S.; present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Carduus nutans L. - musk thistle [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category A-2; Exotic, Missouri Noxious Weed; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Catalpa bignonioides Walter - catalpa [Bignoniaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Native in Missouri]

Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. - Asian bittersweet [Celastraceae; MOEPPC Category A-2; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Centaurea cyanus L. - bachelor's button [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Centaurea stoebe L.- spotted knapweed [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category A-2; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Cerastium brachypetalum Pers. - gray chickweed [Caryophyllaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic; present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, common in compacted soils with sparse low vegetation, such as along roadsides and parking areas (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Cerastium fontanum Baumg. - -common mouse-eared chickweed [Caryophyllaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic; present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, uncommon in established weedy areas, usually with Old World grasses (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]
--Cerastium holosteoides Fr.
--Cerastium triviale Link

Chamaesyce humistrata (Engelm.) Small - spreading spurge [Celastraceae; Native in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]
--Euphorbia humistrata Engelm. ex A. Gray

Chenopodium album L. - pigweed, lamb's quarters [Chenopodiaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic; present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, uncommon in brush piles and in soil mounds (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Chenopodium ambrosioides L. - Mexican tea [Chenopodiaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Cichorium intybus L. - chicory [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. - Canada thistle [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, Missouri Noxious Weed; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. - bull thistle [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Clematis terniflora DC. - leatherleaf clematis [Ranunculaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]
--Clematis dioscoreifolia H. L´ev. & Vaniot

Commelina communis L. - Asiatic dayflower [Commelinaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, weak weed of newly disturbed, typically shaded, ground (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Conium maculatum L. - poison hemlock [Apiaceae; MOEPPC Category C (TS); Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, known only from a small area of LaPetite Gemme Prairie; not invasive in healthy vegetation, but capable of forming dense stands that preclude successional recovery - extremely toxic (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Convolvulus arvensis L. - field bindweed [Convolvulaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, Missouri Noxious Weed]

Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. - garden cosmos [Asteraceae: MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Cosmos sulphureus Cav. - sulphur cosmos [Asteraceae: MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Dactylis glomerata L. - orchard grass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, occasional in weedy grasslands; never abundant (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Daucus carota L. - wild carrot, Queen Anne's-lace [Apiaceae; MOEPPC Category B (TS); Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, common in disturbed open areas; but not competitive with diverse native perennial vegetation unless there is ongoing site disturbance (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Dianthus armeria L. - Deptford pink [Caryophyllaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, occasional innocuous (and attractive) weed in degraded prairies, pastures, and old fields (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler - southern crabgrass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, restricted to newly exposed soils or heavily compacted sites, such as along roadsides and parking areas (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]
--D. sanguinalis (L.) Scop. var. ciliaris (Retz.) Parl.

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. - hairy crabgrass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, restricted to newly exposed soils or heavily compacted sites, such as along roadsides and parking areas (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Dioscorea glabra Roxb. - Chinese yam [Dioscoreaceae; MOEPPC Category B (TS); Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]
--Dioscorea oppositifolia L.

Dipsacus fullonum L. - Fuller's teasel [Dipsacaceae; MOEPPC Category C (TS); Exotic, Missouri Noxious Weed; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]
--Dipsacus sylvestris Hudson

Dispsacus laciniatus L. - cut-leaved teasel [Dipsacaceae; MOEPPC Category C (TS); Exotic, Missouri Noxious Weed]

Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P. Beauv. - barnyard grass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, common in disturbed, open, at least seasonally moist areas, but not problematical in sites with conservation management (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Echium vulgare L. - common vipersbugloss [Boraginaceae; MOEPPC Category C (TS); Exotic, present in Missouri; Watch List in Tennessee]

Egeria densa Planch. - Brazilian elodea [Hydrocharitaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Elaeagnus angustifolia L. - Russian olive [Elaeagnaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. - thorny olive [Elaeagnaceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. - autumn olive [Elaeagnaceae; MOEPPC Category A-2; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner - Indian goosegrass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, restricted to newly exposed soils or heavily compacted sites, such as along roadsides and parking areas (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign. ex Janchen - stink grass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, uncommon casual weed of new ground (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Hér. ex Aiton - red stem storksbill [Geraniaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Erophila verna (L.) A.P. DC. - spring draba [Brassicaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, uncommon vernal weed of open ground or sparse low vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]
--Draba verna L.

Eschscholzia californica Cham. - California poppy [Papaveraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Euonymus alata (Thunb.) Sieb. - burning bush [Celastraceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz. - wintercreeper [Celastraceae; MOEPPC Category A-2; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Euphorbia esula L. - leafy spurge, wolf's milk [Euphorbiaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Evax prolifera Nutt. ex DC. - bighead pygmy cudweed [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Native to U.S., not present in Missouri??]

Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai - hairy crabweed [Moraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Festuca arundinacea Shreber. - tall fescue [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category A-1; Exotic, present in Missouri]
--F. eliator L. var. arundinacea (Schreb.) Wimm.
--Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.

Festuca pratensis Huds. - meadow fescue [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category A-1; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 5 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]
--F. eliator L.
--F. eliator var. pratensis (Huds.) A. Gray
--Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh.

Galium pedemontanum (Bellardi) All. - bedstraw [Rubiaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, common but never dominant small weed of exposed dry soils in low vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Glechoma hederacea L. - ground ivy [Lamiaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Hedera helix L. - English ivy [Araliaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Heliotropium indicum L. - Indian heliotrope [Boraginaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. - orange day lilly [Liliaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Hesperis matronalis L. - dame's rocket [Brassicaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Hibiscus syriacus(??) L. - rose of Sharon [Malvaceae; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Hordeum pusillum Nutt. - little barley [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, locally common but not persistent in newly or perennially disturbed soils (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. - Japanese hops [Cannabaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle - hydrilla [Hydrocharitaceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Federally Listed Noxious Weed; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Hypericum perforatum L. - goatweed, St. John's-wort [Clusiaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, uncommon in weedy meadow vegetation and along roadsides (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Watch List in Tennessee]

Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. - blue morning glory [Convolvulaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Iris pseudacorus L. - yellow iris [Iridaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort. - sharpleaf cancerwort [Scrophulariaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. - golden rain, pride of India [Sapindaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindler - Japanese lespedeza [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 4 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, common low weed capable of thriving in some prairie vegetation; formerly overseeded in some prairies (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]
--Lespedeza striata (Thunb.) Hook. & Arn.

Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino - Korean clover [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 4 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, common low weed capable of thriving in some prairie vegetation; formerly overseeded in some prairies (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]
--Lespedeza stipulacea Maxim.

Lactuca serriola L. - prickly lettuce [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, frequent short-lived weed of newly disturbed sites (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]
--L. scariola L.

Lamium amplexicaule L. - henbit [Lamiaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, cropland weed known only from farm fields at Schwartz Prairie (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Lamium purpureum L. - purple dead nettle [Lamiaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, weakly persistent weed of disturbed woodlands, thickets, and streambanks (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Leonurus cardiaca L. - motherwort [Lamiaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Leptochloa panicoides (J. Presl) Hitchc. - Amazon sprangletop [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Native in U.S., present in Missouri]

Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. - bicolor lespedeza [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) Don - sericea lespidiza [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category A-1; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 5 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Lespedeza thunbergii (DC.) Nakai - tall bush clover [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class1 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, accidental established in an area of LaPetite Gemme; capable of persisting and spreading in eastern states (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.- ox-eye daisy [Asteraceae: MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, field and meadow weed with a tendency to proliferate in unburned prairies and hay meadows (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]
--Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.

Ligustrum obtusifolium Siebold & Zucc. - border privet [Oleaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk. - California privet [Oleaceae; MOEPPC Category D; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 1 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, bird-disseminated shrub capable of becoming problematical in unburned areas (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Ligustrum sinense Lour. - Chinese privet [Oleaceae; MOEPPC Category A-3; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Ligustrum vulgare L. - European privet [Oleaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Linaria vulgaris Hill - butter and eggs [Scrophulariaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, not present in Missouri]

Linum usitatissimum L. - common flax [Linaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, not present in Missouri]

Lolium perenne L. - perennial ryegrass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, not present in Missouri]

Lonicera fragrantissima Lindl. & Paxton - January jasmine [Caprifoliaceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Lonicera japonicaThunb. - Japanese honeysuckle [Caprifoliaceae; MOEPPC Category A-1; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 5 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim - bush honeysuckle [Caprifoliaceae; MOEPPC Category A-1; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Lonicera morrowii A. Gray - Morrow's bush honeysuckle [Caprifoliaceae; MOEPPC Category A-3; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Lonicera sempervirens L. - trumpet honeysuckle [Caprifoliaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Native to Missouri]

Lotus corniculatus L. - bird foot deervetch [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Ludwigia hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Zardini, H. Gu & P.H. Raven - six-petal water-primrose [Onagraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]
--Ludwigia uruguayensis (Cambess.) H. Hara
--Jussiaea hexapetala Hook. & Arn.
--Jussiaea uruguayensis Cambess

Lysimachia nummularia L. - moneywort [Primulaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Lythrum salicaria L. - purple loosestrife [Lythraceae; MOEPPC Category A-2; Exotic, Missouri Noxious Weed Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R. Br. - plume-poppy, tree celandine [Papaveraceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. Schneider - Osage orange tree [Moraceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 5 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Medicago lupulina L. - black medic [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Melia azedarach L. - Chinaberry [Meliaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Melilotus albus Medic. - white sweet clover [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category A-2; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, problematical in sites with previous intensive disturbance, especially in alkaline or neutral soils; persistent seed bank can impede prairie restoration efforts (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas - sweet clover [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category A-2; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, occasional weed in severely disturbed areas (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Mentha spicata L. - spearmint [Lamiaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Mentha x piperita L. - peppermint [Lamiaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus - Nepalgrass, Japanese grass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. - zebra grass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Mollugo verticillata L. - green carpetweed [Molluginaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, innocuous weed of open, typically sandy soils; sometimes considered a weak native weed (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Morus alba L. - white mulberry, silkworm mulberry [Moraceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, tough, bird-disseminated tree of fence rows and weedy thickets (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Mosla dianthera (Buchenau) Maxon - miniature beefsteak [Lamiaceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.- Mazz. - Asian spiderwort [Commelinaceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Muscari atlanticum Boiss. & Reut. - grape hyacinth [Liliaceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. - grape hyacinth [Liliaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. - tassel grape hyacinth [Hyacinthaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Myosotis scorpioides L. - true forget-me-not [Boraginaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. - parrotfeather, watermilf oil [Haloragidaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]
--M. brasiliense Cambess.

Myriophyllum spicatum L. - Eurasian watermilfoil [Haloragidaceae; MOEPPC Category A-3; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Najas minor All. - brittle water nymph [Najadaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Watch List in Tennessee]

Onopordum acanthium L. - Scotch thistle [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, Missouri Noxious Weed]

Ornithogalum umbellatum L. - star of Bethlehem [Liliaceae; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers. - ducklettuce [Hydrocharitaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri??]

Oxalis corniculata L. - creeping lady's sorrel [Oxalidaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Native in U.S., present in Missouri]

Papaver dubium L. - poppy [Papaveraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Pastinaca sativa L. - wild parsnip [Apiaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, infrequent in established weedy vegetation along roadsides previously disturbed areas Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. - princess tree [Schrophulariaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Perilla frutescens L. - Britton, beefsteak plant [Lamiaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, weed of shaded open moist ground along streams and in depressions (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Phalaris arundinacea L. - reed canary grass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category A-2; Native in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Phalaris canariensis L. - canary grass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Phalaris caroliniana Walter - canary grass, May grass [Poaceae; Native in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, uncommon in moist degraded prairies (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Phleum pratense L. - timothy [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 4 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, common, sometimes locally abundant grass of degraded prairies; easily managed with fire (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. - common reed [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Native, present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Plantago lanceolata L. - narrowleaf plantain [Plantaginaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 4 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, common in recently or regularly disturbed areas, but otherwise not persistent in competition with prairie vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Poa annua L. - annual bluegrass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, occasional small weed of moist open ground (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Poa compressa L. - Canada bluegrass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 4 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, ubiquitous, often unnoticed weed of disturbed prairies and hay meadows; potentially problematical and persistent (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Poa pratensis L. - Kentucky bluegrass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 4 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, ubiquitous, often unnoticed weed of disturbed prairies and hay meadows; potentially problematical and persistent, aggressive in light dry soils (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Polygonum aviculare L. - prostrate knotweed [Polygonaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, restricted to newly exposed soils or heavily compacted sites, such as along roadsides and parking areas (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Polygonum cespitosum Blume - bunchy knotweed [Polygonaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]
--Persicaria cespitosa (Blume) Nakai

Polygonum cuspidatum Seib. & Zucc. - Japanese knotweed, Japanese bamboo [Polygonaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]
--Reynoutria japonica Houtt.

Polygonum orientale L. - Prince's feather [Polygonaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]
--Persicaria orientalis (L.) Spach.

Polygonum persicaria L. - spotted ladysthumb [Polygonaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, weed in open ground and newly disturbed soil (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]
--Persicaria vulgaris Webb and Moq.

Polygonum sachalinense F. Schmidt ex Maxim. [Polygonaceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Populus alba L. - white poplar [Salicaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Potamogeton crispus L. - curly pondweed [Potamogetonaceae; MOEPPC Category A-3; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]***

Potentilla recta L. - rough-fruited cinquefoil, sulphur cinquefoil [Rosaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, occasional in disturbed open areas, usually among other weeds (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Prunus mahaleb L. - perfumed cherry [Rosaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 1 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, accidental and sporadic shrubby tree (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi - kudzu [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, Missouri Noxious Weed; Federally listed Noxious Weed; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Pyrus calleryana Decne. - Callery pear [Rosaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Pyrus communis L. - common pear [Rosaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 1 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, accidental escape from discarded fruit; seldom proliferating (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Quercus acutissima Carruth. - sawtooth oak [Fagaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Rhamnus cathartica L. - common buckthorn [Rhamnaceae; MOEPPC Category A-3; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Rhamnus davurica Pallas - Dahurian buckthorn [Rhamnaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; MOEPPC B]

Rhamnus frangula L. - alder buckthorn [Rhamnaceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Watch List in Tennessee]

Robinia hispida L. - bristly locust [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Native to Missouri]

Robinia pseudo-acacia L. - black locust [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Native in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, potentially aggressive tree capable of forming dense thickets once established, but not invasive in native grasslands (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek - watercress [Brassicaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]
--Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murray - multiflora rose [Rosaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, Missouri Noxious Weed; Class 4 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, aggressive invasive shrub in disturbed, unburned grasslands, weedy thickets, and disturbed woods (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Rubus phoenicolasius Maxim. - wineberry [Rosaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Rumex acetosella L. - sheep sorrel, red sorrel [Polygonaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, occasional in acidic, well-drained sites with sparse or low vegetation, often persistent once established (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Rumex crispus L. - curly dock [Polygonaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, seldom abundant, but widespread, in disturbed ground, usually among fescue and other weeds (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Rumex obtusifolius L. - bitter dock [Polygonaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, uncommon in moist low areas along streams, typically in shade (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Saccharum ravennae (L.) Murray - ravenna grass [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri]
--Erianthus ravennae (L.) P. Beauv.

Salsola collina Pall. - Russian thistle, tumbleweed [Chenopodiaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Securigera varia (L.) Lassen - purple crown vetch [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category A-2; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]
--Coronilla varia L.

Sedum sarmentosum Bunge - yellow stonecrop [Crassulaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Senecio vulgaris L. - ragwort [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby - sicklepod senna [Fabaceae; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]
--Cassia tora L.

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link - coffee senna [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Setaria faberi R.A.W. Herrm. - nodding foxtail-grass [Poaceae; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, flushing in newly disturbed ground such as old crop fields, but yielding in 3-5 years to other vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv. - smooth millet [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, occasional in disturbed weedy turf, newly exposed soil, and around parking areas (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]
--Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.

Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. - foxtail-millet [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. - green millet [Poaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, uncommon in newly exposed soil (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Sida spinosa L. - prickly sida [Malvaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, surprisingly uncommon in MPF sites, considering its ubiquity in disturbed open areas in Missouri (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Silene latifolia subsp. alba (Mill.) Greuter & Burdet - bladder campion [Carophyllaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Class 1 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, uncommon weed of previously disturbed sites; not capable of persisting or invading prairies (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]
--Silene pratensis (Raf.) Gren. & Godr.
--Lychnis alba Mill.

Sinapis arvensis L. - charlock mustard [Brassicaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, casual weed of newly disturbed soil (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]
--Brassica kaber (DC.) L.C. Wheeler

Solanum dulcamara L. - climbing nightshade [Solanaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Solanum rostratum Dunal. - buffalo burr, Kansas thistle [Solanaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, weed of severely disturbed ground known only from a rocky berm at Golden Prairie; problematical westward (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]
--Solanum cornutum Lam.

Solanum viarum Dunal - tropical soda apple [Solanaceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Federally Listed Noxious Weed; Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Solanum sarachoides Sendtner - viscid nightshade [Solanaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands, rare weed of disturbed areas and around brush piles (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Sonchus arvensis L. - field sowthistle [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill - spiny sowthistle [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Sonchus oleraceus L. - common sowthistle [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. - Johnson grass [Gramineae(Poaceae); MOEPPC Category A-2; Exotic, Missouri Noxious Weed; Class 5 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 1 - Severe Threat in Tennessee]

Spiraea japonica L.f. - Japanese spiraea [Rosceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Stachys floridana Shuttlew. - hedge nettle [Lamiaceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Stellaria meadia (L.) Villars - common chickweed [Caryophyllaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; ubiquitous weed of moist or shaded, disturbed sites, particularly in low thickets or along shaded floodplains, where it can form dense carpets and dominate the ground cover (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. - saltcedar [Tamaricaceae; MOEPPC Category C (JG); Exotic, present in Missouri]

Taraxacum officinale Weber - common dandelion [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; widespread but seldom abundant in disturbed open vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link - hedge-parsley [Apiaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC - [Apiaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; frequent in sandy or rocky disturbed sites, where it can be abundant and pre-emptive, but not spreading into intact prairie vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Tragopogon dubius Scop. - yellow goats-beard [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; uncommon in rank weedy turfs and severely degraded prairie vegetation; never abundant (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Tribulus terrestris L. - puncturevine [Zygophyllaceae; MOEPPC Category C; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Trifolium campestre Schreber - field clover [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; common in weedy areas and disturbed ground (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Trifolium pratense L. - red clover [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; occasional in weedy turfs (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Trifolium repens L. - white clover [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; common in mowed areas, compacted soil, waste ground, and along disturbed streambanks(Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Tussilago farfara L. - coltsfoot [Asteraceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Typha angustifolia L. - cattail [Typhaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Ulmus pumila L. - Siberian elm [Ulmaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 1 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; sporadic scraggly trees seldom long persistent at a site (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Urtica dioica L. - stinging nettle [Urticaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Verbascum blattaria L. - moth mulein [Scrophularicaeae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; uncommon in waste ground and recently disturbed soil (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Verbascum thapsus L. - common mullein [Scrophularicaeae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; frequent in weedy turfs and disturbed rocky ground (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Veronica arvensis L. - corn speedwell [Scrophularicaeae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; ubiquitous, inconspicuous plant of disturbed ground throughout; yields to establishing tallgrass vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Vinca major L. - large periwinkle [Apocynaceae; not present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Vinca minor L. - common periwinkle [Apocynaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Viola rafinesquii Greene - field pansy [Violaceae; Native in Missouri; Class 3 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; common in disturbed openings in prairies, especially in sandy or rocky soils (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]

Vitex negundo L. - negundo chastetree [Verbenaceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri]

Wisteria floribunda (Willd.) DC. - wistera [Fabaceae; Exotic, not present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Wistera sinensis (Sims) Sweet - Chinese wisteria [Fabaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 2 - Significant Threat in Tennessee]

Xanthium spinosum L. - spiny cockleburr [Asteraceae; MOEPPC Category E; Exotic, present in Missouri; Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Xanthium strumarium L. - common cockleburr [Asteraceae; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 2 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; occasional in newly disturbed ground or along streams; requires continual disturbance to be persistent at a site (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999); Rank 3 - Lesser Threat in Tennessee]

Yucca smalliana Fern. - Spanish bayonet, Adam's needle [Liliaceae; MOEPPC Category B; Exotic, present in Missouri; Class 1 in Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands; uncommon, but surprisingly tough, escape from cultivation (Ladd and Churchwell, 1999)]


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