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Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica

Main | Family List (MO) | Family List (INBio) | Cutting Edge
Draft Treatments | Guidelines | Checklist | Citing | Editors

The Cutting Edge

Volume V, Number 1, January 1998

News and Notes | Leaps and Bounds | Germane Literature

VETERAN'S DAY. Tuesday, 11 November, 1997 was doubly momentous for Manual Project Coordinator Cecilia Herrera, the heart and soul of the project (as anyone who has visited our Costa Rican headquarters would know). On that day, Cecilia completed the translation, from English to Spanish, of the Manual Orchidaceae treatment (about 1200 spp. and more than 1000 pages), coordinated by Robert L. Dressler. Coincidentally, Cecilia also celebrated, on the same day, the tenth anniversary of her employment with the Manual project. How can the time have passed so quickly? Ceci was introduced to us in 1987 by her cousin Gerardo Herrera, the legendary field botanist who, at that time, worked for us as a collector. Nepotism, more common and accepted in Costa Rica than in the United States, often does not work out; but in this case, we could not have been more fortunate. Cecilia has proven herself time and time again as a steadfast, dedicated, and keenly intelligent worker. She has mastered and overseen every aspect of the project, from the early collecting days, through the intense data-basing phase, and on to the most recent period of editing and translation. Cecilia and her husband Luis Flores are also wonderful people, and family friends of all three co-PI's. Congratulations to Ceci, Luis, and all of their kids, and may there be many years more!

MORE HELP STATESIDE. Long-time (now some-time) MO curatorial assistant Alan Brant has been assigned to the Manual project for a five-week period beginning 5 January. Alan is a botanist in his own right, specializing on Strychnos (Loganiaceae), and with collecting experience in Belize, Honduras, and Colombia. Right now, though, he needs the dough, and we are the beneficiaries. Alan has already overseen the movement of unmounted project collections from the Dickmann Building (no longer leased by MO) into the Lehmann Building, and has now begun to process our perennial backlog of returned loans.

WEB NEWS. Perhaps the Web-wise have noticed that---- now provides a a clickable "Taxa List" of included species when one enters just the genus. Thanks to TROPICOS guru Bob Magill for a very useful addition to this service.

VISITORS TO MO. Manual co-PI Barry Hammel was in St. Louis for most of January, continuing his work on Clusiaceae, Commelinaceae, and Marcgraviaceae. The following Manual contributors were rumored to have been on hand for MO's annual Fall symposium in October: Harvey E. Ballard (BHO; Violaceae), Fred Barrie (MO; Valerianaceae), Robert L. Dressler (FLAS, MO; Orchidaceae), L. H. Durkee (GRI; Acanthaceae), William J. Hahn (US; Aquifoliaceae), and Hugh H. Iltis (WIS; Capparidaceae).

VOLUNTEER AT INB. Mark Egbert arrived this fall, fresh out of Portland (Oregon) State University, for a six-month voluntary stint to help with database and Web graphics applications in the Botany Department. He has been feeding basic information on habit type, species by species, into a database for eventual incorporation into INBio's system, entering data that will help keep track of synonymy, and scanning in the backlog of types for display on the Web. Welcome, and many thanks, to Mark.

LEAPS AND BOUNDS (The icons link to TROPICOS information about the featured species)

APOCYNACEAE. Ace parataxonomist Reinaldo Aguilar gets credit for the first Costa Rican collection of Forsteronia acouci (Aubl.) A. DC., a sp. widespread from Mexico to the Guianas. The discovery was made near Reinaldo's residence, Bahía Chal, at the northeastern corner of the Península de Osa. Thanks to INBio botanist Francisco Morales for this report.

ASTERACEAE. From co-PI Barry Hammel's backyard in Santo Domingo de Heredia (and now possibly extinct there!) comes the following country record: Erigeron cuneifolius DC., a diminutive, scapose, weedy herb best known from the Greater Antilles (but also from westernmost Panama). Could this be a sign that the Law of Diminishing Returns is now setting in? [No, probably not for the flora, says Hammel; however, he does admit to a rather lackluster fourth quarter in terms of getting out in the field!].

BROMELIACEAE. A Gerardo Herrera collection from 600 m elevation on Cerro Rincón, the highest point on the Península de Osa, represents the first Costa Rican record for Pitcairnia quesnelioides L. B. Sm. [known alternatively as Pepinia quesnelioides (L. B. Sm.) G. S. Varad. & Gilmartin]. According to Manual collaborator Jason R. Grant (ALA), to whom we owe this report, this is only the third collection ever made of this sp. (the other two having been from Colombia).
POLEMONIACEAE. Parataxonomist Francisco ('Pancho') Quesada is responsible for the first Costa Rican record of Cobaea minor M. Martens & Galeotti, widespread from Mexico to Panama. Pancho found it at 2500 m elevation near the Valle del Silencio, on the Atlantic slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca near the Panamanian border. The report and identification are courtesy of INBio sage and prolific Manual contributor Francisco Morales.
RHAMNACEAE. Colubrina arborescens (Mill.) Sarg. was recently collected in Parque Nacional Santa Rosa by José A. Sánchez, bringing to 5 the Costa Rican species-total for the genus. This widely scattered sp. had been reported from southern Mexico, Panama, and the West Indies. Thanks to INBio botanist (and author of the Manual Rhamnaceae treatment) José González for this report.

RUBIACEAE. Austrian ecologists Werner Huber and Anton Weissenhofer have struck again. Their latest discovery is Psychotria dressleri (Dwyer) C. Ham., an erstwhile Panamanian endemic that can now be reported from near Golfito. We are indebted to Manual Rubiaceae author Charlotte Taylor (MO) for the determination.

GERMANE LITERATURE

Almeda, F. 1998 ['1997']. Cytological and nomenclatural notes on the Mesoamerican species of Aciotis (Melastomataceae). Novon 7: 333-337.

The new combination Aciotis alata (Beurl.) Almeda, based on Spennera alata Beurl., is validated, and replaces the more recent (but long-established) Aciotis levyana Cogn. for a common and widespread neotropical herb. Includes a key to the three Aciotis spp. known from Mesoamerica (all of which occur in Costa Rica), plus synonymy, descriptions, and distribution summaries for each. Data on chromosome number for the genus (including two new reports) are collated and discussed.
Croat, T. B. 1997. A revision of Philodendron subgenus Philodendron (Araceae) for Mexico and Central America. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84: 311-704.
The neotropical Philodendron, with perhaps 700 spp., is (after Anthurium) the second largest genus of Araceae. Three subgenera are recognized: Philodendron subgen. Meconostigma, with just 15, strictly South American spp., was monographed in 1991 by Mayo (Kew Bull. 46: 601-681), and Grayum recently (Syst. Bot. Monogr. 47: 1-233. 1996) revised the 33 Pacific and Caribbean spp. of the widespread P. subgen. Pteromischum, comprising a total of perhaps 75 spp.; the remaining 600+ spp. belong to the taxonomically very complex autonymic subgenus, revised, in this monumental work, over the Mesoamerican portion of its range. Of the 103 taxa (95 spp. and 8 subspp. or vars.) here treated, an astounding total of 68 (62 spp. and 6 infraspecific taxa) are described for the first time; 20 of these new taxa (18 spp. and 2 vars.) occur in Costa Rica, which boasts a total of 49 taxa, including 7 endemic spp. Space does not permit an enumeration of even the novelties attributable to Costa Rica. An interesting nomenclatural readjustment concerns the usage of the name Philodendron hederaceum (Jacq.) Schott, misapplied in recent years [e.g., in Croat's (1978) Flora of Barro Colorado Island] to a widespread sp. that is properly called P. jacquinii Schott. The name P. hederaceum was used correctly in Standley and Steyermark's (1958) Flora of Guatemala Araceae treatment [Fieldiana, Bot. 24(1): 304-363], i.e., for the familiar sp. that subsequently came to be called P. scandens K. Koch & Sello (a later synonym of P. hederaceum); this sp. has perhaps been even better known, especially among horticulturists, as P. oxycardium Schott (another synonym).

An extensive introductory section features a key to the subgenera of Philodendron, a detailed reconsideration of infrasubgeneric classification in P. subgen. Philodendron (including several novelties at series or subsectional rank), a key to all major infrasubgeneric taxa, and extensive discussions of morphology and anatomy, reproductive biology, and distribution. The taxonomic treatment is standard but very generous, with a comprehensive subgeneric description, a mainly artificial key to all spp., replete species descriptions and exsiccatae citations, and often lengthy discussions. The taxa and some characters are lavishly illustrated with 468 black-and-white photos, while one hand-drawn figure depicts style types. Three appendices document geographical distribution (country-by-country), flowering phenology, and technical data on pistils in tabular formats; a fourth summarizes the infrasubgeneric classification of P. subgen Philodendron in Mesoamerica. A useful index to scientific names concludes the work.

Dressler, R. L. 1998 ['1997']. Erratum for 'New species and combinations in Costa Rican orchids.' Novon 7: 445.
The combination Stellilabium lankesteri (Ames) Dressler (Novon 7: 124. 1997), based on Telipogon lankesteri Ames, is redundant. The correct attribution is: Stellilabium lankesteri (Ames) L. O. Williams (Brittonia 14: 446. 1962).
Fritsch, P. W. 1998 ['1997']. A revision of Styrax (Styracaceae) for western Texas, Mexico, and Mesoamerica. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84: 705-761.
This cosmopolitan genus of ca. 120 spp. is represented in the study area by 19 sp. (about three times as many as previously recognized), mostly narrow endemics. Six new spp. and two new subspp. are described here, and two new sp. names and three new combinations are validated. An amazing (to us!) total of seven spp. is attributed to Costa Rica. These are: the widespread Styrax argenteus C. Presl; S. glabratus Schott (a South American sp. otherwise known only from the Península de Osa); S. glabrescens Benth.; S. nicaraguensis P. W. Fritsch (represented by the endemic subspp. ellipsoidalis P. W. Fritsch, of the Cordilleras de Guanacaste and Tilarán); S. peruvianus Zahlbr. (to which the name S. conterminus Donn. Sm. has been wrongly applied); S. steyermarkii P. W. Fritsch (of Guatemala, with a single Costa Rican collection from ca. 1500 m elevation on the Pacific slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca); and S. warscewiczii Perkins. Except for S. glabratus, all our spp. are essentially montane. The spp. are mostly separated by technical characters, such as the nature of the vestiture of the leaves, calyces, and stamen filaments. Includes keys to spp. and subspp., detailed desciptions, specimen citations, distribution maps, illustrations of most spp., and indices to exsiccatae and scientific names.
Grant, J. R. 1997. The genus Greigia in Costa Rica and Panama. J. Bromeliad Soc. 47: 265-267.
Greigia columbiana L. B. Sm. and G. sylvicola Standl. (Bromeliaceae), the only members of their genus occurring in our area, are both terrestrial, montane spp. with concealed and easily overlooked, axillary inflorescences. This brief account provides distinguishing features, localities and specimen citations, along with excellent color photos taken in the field.
Grayum, M. H. 1997. Nomenclatural and taxonomic notes on Costa Rican Araceae. Phytologia 82: 30-57.
This "quick and dirty" provides names (some "ined." for nearly 20 years) for 12 new spp. and two new subspp. of Araceae, most endemic to Costa Rica or extending only to Panama. The new spp. are Anthurium limonense Grayum, Homalomena hammelii Croat & Grayum, Monstera buseyi Croat & Grayum, M. filamentosa Croat & Grayum, M. glaucescens Croat & Grayum, M. lentii Croat & Grayum, M. molinae Grayum, Stenospermation majus Grayum, Stenospermation pteropus Grayum, Syngonium castroi Grayum, Syngonium rayi Croat & Grayum, and Xanthosoma dealbatum Grayum; the new subspp. are Anthurium clidemioides Standl. subsp. pacificum Croat & Grayum, and A. obtusum (Engl.) Grayum subsp. puntarenense Grayum. Two new combinations are also validated: Anthurim obtusum (Engl.) Grayum [based on A. trinerve Miq. var. obtusum Engl.], which replaces A. trinerve Miq. (a later homonym of A. trinervium Kunth); and Spathiphyllum montanum (R. A. Baker) Grayum (based on S. wendlandii Schott subsp. montanum R. A. Baker). The wantonly and inventively misapplied Monstera dilacerata (K. Koch & Sello) K. Koch is revealed to be a synonym of the Asian Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl., and the obscure Monstera pinnatipartita Schott is neotypified and resurrected for one of the four Costa Rican spp. included under M. dilacerata in Madison's generic revision (Contr. Gray Herb. 207: 1-100. 1977). The redundant combination Monstera dissecta (Schott) Croat & Grayum (1987) is corrected to M. dissecta (Schott) N. E. Br. ex Donn. Sm. (1899). No illustrations.
Hauk, W. D. 1998 ['1997']. A review of the genus Cydista (Bignoniaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84: 815-840.
This study was based largely on unpublished research of the late Al Gentry. Cydista is an exclusively neotropical genus of six spp. of lianas, five of which have been recorded from Costa Rica. These are: the widespread Cydista aequinoctialis (L.) Miers [including both var. hirtella (Benth.) A. H. Gentry and the autonymic var.]; C. diversifolia (Kunth) Miers and C. heterophylla Seibert, both also widespread; C. lilacina A. H. Gentry (a South American sp. otherwise known by a single collection from RB Carara); and C. potosina (K. Schum. & Loes.) Loes. (central Mexico to Nicaragua, with a single collection from PN Corcovado). Includes both flowering and fruiting keys to spp., key to varieties of C. aequinoctialis, full descriptions, specimen citations, distribution maps, phenology graphs, an illustration of C. potosina, and indices to exsiccatae and scientific names.
Hermans, J. 1997. Dracula carlueri, a new orchid from Costa Rica. Orchid Rev. 105: 301-302.
Dracula carlueri Hermans & P. J. Cribb is an epiphytic or "semi-terrestrial" sp. known only from the type, collected in the Cordillera de Tilarán near Monteverde. The new spp. is most similar to the sympatric but more widespread D. erythrochaete (Rchb. f.) Luer. Color photo and detailed line-drawing of flower.
Hodel, D. R., G. Herrera & A. Cascante. 1997. A remarkable new species and additional novelties of Chamaedorea from Costa Rica and Panamá. Palm J. 137: 32-44.
Three of the four new spp. of Chamaedorea (Arecaceae) described here are endemic (as far as is known) to Costa Rica. The "remarkable" one is C. piscifolia Hodel, G. Herrera & Casc., with simple, apically bifid and long-caudate, "fish-shaped" leaf-blades and infls. arising from the prostrate, often buried proximal portion of the stem. This is compared with the Guatemalan C. tuerckheimii (Dammer) Burret and, like that sp., has significant commercial potential. Because of that fact, the geographic range of C. piscifolia (and two of the other spp. described here) is deliberately concealed. The other new Costa Rican endemics are Chamaedorea incrustata Hodel, G. Herrera & Casc., most similar to C. pittieri L. H. Bailey, and C. rosibeliae Hodel, G. Herrera & Casc., compared especially with the sympatric C. anemophila Hodel. The type locality of C. rosibeliae is provided (Alto Urén, on the Atlantic slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca), presumably because it is so difficult of access. The remaining novelty, Chamaedorea rossteniorum Hodel, G. Herrera & Casc., is superficially similar to and has been confused with C. stricta Standl. & Steyerm., of northern Mesoamerica. However, the recent discovery of male flowers reveals that it is quite unrelated, belonging to a different subgenus. Chamaedorea rossteniorum has also been collected in Panama. All of the spp. are illustrated with superb color and black-and-white photos, mostly (except C. rosibeliae) of living specimens in the field.
Jiménez M., Q. (revisión técnica). 1997. Arboles de la Reserva Absoluta Cabo Blanco: especies selectas. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Heredia, Costa Rica. 47 pp.
A popular guide to 20 "particularly important" tree spp., of the 150 that have been identified in the Reserva Natural Absoluta Cabo Blanco, at the southernmost tip of the Península de Nicoya. Includes common and scientific names for each sp., plus a brief description and discussion, and rather basic line-drawings made from living plants in the field. Fully bilingual (Spanish/English).
-- & L. J. Poveda Alvarez. [undated]. Lista actualizada de los árboles maderables de Costa Rica. Aportes al Desarrollo Sostenible 2. Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. 36 pp.
This comprehensive, though unvouchered, listing of important Costa Rican timber spp. is organized in five columns: scientific name (alphabetical, by genus), family, common name(s), geographic distribution within Costa Rica, and abundance (with six categories including "abundant," "rare," "endemic," "in danger of extinction," etc.). The list is particularly up-to-date in terms of scientific nomenclature, e.g., in employing the genera recently segregated from Pithecellobium s. l.
Judd, W. S. & S. R. Manchester. 1997. Circumscription of Malvaceae (Malvales) as determined by a preliminary cladistic analysis of morphological, anatomical, palynological, and chemical characters. Brittonia 49: 384-405.
The analyses included all "core" Malvales, i.e., Tiliaceae, Sterculiaceae, Bombacaceae, and Malvaceae, as traditionally circumscribed. All of the foregoing families except Malvaceae emerged as paraphyletic. The authors conclude that the most sensible classificatory option is to treat the entire Malvales clade as a single family, Malvaceae (here adopted over the name Tiliaceae, which was published simultaneously). The alternative would be to further subdivide the group, possibly into as many as 15-20 smaller families. In the authors' view, these smaller, monophyletic groups would be better treated "at some infrafamilial level."
Kennedy, H. 1997. New species of Calathea (Marantaceae) endemic to Costa Rica. Canad. J. Bot. 75: 1356-1362.
Calathea hylaeanthoides H. A. Kenn. and C. incompta H. A. Kenn. are restricted to the Península de Osa and (in the former case) the Golfito region, while C. retroflexa H. A. Kenn. is known only from 1200-2200 m elevation on the San Isidro de El General slope of Cerro de la Muerte. Calathea hylaeanthoides is most closely related to C. killipii L. B. Sm. & Idrobo (of S Panama and Pacific Colombia), C. incompta to C. inocephala (Kuntze) H. A. Kenn. & Nicolson, and C. retroflexa to C. crotalifera S. Watson and C. brenesii Standl. The three novelties increase the Costa Rican total of Calathea spp. to 38, compared with 18 listed by Standley in 1937; about a third (13) of our spp. are endemic. Full descriptions, exsiccatae, excellent black-and-white photos of living material.
Kirkbride, J. H., Jr. 1997. Manipulus rubiacearum-VI. Brittonia 49: 354-379.
This paper includes numerous new taxa and new combinations, mainly relevant to South America, but with some changes inevitably affecting us. Based on a conventional morphological analysis, the genus Lindenia, familiar to Mesoamerican workers, is here synonymized under the older name Augusta, long reserved for Brazilian plants. The latter emerges as a genus of four spp., with the combination Augusta rivalis (Benth.) J. H. Kirkbr. here validated for the only one occurring in Mesoamerica. The only other change impacting Mesoamerican floristics concerns the authorship of Psychotria racemosa, the accepted name for a widespread and well-known sp. The usual P. racemosa (Aubl.) Raeusch. is shown to be a later homonym of P. racemosa Rich. (here neotypified), the name that should be used.
Miller, J. S. & B. Sirot. 1998 ['1997']. A new species of Bourreria (Boraginaceae) from Costa Rica. Novon 7: 395-397.
Bourreria grandicalyx James S. Mill. & Sirot, most closely related to B. costaricensis (Standl.) A. H. Gentry, is "the only Bourreria with fruits completely enclosed by the accrescent fruiting calyx." The new sp. is known only by two collections from the Península de Osa, at 50-400 m elevation. A key to the large-flowered Bourreria spp. of Mesoamerica and northern South America includes B. grandicalyx and B. costaricensis, as well as B. huanita (La Llave & Lex.) Hemsl. and B. quirosii Standl. (to name only those spp. occurring in Costa Rica). Superb, detailed line-drawing of the new sp.
Morales, J. F. 1997. A reevaluation of Echites and Prestonia sect. Coalitae (Apocynaceae). Brittonia 49: 328-336.
This is essentially a synoptic treatment of the genus Echites, here expanded to accommodate one new sp. (from Panama) and three spp. most recently included in Prestonia. So circumscibed, Echites comprises eight spp. of lianas, ranging from N Florida to Panama and the West Indies. Three spp. occur in Costa Rica: Echites puntarenensis J. F. Morales (a nomen novum for Prestonia caudata Woodson, non Echites caudata Blanco), of the Guanacaste lowlands; E. turbinata Woodson, from above 1500 m elevation in the Cordillera Central; and E. woodsoniana Monach., from scattered, dry-forest sites on both slopes. None of our spp. are endemic. Includes a full generic description, key to all eight spp., descriptions of all spp., exsiccatae citations for spp. with new names or altered concepts, and a line-drawing of the new sp.
--. 1997. A synopsis of the genus Allomarkgrafia (Apocynaceae). Brittonia 49: 337-345.
Allomarkgrafia is a genus of nine spp. (as here conceived) of lianas, ranging from Nicaragua to Peru. Two new spp. are published here, as well as one new combination. The only novelty relevant to us is Allomarkgrafia insignis J. F. Morales, known only from the type locality at either "300-500 m" or "1100 m" elevation (the article contradicts itself) in the Tarrazú region, on the Pacific slope in Prov. San José; it most resembles A. foreroi A. H. Gentry, of Colombia and Ecuador. Two other spp. occur in Costa Rica: A. brenesiana Woodson, of cloud forests at ca. 800-1400 m, is nearly endemic (otherwise known from just one Panamanian collection), while A. plumeriiflora Woodson, a lowland sp. (0-1100 m), is more widespread (Nicaragua to Colombia). Generic description, key to spp., sp. descriptions, exsiccatae citations for most spp., line-drawings of the new spp.
Ricketson, J. M. & J. J. Pipoly III. 1997. Nomenclatural notes and a synopsis of the genus Myrsine (Myrsinaceae) in Mesoamerica. Sida 17: 579-589.
The Mesoamerican spp. of this large, pantropical genus were formerly treated under the name Rapanea, now considered a synonym. This useful contribution provides a key to the seven Mesomerican Myrsine taxa (six spp., one with two subspp.)-all but one of which occur in Costa Rica-together with complete synonymy. One new combination is here validated: Myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. subsp. nigrescens (Lundell) Ricketson & Pipoly, based on M. nigrescens Lundell (type from extreme W Panama on the Costa Rican border).
-- & --. 1997. Nomenclatural notes and a synopsis of Mesoamerican Stylogyne (Myrsinaceae). Sida 17: 591-597.
Just four spp. of the largely S American genus Stylogyne extend into Mesoamerica, and only one of these, S. turbacensis (Kunth) Mez, reaches Costa Rica. Two subspp. of S. turbacensis range throughout Mesoamerica: the autonymic subsp., and the newly combined S. turbacensis subsp. laevis (Oerst.) Ricketson & Pipoly [formerly S. laevis (Oerst.) Mez]. A key is provided to separate Stylogyne from the oft-confused Ardisia and Geissanthus, and another to distinguish the Mesomerican spp. and subspp. of Stylogyne. Distributional data are given for all Mesoamerican taxa of the last-mentioned genus.
-- & --. 1998 ['1997']. Notes on neotropical Parathesis (Myrsinaceae). Novon 7: 398-405.
Three new spp. of Parathesis are described, all endemic to Costa Rica (as far as is known). Parathesis costaricensis Ricketson and P. glendae Ricketson are both known only by their type collections, from 240-300 and 600 m elevation (respectively) on the Atlantic slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca. Parathesis longipedicellata Ricketson is based on numerous collections, from ca. 0-350 m elevation on the Península de Osa and near Golfito. The three new spp. belong to a presumably natural group characterized by terminal inflorescences, versatile anthers, and large leaves. A key to the members of this group includes two other Costa Rican spp, Parathesis acostensis J. F. Morales and P. cartagoana Lundell (the former apparently not belonging technically to this group, but keyed here because of its strong vegetative resemblance to P. longipedicellata). Excellent, detailed line-drawings of all three spp.
Roon, A. C. de & S. Dressler. 1997. New taxa of Norantea Aubl. s. l. (Marcgraviaceae) from Central America and adjacent South America. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 119: 327-335.
Several new taxa and new combinations in Marcgraviaceae originally proposed by Bedell (1985) in an unpublished dissertation (Univ. Maryland) are here validated for the first time. Included are the names of two new genera, Sarcopera Bedell (based on Norantea subgen. Pseudostachyum Delpino) and Marcgraviastrum (Wittm. ex Szyszyl.) de Roon & S. Dressler (based on Norantea subsect. Marcgraviastrum Wittm. ex Szyszyl.), segregated (along with Schwartzia Vell.) from Norantea. Publication of these names was long overdue, since some had already been used in print [e.g., in Gentry's (1993) A field guide to the families and genera of woody plants of northwest South America], and particularly if one accepts Bedell's conviction (stated in her dissertation) that Norantea s. l. is polyphyletic. De Roon and Dressler do, but offer no additional evidence or arguments along these lines, simply stating that Bedell had "rightly" split the genus. The following new combinations pertain to spp. occurring in Costa Rica: Schwartzia brenesii (Standl.) Bedell, Schwartzia costaricensis (Gilg) Bedell, Schwartzia jimenezii (Standl.) Bedell, Sarcopera sessiliflora (Triana & Planch.) Bedell, and Marcgraviastrum subsessile (Benth.) Bedell. The clear implication is that authorship of the foregoing combinations should be attributed to "Bedell in [rather than "ex"] de Roon & S. Dressler." Two new spp. are also validly published here: Sarcopera rosulata de Roon & Bedell, of Costa Rica (Atlantic slope of Volcán Barva) and Panama, and Marcgraviastrum pauciflorum de Roon & Bedell, from the La Fortuna region of extreme western Panama. Both new spp. are well described, and illustrated with detailed line-drawings.
Sánchez-Vindas, P. E. & L. J. Poveda Alvarez. 1997. Claves dendrológicas para la identificación de los principales árboles y palmas de la zona norte y atlántica de Costa Rica. Overseas Development Administration, San José, Costa Rica. 144 pp.
The nature of the content is evident from the title, although the exact geographic and altitudinal limits of the area under consideration are neither mapped nor described explicitly. The keys appear to be eminently practical, though we have not field-tested them. After the fashion of Paul Allen's (1956) classic The Rain Forests of Golfo Dulce, they rely to the maximum extent possible on vegetative and field characters, with technical, floral characters used only as a last resort (e.g., in Lauraceae). A master key (p. 9) leads to 11 secondary keys, enabling the identification of a total of 219 (by our count) common or important Atlantic tree spp. These keys are supplemented by a color, schematic "clave arborescente," presented as a loose, folded insert. Following the keys is a compilation of brief paragraphs summarizing the diagnostic characteristics of each sp. treated, ordered alphabetically by genus and species name. The final section tabularizes scientific names (with authorities), family designations, and vernacular names, along with data on abundance, economic uses, and habitat preference. Includes an illustrated glossary and an index to scientific and common names, as well as rarely seen photographic portraits of Costa Rican botanical icons Alberto Brenes, Otón Jiménez, and Juvenal Valerio. Illustrations of each sp., or even selected spp., would have increased the utility of this volume immeasurably. Even so, this work is very nicely presented and, because of its compact size, economical organization, and relatively comprehensive scope, will surely be welcomed by anyone (forester, botanist, ecologist, or ecotourist) seeking to identify trees on Costa Rica's Atlantic slope.
Skog, L. E. & L. P. Kvist. 1998 ['1997']. Novae Gesneriaceae neotropicarum VII: new combinations. Novon 7: 413-416.
This paper deals primarily with Ecuadorean taxa, but includes some changes relevant to us. The new combination Columnea ornata (Wiehler) L. E. Skog & L. P. Kvist applies to an endemic Costa Rican sp. for which Dalbergaria ornata Wiehler has been the only available name. Two new collections are cited (both from the vicinity of San Isidro de El General). The intriguing and mysterious Rhoogeton panamensis Wiehler [see The Cutting Edge 3(2): 11­p;12, Apr. 1996] is revealed as nothing more than a synonym of Paradrymonia pedunculata L. E. Skog.
Steane, D. A., R. W. Scotland, D. J. Mabberley, S. J. Wagstaff, P. A. Reeves & R. G. Olmstead. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of Clerodendrum s. l. (Lamiaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA. Syst. Bot. 22: 229- 243.
Restriction-site analysis of chloroplast DNA shows that Clerodendrum s. l. is polyphyletic. This conclusion is supported by a separate analysis of chloroplast ndhF sequence data. The exact nomenclatural implications for the three indigenous Costa Rican spp. (as well as the numerous cultivated, exotic spp.) are unclear, though the genus name is typified by an Old World element.
Tanaka, N., H. Setoguchi & J. Murata. 1997. Phylogeny of the family Hydrocharitaceae inferred from rbcL and matK gene sequence data. J. Pl. Res. 110: 329-337.
Separate and combined analyses agree that Najas, traditionally segregated in the monotypic Najadaceae, is an integral part of Hydrocharitaceae. The authors conclude that the two families should be combined.
 

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