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Articles or books by two or more authors are cited as follows. When there are two authors, citation is alphabetical after the second author's name. When there are three or more authors, references are cited in the body of the text as (e.g.) Chase et al. 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, and are listed following these sometimes alphabetically qualified dates of publication immediately after all the single- or two-authored articles by the first author.

Qi, X. S. [et al. 2012], Chen, C., Comes, H. P., Sakagushi, S., Liu, Y.-H., Tanaka, N., Sakio, H. & Qiu, Y.-X. 2012. Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal a highly dynamic evolutionary history of the East Asian Tertiary relict Cercidiphyllum (Cercidiphyllaceae). New Phytol. 196: 617–630.

Qi, Z. [et al. 2012], Li, P., Zhao, Y., Cameron, K., & Fu, C. 2012. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Smilacaceae (Liliales), a cosmopolitan family of monocots. P. 197, in Botany 2012: The Next Generation. July 7-11 - Columbus, Ohio. Abstracts.

Qi, Z. [et al. 2013], Cameron, K. M., Li, P., Zhao, Y., Chen, S., Chen, G., & Fu, C. 2013. Phylogenetics, character evolution, and distribution patterns of the greenbriers, Smilacaceae (Liliales), a near cosmopolitan family of monocots. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 173: 535-548.

Qian, H., & Ricklefs, R. E. 2004. Taxon richness and climate in angiosperms: Is there a globally consistent relationship that precludes region effects? American Naturalist 163: 773-779 [see Electronic Appendix for plant distributions].

Qiu, H., & Gilbert, M. G. 2003. Loranthaceae. Pp. 220-239, in Wu, Z., Raven, P. H., et al. (eds), Flora of China. 5. Ulmaceae through Basellaceae. Science Press, Beijing.

Qin, H.-N. 1998. A taxonomic revision of the Lardizabalaceae. Cathaya 8-9: 1-214.

Qiu, R.-L. [et al. 2012], Tang, Y.-T., Zeng, X.-W., Thangavel, P., Tang, L., Gan, Y.-Y., Ying, R.-R., & Wang, S.-Z. 2012. Mechanisms of Cd hyperaccumulation and detoxification in heavy metal hyperaccumulators: How plants cope with Cd. Prog. Bot. 73: 127-.

Qiu, Y. L., & Estabrook, G. F. 2008. Inference of phylogenetic relationships among key angiosperm lineages using a compatabilty method on a molecular data set. J. Syst. Evol. 46: 130-141.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1995], Chase, M. W., & Parks, C. R. 1995. A chloroplast DNA phylogenetic study of the eastern Asia - east North America disjunct section Rhytidospermum of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae). American J. Bot. 82: 1582-1588.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1998a], Chase, M. W., Hoot, S. B., Conti, E., Crane, P. R., Sytsma, K. J., & Parks, C. R. 1998a. Phylogenetics of the Hamamelidae and their allies: Parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 159: 891-905.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1998b], Cho, Y., Cox, J. C., & Palmer, J. D. 1998b. The gain of three mitochondrial introns identifies liverworts as the earliest land plants. Nature 394: 671-674.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1999], Lee, J., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Zimmer, E. A., Chen, Z., Savolainen, V., & Chase, M. W. 1999. The earliest angiosperms: Evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genes. Nature 402: 404-407.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2000], Lee, J., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Zimmer, E. A., Chen, Z., Savolainen, V., & Chase, M. W. 2000. Phylogeny of basal angiosperms: Analyses of five genes from three genomes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 161(6: suppl. [Current Perspectives on Basal Angiosperms]): S3-S27.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2001], Lee, J., Whitlock, B. A., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., & Dombrovska, O. 2001. Was the ANITA rooting of the angiosperm phylogeny affected by long-branch attraction? Mol. Biol. Evol. 18: 1745-1753.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2005], Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Li, L., Whitlock, B. A., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Rest, J. S., Davis, C. C., Borsch, T., Hilu, K. W., Renner, S. S., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Cannone, J. J., Gutell, R. R., Powell, M., Savolainen, V., Chatrou, L. W., & Chase, M. W. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of basal angiosperms based on nine plastid mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 166: 815-842.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2006a], Li, L., Wang, B., Chen, Z., Knoop, V., Groth-Malonek, M., Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Kent, L., Rest, J. S., Estabrook, G. F., Hendry, T. A., Taylor, D. W., Testa, C. M., Ambros, M., Crandall-Stotler, B., Duff, R. J., Stech, M., Frey, W., Quandt, D., & Davis, C. C. 2006a. The deepest divergences in land plants inferred from phylogenomic evidence. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103: 15511-15516.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2006b], Li, L., Hendry, T, Li, R., Taylor, D. W., Issa, M. J., Ronen, A. J., Vekaria, M. L., & White, A. M. 2006b. Reconstructing the basal angiosperm phylogeny: Evaluating information content of mitochondrial genes. Taxon 55: 837-856.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2007], Li, L., Wang, B., Chen, Z., Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Kent, L., Li, R., Jobson, R. J., Hendry, T. A., Taylor, D. W., Testa, C. M., & Ambros, M. 2007. A nonflowering land plant phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences of seven chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 168: 691-708.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2010], Li, L., Wang, B., Xue, J.-Y., Hendry, T. A., Li, R.-Q., Brown, J. W., Liu, Y., Hudson, G. T., & Chen, Z.-D. 2010. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from sequences of four mitochondrial genes. J. Syst. Evol. 48: 391-425.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2012], Taylor, A. B., & McManus, H. A. 2012. Evolution of the life cycle in land plants. J. Syst. Evol. 50: 171-194.

Quandt, D., & Stech, M. 2003. Molecular systematics of bryophytes in context of land plant phylogeny. Pp. 267-295, in Sharma, A. K., & Sharma, A. (eds), Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution. Volume 1, part A. Phanerogams. Scientific Publications, Enfield, NH.

Quandt, D. [et al. 2004], Müller, K., Stech, M., Frahm, J.-P., Frey, W., Hilu, K. W., & Borsch, T. 2004. Molecular evolution of the chloroplast trnL-F region in land plants. Pp. 15-37, in Goffinet, B., Hollowell, V., & Magill, R. (eds), Molecular Systematics of Bryophytes. Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, MO.

Queenborough, S. A. [et al. 2013], Metz, M. A., Valencia, R., & Wright, S. J. 2013. Demographic consequences of chromatic leaf defence in tropical tree communities: Do red young leaves increase growth and survival. Ann. Bot. 112: 677-684.

Quental, T. B., & Marshall, C. R. 2010. Diversity dynamics: Molecular phylogenies need the fossil record. Trends Ecol. Evol. 25: 434-441.

Quested, H. M. [et al. 2003], Cornelissen, J. H. C., Press, M. C., Callaghan, T. V., Aerts, R., Trosien, F., Riemann, P., Gwynn-Jones, D., Kondratchuk, A., & Jonasson, S. E. 2003. Decomposition of sub-Arctic plants with differing nitrogen economies: A functional role for hemiparasites. Ecology 84: 3209-3221.

Quezada, I. M., & Gianoli, E. 2011. Crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis in Bromeliaceae: An evolutionary key innovation. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 104: 480-486.

Quijano-Abril, M. A. [et al. 2006], Callejas-Posada, R., & Miranda-Esquivel, D. R. 2006. Areas of endemism and distribution patterns for Neotropical Piper species (Piperaceae). J. Biogeogr. 33: 1266-1278.

Quinn, C. J. 1986. Embryogeny in Phyllocladus. New Zealand J. Bot. 24: 575-579.

Quinn, C. J. [et al. 2002], Price, R. A., & Gadek, P. A. 2002. Familial concepts and relationships in the conifers based on rbcL and matK sequence comparisons. Kew Bull. 57: 513-531.

Quinn, C. J. [et al. 2003], Crayn, D. M., Heslewood, M. M., Brown, E. A., & Gadek, P. A. 2003. A molecular estimate of the phylogeny of Styphelieae (Ericaceae). Australian Syst. Bot. 16: 581-594.

Quinn, C. J. [et al. 2005], Brown, E. A., Heslewood, M. M., & Crayn, D. M. 2005. Generic concepts in Styphelieae (Ericaceae): The Cyathodes group. Australian Syst. Bot. 18: 439-454.

Quint, M., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2006a. Phylogeny of Bruniaceae based on matK and ITS sequence data. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 167: 135-146.

Quint, M., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2006b. Floral ontogeny, petal diversity and nectary uniformity in Bruniaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 152: 459-477.

Quint, M., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2008. Ancient or recent? Insights into the temporal evolution of the Bruniaceae. Organisms Diversity Environ. 8: 293-304.

Quintinar, A. [et al. 2007], Castroviejo, S., & Catalán, P. 2007. Phylogeny of the tribe Aveneae (Pooideae, Poaceae) inferred from plastid trnT-F and nucear ITS sequences. American J. Bot. 94: 1554-1569.

Quintinar, A. [et al. 2010], Catalán, P., & Castroviejo, S. 2010. A review of the systematics and phylogenetics of the Koeleriinae (Poaceae: Poeae). Pp. 539-556, in Seberg, O., Petersen, G., Barfod, A. S., & Davis, J. I. (eds), Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons. Aarhus University Press, Århus.

Quirk, J. [et al. 2012], Beerling, D. J., Banwart, S. A., Kakonyi, G., Romero-Gonzalez, M. E., Leake, J. R. 2012. Evolution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi intensifies silicate mineral weathering. Biol Lett. 8: 1006-1011. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2012.0503

Quisumbing, E. 1925. Continuity of protoplasm in endosperm cells of Diospyros. Bot. Gaz. 80: 439-447.

Raab, T. K. [et al. 1996], Lipson, D. A., & Monson, R. K. 1996. Non-mycorrhizal uptake of amino acids by the roots of the alpine sedge Kobresia myosurides: Implications for the alpine nitrogen cycle. Oecologia 108: 488-494.

Raab, T. K. [et al. 1999], Lipson, D. A., & Monson, R. K. 1999. Soil amino acid utilization among species of Cyperaceae: Plant and soil processes. Ecology 80: 2408-2419.

Rabaey, D. [et al. 2006], Lens, F., Smets, E., & Jansen, S. 2006. The micromorphology of pit membranes in tracheary elements of Ericales: New records of tori or pseudo-tori? Ann. Bot. 98: 943-951.

Rabaey, D. [et al. 2010], Lens, F., Smets, E., & Jansen, S. 2010. The phylogenetic significance of vestured pits in Boraginaceae. Taxon 59: 510-516.

Rabeling, C. [et al. 2008], Brown, J. M., & Verhaagh M. 2008. Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 105: 14913-14917.

Rabinowitch, H. D., & Currah, L. 2002. Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. CABI, Wallingford.

Rabosky, D. L. 2009. Ecological limits and diversification rate: Alternative paradigms to explain variation in species richness among clades and regions. Ecol. Lett. 12: 735-743.

Rabosky, D. L. 2010a. Evolutionary bangs and whimpers: Methodological advances and conceptual frameworks for studying exceptional diversification. Syst. Biol. 59: 615-618.

Rabosky, D. L. 2010b. Primary controls on species richness in higher taxa. Syst Biol. 59: 634-645.

Rabosky, D. L. 2010c. Extinction rates should not be estimated from molecular phylogenies. Evolution 64: 1816-1824.

Rabosky, D. L., & Sorhannus, U. 2009. Diversity dynamics of marine planktonic diatoms across the Cenozoic. Nature 457: 183–6. doi:10.1038/nature07435

Raboud, X., & Zeyl, C. 1994. Organelle evolution in plants. Heredity 72: 132-140.

Radcliffe-Smith, A. 2001. Genera euphorbiacearum. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Radford, A. E. [et al. 1974], Dickison, W. C., Massey, J. R., & Bell, C. R. 1974. Vascular Plant Systematics. Harper & Row, New York. [See, in part, http://www.ibiblio.org/botnet/glossary/vasc.html ]

Radhika, K. P., & Rodrigues, B. F. 2007. Arbuscular mycorrhizae in association with aquatic and marshy plant species in Goa, India. Aquatic Bot. 86: 291-294.

Radlkofer, L. 1890. Über die Gliederung der familie der Sapindaceen. Sitzungs. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayerische Akad. Wiss. München 20: 105-379.

Radlkofer, L. 1892-1900. Sapindaceae. Pp. 225-658, pl. 58-123, in Urban, I. (ed.), Flora brasiliensis, vol. 13(3).

Radlkofer, L. 1933. Sapindaceae, vol. 1. Engelmann, Leizig.

Radlkofer, L. 1934. Sapindaceae, vol. 2. Engelmann, Leizig.

Radusky, A. R. [et al. 2011], Haney, E. B., & Igic, B. 2011. The expression of self-incompatibility in angiosperms in bimodal. Evolution 66: 1275-1283.

Rae, A. L. [et al. 1992], Bonfante-Fasolo, P., & Brewin, N. J. 1992. Structure and growth of infection threads in the legume symbiosis with Rhizobium leguminosarum. Plant J. 2: 385-395.

Raghavan, T. S., & Srinivasan, V. K. 1940a. A contribution to the life history of Bergia capensis Linn.. J. Indian Bot. Soc. B, 15: 83-105.

Raghavan, T. S., & Srinivasan, V. K. 1940b. Studies in the Indian Aizoaceae. Ann. Bot. N.S. 4: 651-661.

Raghavan, T. S., & Srinivasan, V. K. 1942. A contribution to the life history of Vahlia viscosa, Roxb., and Vahlia oldenlandioides, Roxb. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. B, 15: 83-105.

Raghavendra, A. K. H., & Newcombe, G. 2013. The contribution of foliar endophytes to quantitative resistance to Melampsora rust. New Phytol. 197: 909-918.

Raguso, R. A. 2008. Wake up and smell the roses: The ecology and evolution of floral scent. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 39: 549-569.

Raguso, R. A., & Roy, B. A. 1998. 'Floral' scent production by Puccinia rust fungi that mimic flowers. Molec. Ecol. 7: 1127-1136.

Rahmanzadeh, R. [et al. 2004], Müller, K., Fischer, E., Bartels, D., & Borsch, T. 2004. The Linderniaceae and Gratiolaceae are further lineages distinct from the Scrophulariaceae (Lamiales). Plant Biol. 7: 67-78.

Rahn, K. 1996. A phlyogenetic study of the Plantaginaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 120: 145-198.

Rahn, K. 1998. Alliaceae, pp. 70-78, and Themidaceae, 436-440, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. III. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Lilianae (except Orchidaceae). Springer, Berlin.

Rai, A. N. [et al. 2000], Söderbäck, E., & Bergman, B. 2000. Cyanobacterium-plant symbioses. New Phytol. 147: 449-481.

Rai, H. S. [et al. 2002], Reeves, P. A., Olmstead, R. G., & Graham, S. W. 2002. Conifer monophyly and higher-order relationships based on a large, multigene plastid set. P. 147, in Botany 2002: Botany in the Curriculum, Abstracts. [Madison, Wisconsin.]

Rai, H. S. [et al. 2003], O'Brien, H. E., Reeves, P. A., Olmstead, R. G., & Graham, S. W. 2003. Inference of higher-order relationships within the cycads from a large chloroplast data set. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 29: 350-359.

Rai, H. S. [et al. 2008a], Reeves, P. A., Peakall, R., Olmstead, R. G., & Graham, S. W. 2008a. Inference of higher-order conifer relationships from a multi-locus plastid data set. Botany 86: 658-669.

Rai, H. [et al. 2008b], Nagalingum, N., Wu, Y., Little, D., Stevenson, D. W., & Mathews, S. 2008b. Phylogenetic relationships within and among cycad genera inferred from phytochrome genes. P. 96, in Botany 2008. Botany without Borders. [Botanical Society of America, etc. Abstracts.]

Rai, H. [et al. 2009], Chonofsky, M., Kelch, D., Cronn, R. C., Parks, M., Nagalingum, N., Vo, A., Liston, A., & Mathews, S. 2009. Generic and familial relationships within conifers inferred from nuclear data. P. 150, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Raj, B. 1970. Loranthaceae. Indian National Sci. Acad. Bull. [Symposium: Comparative Embryology of Angiosperms] 41: 22-28.

Raine, N. E., & Chittka, L. 2007a. Bumblebees gain fitness through learning. Nature Precedings http://htl.nature.com/10101/npre.2007.1298.1

Raine, N. E., & Chittka, L. 2007b. Pollen foraging: Learning a complex motor skill by bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Naturwissen. 94: 459-464.

Raine, N. E., & Chittka, L. 2007c. Flower constancy and memory dynamics in bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus). Entomol. Gener. 29: 179-199..

Raine, N. E. [et al. 2006], Ings, T. C., Dornhaus, A., Saleh. N., & Chittka, L. 2006. Adaptation, genetic drift, pleiotropy, and history in the evolution of bee foraging behavior. Adv. Study Behav. 36: 305-354.

Raj, B. 1985. A contribution to the pollen morphology of Nesogenaceae and Cyclocheilaceae. Pollen et Spores 27: 295-306.

Rajput, K. S. 2002. Stem anatomy of Amaranthaceae: Rayless nature of xylem. Flora 197: 224-232.

Rajput, K. S., & Patil, V. S. 2008. Development of cambial variant of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Club 135: 483-490.

Rajput, K. S. [et al. 2008], Raole, V. M., & Gandhi, D. 2008. Radial secondary growth and formation of successive cambia and their products in Ipomoea hederifolia L. (Convolvulaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 158: 30-40.

Rajput, K. S. [et al. 2014], Patil, V. S., & Rao, K. S. 2014. Stem anatomy of the dwarf subshrub Cressa cretica L. (Convolvulaceae). Flora 209: 408-413.

Raju, M. V. S. 1956a. Embryology of the Passifloraceae I. Gametogenesis and seed development of Passiflora calcarata Mast. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 35: 126-138.

Raju, M. V. S. 1956b. Development of embryo and seed coat in Turnera ulmifolia L. var. angustifolia Willd. Bot. Notis. 109: 308-312.

Raju, M. V. S. 1957. Some aspects of the embryology of Dianella nervosa Lamk. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 36: 223-226.

Raju, M. V. S. 1961. Morphology and anatomy of the Saururaceae. Floral anatomy and embryology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 48: 107-124.

Rakotonoasolo, F., & Davis, A. 2006. Six species of Madagascan Genipa transferred to Hyperacanthus (Rubiaceae-Gardenieae) and new data on general morphology, placentation and ovary structure in Hyperacanthus. Taxon 55: 387-396.

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Ralphs, M. H. [et al. 2008], Creamer, R., Baucom, D., Gardner, D. R., Welsh, S. L., Graham, J. D., Hart, C., Cook, D., & Stegelmeier, B. L. 2008. Relationship between the endophyte Embellisia spp. and the toxic alkaloid swainsonine in major locoweed species (Astragalus and Oxytropis). J. Chemical Ecol. 34: 32-38.

Ram, M. 1956. Floral morphology and embryology of Trapa bispinosa Roxb. with a discussion on the systematic position of the genus. Phytomorph. 6: 312-322.

Ram, M. 1970. Olacaceae, Opiliaceae, Grubbiaceae, Myzodendraceae. Indian National Sci. Acad. Bull. [Symposium: Comparative Embryology of Angiosperms] 41: 4-8, 9-12, 13-14, 19-21.

Rama Devi, D. 1991. Floral anatomy of Hypseocharis (Oxalidaceae) with a discussion on its systematic position. Plant Syst. Evol. 177: 161-164.

Raman, A. [et al. 2005], Schaefer, C. W., & Withers, T. M. (eds), Biology, Ecology and Evolution of Gall-Inducing Arthropods, 2 vols. Science Publishers, Enfield, N.H.

Raman, S. 1991. The trichomes on the corolla of the Scrophulariaceae - X: Taxa of uncertain relationship to, or within, the family. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 66: 127-143.

Raman, V. [et al. 2012], Galal, A. M., & Khan, I. A. 2012. An investigation of the vegetative anatomy of Piper sarmentosum, and a comparison with the anatomy of Piper betle (Piperaceae). American J. Plant Sci. 3: 1135-1144.

Ramana, R. V. [et al. 2000], Rao, P. S. P., Dutt, B. S. M., & Narayana, L. 2000. Embryology of Phryma leptostachya L. (Verbenaceae) with considerations of its systematic status and affinities. Feddes Repert. 111: 231-248.

Ramdhani, S. [et al. 2009], Barker, N. P., & Baijnanth, H. 2009. Rampant non-monophyly of species in Kniphofia Moench (Asphodelaceae) suggests a recent Afromontane radiation. Taxon 58: 1141-1152.

Ramdhani, S. [et al. 2011], Barker, N. P., & Cowling, R. M. 2011. Revisiting monophyly in Haworthia Duval (Asphodelaceae): Incongruence, hybridization and contemporary speciation. Taxon 60: 1001-1014.

Ramírez, N. 2003. Floral specialization and pollination: A quantitative analysis and comparison of the Leppik and Faegri and van der Pijl classification systems. Taxon 52: 687-700.

Ramírez, S. R. 2009. Quick guide: Orchid bees. Curr. Biol. 19: 1061-1063.

Ramírez, S. R. [et al. 2002], Dressler, R. L., & Ospina, M. 2002. Abejas euglosinas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) de la región Neotropical: listado de especies con notas sobre su biología. Biota Colombiana 3: 7-118.

Ramírez, S. R. [et al. 2007], Gravendeel, B., Singer, R. B., Marshall, C. R., & Pierce, N. E. 2007. Dating the origin of Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448: 1042-1045.

Ramírez, S. R. [et al. 2010], Roubik, D. W., Skov, C., & Pierce, N. E. 2010. Phylogeny, diversification patterns and historical biogeography of euglossine orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 100: 552-572.

Ramírez, S. R. [et al. 2011], Eltz, T., Fujiwara, M. K., Gerlach, G., Goldman-Huertas, B., Tsutsui, N. D., & Pierce, N. E. 2011. Asynchronous diversification in a specialized plant-pollinator mutualism. Science 333: 1742-1746.

Ramírez-Domenech, J. I., & Tucker, S. C. 1990. Comparative ontogeny of the perianth in mimosoid legumes. American J. Bot. 77: 624-635.

Ramomonjiarisoa, B. 1980. Comparative Anatomy and Systematics of African and Malagasy woody Saxifragaceae sensu lato. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

Ramos, C. O. C. [et al. 2005], Borba, E. L., & Funch, L. S. 2005. Pollination in Brazilian Syngonanthus (Eriocaulaceae) species: Evidence for entomophily instead of anemophily. Ann. Bot. 96: 387-397.

Ramp, E. 1987. Funktionelle Anatomie des Gynoeciums bei Staphylea. Bot. Helvetica 97: 89-98.

Ramstad, E. 1953. Über das Vorkommen und die Verbreitung von Chelidonsäure in einigen Pflanzenfamilien. Pharmacolog. Acta Helvetiae 28: 48-57.

Ran, J. H. [et al. 2010], Gao, H., & Wang, X.-Q. 2010. Fast evolution of the retroprocessed mitochondrial rps3 gene in conifer II and further evidence for the phylogeny of gymnosperms. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 54: 136-149.

Ranere, A. J. [et al. 2009], Piperno, D. R., Holst, I., Dickau, R., & Iriarte, J. 2009. The cultural and chronological context of early Holocene maize and squash domestication in the Central Balsas River valley, Mexico. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106: 5014-5018.

Raninandran, P. N., & Babu, K. N. (eds). 2005. Ginger: The Genus Zingiber. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Rank, C. [et al. 2004], Rasmussen, L. S., Jensen, S. R., Pierce, S., Press, M. C., & Scholes, J. D. 2004. Cytotoxic constituents of Alectra and Striga species. Weed Research 44: 265-270.

Ranker, T. A., & Haufler, C. H. (eds). 2008. Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Rankin, B. D. [et al. 2008], Stockey, R. A., & Beard, G. 2008. Fruits of Icacinaceae from the Eocene Appian Way locality of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 169: 305-314.

Ranney, T. G. [et al. 2003], Eaker, T. A., Fantz, P. R., & Parks, C. R. 2003. xSchimlinia floribunda (Thaceae): A new intergeneric hybrid between Franklinia alatamaha and Schima argentea. HortScience 38: 1198-1120.

Ranta, E., & Lundberg, H. 1981. Resource utilization by bumblebee queens, workers and males in a subarctic area. Holarctic Ecol. 4: 145-154.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. F. 1991d. The floral ontogeny of some members of the Phytolaccaceae (subfamily Rivinoideae) with a discussion of the evolution of the androecium in the Rivinoideae. Biol. Jaarb. Dodonaea 59: 77-99.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1995a. The androecium of monocotyledons. Pp. 143-254, in Rudall, P. J., Cribb, P. J., Cutler, D. F., & Humphries, C. J. (eds), Monocotyledons: Systematics and Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

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Ronse Decraene, L. P., & Smets, E. 1995d. The floral development of Neurada procumbens L. (Neuradaceae). Acta Bot. Neerlandica 44: 439-451. [Reprinted with better illustrations - Acta Bot. Neerlandica 45: 229-241. 1996.]

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1997a. A floral ontogenetic study of some species of Capparis and Boscia, with special emphasis on the androecium. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 119: 231-255.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1997b. Evidence for carpel multiplications in the Capparaceae. Belgian J. Bot. 130: 59-67.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1998b. The floral development and anatomy of Carica papaya (Caricaceae). Canadian J. Bot. 77: 583-598.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1998c. Meristic changes in gynoecium morphology, exemplified by floral ontogeny and anatomy. Pp. 85-112, in Owens, S. J., & Rudall, P. J. (eds), Reproductive Biology in Systematics, Conservation and Economic Botany. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1999. Similarities in floral ontogeny and anatomy between the genera Francoa (Francoaceae) and Greyia (Greyiaceae). Internat. J. Plant Sci. 160: 377-393.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 2000. Floral development of Galopina tomentosa with a discussion of sympetaly and placentation in the Rubiaceae. Syst. Geogr. Plants 70: 155-170.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 2001a. Floral developmental evidence for the systematic relationships of Tropaeolum (Tropaeolaceae). Ann. Bot. 88: 879-892.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 2010b. Staminodes: Their morphological and evolutionary significance. Bot. Review 67: 351-402.

Ronse De Craene, L.-P., & Stuppy, W. 2010. Floral development and anatomy of Aextoxicon punctatum (Aextoxicaceae-Berberidopsidales): An enigmatic tree at the base of core eudicots. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 171: 244-257.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Wanntorp, L. 2006. Evolution of floral characters in Gunnera (Gunneraceae). Syst. Bot. 31: 671-688.

Ronse De Craene, L.-P., & Wanntorp, L. 2008. Morphology and anatomy of the flower of Meliosma (Sabiaceae): Implications for pollination biology. Plant Syst. Evol. 271: 79-91.

Ronse De Craene, L.-P., & Wanntorp, L. 2009. Floral development and anatomy of Salvadoraceae. Ann. Bot. 104: 913-923.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1996], De Laet, J., & Smets, E. F. 1996. Morphological studies in Zygophyllaceae. II. The floral development and vascular anatomy of Peganum harmala. American J. Bot. 83: 201-215.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1997], Vanvinckenroye, P., & Smets, E. 1997. A study of the floral morphological diversity in Phytolacca (Phytolaccaceae) based on early floral ontogeny. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 158: 57-72.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1998a], Smets, E. F., & Vanvinckenroye, P. 1998a. Pseudodiplostemony, and its implications for the evolution of the androecium in the Caryophyllaceae. J. Plant Res. 111: 25-43.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1998b], Smets, E. F., & Vanvinckenroye, P. 1998b. Floral development and anatomy of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae): What is the evidence for a Capparalean or Sapindalean affinity? Ann. Bot. 82: 273-284.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1999], Volgin, S. A., & Smets, E. F. 1999. The floral development of Pleuropetalum darwinii, an anomalous member of Amaranthaceae. Flora 194: 189-199.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 2000a], Linder, P. H., & Smets, E. F. 2000a. The questionable relationship of Montinia (Montiniaceae): Evidence from a floral ontogenetic and anatomical study. American J. Bot. 87: 1408-1424.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 2000b], Smets, E., & Clinckemaillie, D. 2000b. Floral anatomy and ontogeny in Koelreuteria with special emphasis on monosymmetry and septal cavities. Plant Syst. Evol. 223: 91-107.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 2000c], Hong, S.-P., & Smets, E. 2000c. Systematic significance of fruit morphology and anatomy in tribes Persicarieae and Polygoneae (Polygonaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 134: 301-337.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 2001a], Smets, E., & Clinckemaillie, D. 2001a. Floral ontogenetic evidence in support of the Willdenowia clade of South African Restionaceae. J. Plant Res. 114: 329-342.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 2001b], Linder, H. P., Dlamini, T., & Smets, E. F. 2001b. Evolution and development of floral diversity of Melanthiaceae, an enigmatic southern African family. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 162: 59-82.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 2002a], Yang, T. Y. A., Schols, P. & Smets, E. F. 2002a. Floral anatomy and systematics of Bretschneidera (Bretschneideraceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 139: 29-45.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 2002b], Linder, H. P., & Smets, E. F. 2002b. Ontogeny and evolution of the flowers of South African Restionaceae with special emphasis on the gynoecium. Plant Syst. Evol. 231: 225-258.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 2003], Soltis, P. S., & Soltis, D. E. 2003. Evolution of floral structures in basal angiosperms. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 164(5 Suppl): S329-S363.

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