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Articles or books by two or more authors are cited as follows. When there are two authors, citation is alphabetical after the second author's name. When there are three or more authors, references are cited in the body of the text as (e.g.) Chase et al. 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, and are listed following these sometimes alphabetically qualified dates of publication immediately after all the single- or two-authored articles by the first author.

Iason, G. R. [et al. 2011], O'Reilly-Wapstra, J. M., Brewer, M. J., Summers, R. W., & Moore, B. D. 2011. Do multiple herbivores maintain chemical diversity of Scots pine monoterpenes? Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 366: 1337-1345.

IAWA Committee. 1989. IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification. IAWA Bull. n.s. 10: 219-332.

IAWA Committee. 2004. IAWA list of microscopic features for softwood identification. IAWA J. 25: 1-70.

Ibanez, S. [et al. 2010], Dötterl, S., Anstett, M.-C., Baudino, S., Caissard, J.-C., Gallet, C., & Després, L. 2010. The role of volatile organic compounds, morphology and pigments of globeflowers in the attraction of their specific pollinating flies. New Phytol. 188: 451-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03317.x.

Ibarra-Laclette, E. [et al. 2011], Albert, V. A., Perez-Torres, C. A., Zamudio-Hernandez, F., Ortega-Estrada, M. D., Herrera-Estrella, A., & Herrera-Estrella, L. 2011. Transcriptomics and molecular evolutionary rate analysis of the Bladderwort (Utricularia), a Carnivorous Plant with a Minimal Genome. BMC Plant Biol. 11(1):101.

Ibarra-Laclette, E. [et al. 2013], Lyons, E., Hernández-Guzmán, G., Pérez-Torres, C. A., Carretero-Paulet, L., Chang, T.-H., Lan, T., Welch, A. J., Juárez, M. J., Simpson, J., Fernández-Cortés, A., Arteaga-Vázquez, M., Góngora-Castillo, E., Acevedo-Hernández, G., Schuster, S. C., Himmelbauer, H., Minoche, A. E., Xu, S., Lynch, M., Oropeza-Aburto, A., Cervantes-Pérez, S. A., de Jesús Ortega-Estrada, M., Cervantes-Luevano, J. I., Michael, T. P., Mockler, T., Bryant, D., Herrera-Estrella, A., Albert, V. A., & Herrera-Estrella, L. 2013. Architecture and evolution of a minute plant genome. Nature 498: 94-98.

Ibisch, P. L. [et al. 1996], Neinhuis, C., & Rojas N., P. 1996. On the biology, biogeography, and taxonomy of Arachnitis Phil. nom. cons. (Corsiaceae) in respect to a new record from Bolivia. Willdenowia 26: 321-332.

Ibrahim, D. G. [et al. 2009], Burke, T., Ripley, B. S., & Osborne, C. P. 2009. A molecular phylogeny of the genus Allopteropsis (Panicoideae, Poaceae), suggests an evolutionary reversion from C4 to C3 photosynthesis. Ann. Bot. 103: 127-136.

Ichihashi, Y. [et al. 2011], Kawade, K., Usami, T., Horiguchi, G., Takahashi, T., & Tsukaya, H. 2011. Key proliferative activity in the junction between the leaf blade and petiole of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 157: 1151-1162.

Ickert-Bond, S. M., & Renner, S. S. 2016. The Gnetales: Recent insights on their morphology, reproductive biology, chromosome numbers, biogeography, and divergence times. J. Syst. Evol. 54: 1-16.

Ickert-Bond, S. M., & Rydin, C. 2011. Micromorphology of the seed envelope of Ephedra L. (Gnetales) and its relevance for the timing of evolutionary events. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 172: 36-48.

Ickert-Bond, S. M., & Wen, J. 2006. Phylogeny and biogeography of Altingiaceae: Evidence from combined analysis of five non-coding chloroplast regions. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 39: 512-528.

Ickert-Bond, S. M., & Wen, J. 2013. A taxonomic synopsis of Altingiaceae with nine new combinations. Phytokeys 39: 512-528.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2005], Pigg, K. B., & Wen, J. 2005. Comparative infructescence morphology in Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) and its evolutionary significance. American J. Bot. 92: 1234-1255.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2007], Pigg, K. B., & Wen, J. 2007. Comparative infructescence morphology in Altingia (Altingiaceae) and discordance between morphological and molecular phylogenies. American J. Bot. 94: 1094-1115.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2009], Rydin, C., & Renner, S. S. 2009. A fossil-calibrated relaxed clock for Ephedra indicates an Oligocene age for the divergence of Asian and New World clades and Miocene dispersal into South America. J. Syst. Evol. 47: 444-456.

Ickert-Bond, S. [et al. 2014a], Gerrath, J., & Wen, J. 2014a. Gynoecial structure of Vitales and implications for the evolution of placentation in the rosids. P. 216, in Botany 2014. New Frontiers in Botany. Abstract Book.

Ickert-Bond, S. [et al. 2014b], Sousa, A., Min, Y., Leitch, I. J., & Pellicer, J. 2014b. The evolution of genome size in the gymnosperm genus Ephedra: Flow cytometry and new chromosome counts support high levels of polyploidy. P. 7, in Botany 2014. New Frontiers in Botany. [Room Changes, etc.]

Ickert-Bond, S. [et al. 2014c], Gerrath, J., & Wen, J. 2014c. Gynoecial structure of Vitales and implications for the evolution of placentation in the rosids. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 175: 998-1032.

Ickert-Bond, S. [et al. 2015a], Pellicer, J., Souza, A., Metzgar, J., & Leitch, I. 2015a. Ephedra - the gymnosperm genus with the largest and most diverse genome sizes driven by a high frequency of recently-derived polyploid taxa and a lack of genome downsizing. P. 273, in Botany 2015. Science and Plants for People. Abstracts.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2015b], Pigg, K. B., & DeVore, M. L. 2015b. Paleoochna tiffneyi gen. et sp. nov. (Ochnaceae) from the late Paleocene Almont/Beicegel Creek flora, North Dakota, USA. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 176: 892-900.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2015c], Gerrath, J. M., Posluszny, U., & Wen, J. 2015c. Inflorescence development in the Vitis-Ampelocissus clade of Vitaceae: The unusual lamellate inflorescence of Pterisanthes. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 179: 725-741.

Iganci, J. R. V. [et al. 2015], Soares, M. V., Guerra, E., & Morim, M. P. 2016 [= 2015]. A preliminary molecular phylogeny of the Abarema Alliance (Leguminosae) and implications for taxonomic rearrangement. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 177: 34-43.

Igea, J. [et al. 2015], Bogarín, D., Papadopulos, A. S. T., & Savolainen, V. 2015. A comparative analysis of island floras challenges taxonomy-based biogeographical models of speciation. Evolution 69: 482-491.

Igersheim, A. 1993a. Floral development and secondary pollen presentation in Petromarula Vent. ex Hedwig f. (Campanulaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 115: 301-313.

Igersheim, 1993b. The character states of the Caribbean monotypic endemic Strumpfia (Rubiaceae). Nordic J. Bot. 13: 545-559.

Igersheim, A., & Endress, P. K. 1997. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of the Magnoliales and Winteroids. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 124: 213-271.

Igersheim, A., & Endress, P. K. 1998. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of the paleoherbs. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 127: 289-370.

Igersheim, A. [et al. 1994], Puff, C., Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1994. Gynoecial development of Gaertnera Lam. and presumably allied taxa of Psychotrieae (Rubiaceae): Secondarily "superior" vs. inferior ovaries. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 116: 401-414.

Igersheim, A. [et al. 2001], Buzgo, M., & Endress, P. K. 2001. Gynoecium diversity and systematics in basal monocots. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 136: 1-65.

Igic, B., & Kohn, J. R. 2001. Evolutionary relationships among self-incompatibility RNases. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98: 13167-13171.

Igic, B., & Kohn, J. R. 2006. The distribution of plant mating systems: Study bias against obligately outcrossing species. Evolution 60: 1098-1103.

Igic, B. [et al. 2006], Bohs, L., & Kohn, J. R. 2006. Ancient polymorphism reveals unidirectional breeding system shifts. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103: 1359-1363.

Iglesias A. [et al. 2007], Wilf, P, Johnson, K. R., Zamuner, A. B., Cúneo, N. R., Matheos, S. D., & Singer, B. S. 2007. A Paleocene lowland macroflora from Patagonia reveals significantly greater richness than North American analogs. Geology 35: 947-950.

Iglesias, A. [et al. 2011], Artabe, A. E., & Morel, E. M. 2011. The evolution of Patagonian climate and vegetation from the Mesozoic to the present. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 103: 409-422.

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Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1983. Dispersal of Mesembryanthemaceae in arid habitats. Sonderb. Naturwiss. Vereins Hamburg 7: 381-390. [in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), Dispersal and Distribution: An International Symposium. Paul Parey, Hamburg.]

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1994a. Diversification in an arid world: The Mesembryanthemaceae. Annual Review Ecol. Syst. 25: 521-546.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1994b. Phytogeography of Pedaliaceae R. Br. Pp. 1063-1075, in Seyani, J. H., & Chikuni, A. C. (eds), Proceedings of the 13th Plenary Meeting of AETFAT, Zomba, Malawi, vol. 2. National Herbarium and Botanic Gardens of Malawi, Zomba.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 2004. Martyniaceae, pp. 50-56, Pedaliaceae, 307-322, & Trapellaceae, 445-448, in Kadereit, J. (ed)., The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. VII. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Lamiales (except Acanthaceae including Avicenniaceae). Springer, Berlin.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 2010. Pedaliaceae - evolution and phylogeny of the succulent genera. Schumannia 6: 151-182. [Biodivers. Ecol. 3.]

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D.. & Gerbaulet, M. 1990. Untersuchungen zum Merkmalsbestand und zur Taxonomie der Gattungen Apatesia N. E. Br., Carpanthea N. E. Br., Conicosia N. E. Br., Herrea Schwantes und Hymenogyne Haw. (Mesembryanthemaceae Fenzl.). Bot Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 111: 457-498.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D., & Grabow-Seidensticker, U. 1979. The genus Sesamum and the origin of cultivated sesame. Pp. 53-60, in Kunkel, K. (ed.), Taxonomic Aspects of African Economic Botany. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D., & Hartmann, H. E. K. 1982. Leaf surfaces in Mesembryanthemaceae. Pp. 397-423, in Cutler, D. F., Alvin, K. L., & Price, C. E. (eds), The Plant Cuticle. Academic Press, London.

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Ike Coan, A. [et al. 2008], Alves, M. V., & Scatena, V. L. 2008. Comparative study of ovule and fruit development in species of Hypolytrum and Rhynchospora (Cyperaceae, Poales). Plant Syst. Evol. 272: 181-195.

Ike Coan, A. [et al. 2010], Alves, M. V., & Scatena, V. L. 2010. Evidence of pseudomonad pollen formation in Hypolytrum (Mapanioideae, Cyperaceae). Australian J. Bot. 58: 663-672.

Ike Coan, A. [et al. 2012], Stützel, T., & Scatena, V. L. 2010 [= 2012]. Comparative embryology and taxonomic considerations in Eriocaulaceae (Poales). Feddes Repert. 121: 268-284.

Ikeura, H. [et al. 2010], Kobayashi, F., & Hayata, Y. 2010. How do Pieris rapae search for Brassicaceae host plants? Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 38: 1199-1203.

Iles, W. [et al. 2009], Smith, S. Y., & Graham, S. W. 2009. Robust resolution of the backbone of Alismatales phylogeny. P. 156, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Iles, W. [et al. 2013], Smith, S. Y., & Graham, S. W. 2013. A well-supported phylogenetic framework for the monocot order Alismatales reveals multiples losses of the plastid NADH dehydrogenase comples and a strong long-branch effect. Pp. 1-28, in Wilkin, P., & Mayo, S. J. (eds), Early Events in Monocot Evolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [Systematics Association Special Volume 83.]

Iles, W. J. [et al. 2014], Lee, C., Sokoloff, D. D., Remizowa, M. V., Yadav, S. R., Barrett, R. L., Macfarlane, T. D., Rudall, P. J., & Graham, S. W. 2014. Reconstructing the age and historical biogeography of the ancient flowering-plant family Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales). BMC Evol. Biol. 14: 102. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-102

Iles, W. [et al. 2015], Smith, S. Y., Gandolfo, M. A., & Graham, S. W. 2015. Monocot fossils suitable for molecular dating analyses. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 178: 346-374.

Illing, N. [et al. 2009], Klak, C., Johnson, C., Negrao, N., Baine, F., van Kets, V., Ramchurn, K. R., Seoighe, C., & Roden, L. 2009. Duplication of the Asymmetric Leaves 1/Rough Sheath 2/Phantastica (ARP) gene precedes the explosive radiation of the Ruschioideae. Evol. Genes Devel. 219: 331-338.

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Iltis, H. H. [et al. 2011], Hall, J. C., Cochrane, T. S., & Systma, K. J. 2011. Studies in the Cleomaceae I. On the separate recognition of Capparaceae, Cleomaceae, and Brassicaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 98: 28-36.

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Imaichi, R., & Hiratsuka, R. 2007. Evolution of shoot apical meristem structures in vascular plants with respect to plasmodial network. American J. Bot. 94: 1911-1921.

Imaichi, R. [et al. 2001], Inokuchi, S., & Kato, M. 2001. Developmental morphology of one-leaf plant Monophyllaea singularis (Gesneriaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 229: 171-185.

Imaichi, R. [et al. 2007], Omura-Shimadate, M., Ayano, M., & Kato, M. 2007. Developmental morphology of the caulescent species Streptocarpus pallidiflorus (Gesneriaceae), with implications for evolution of monophylly. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 168: 251-260.

Imhof, S. 1998. Subterranean structures and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllous Triuris hyalina (Triuridaceae). Canadian J. Bot. 76: 2011-2019.

Imhof, S. 1999a. Root morphology, anatomy and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllopus Voyria aphylla (Jacq.) Pers. (Gentianaceae). Mycorrhiza 9: 33-39.

Imhof, S. 1999b. Anatomy and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllous Afrothismia winkleri New Phytol. 144: 533-540.

Imhof, S. 2004. Morphology and development of the subterranean organs of the achlorophyllous Sciaphila polygyna (Triuridaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 146: 295-301.

Imhof, S. 2007. Specialized mycorrhizal colonization pattern in achlorophyllous Epirixanthes spp. (Polygalaceae). Plant Biol. 9: 786-792.

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