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Articles or books by two or more authors are cited as follows. When there are two authors, citation is alphabetical after the second author's name. When there are three or more authors, references are cited in the body of the text as (e.g.) Chase et al. 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, and are listed following these sometimes alphabetically qualified dates of publication immediately after all the single- or two-authored articles by the first author.

Earle, C. J. 1997 onwards. Gymnosperm Database.

Eastwood, D. C. [et al. 2011], Floudas, D., Binder, M., Majcherczyk, A., Schneider, P., Aerts, A., Asiegbu, F. O., Baker, S. E., Barry, K., Bendiksby, M., Blumentritt, M., Coutinho, P. M., Cullen, D., de Vries, R. P., Gathman, A., Goodell, B., Henrissat, B., Ihrmark, K., Kauserud, H., Kohler, A., LaButti, K., Lapidus, A., Lavin, J. L., Lee, Y. H., Lindquist, E., Lilly, W., Lucas, S., Morin, E., Murat, C., Oguiza, J. A., Park, J., Pisabarro, A. G., Riley, R., Rosling, A., Salamov, A., Schmidt, O., Schmutz, J., Skrede, I., Stenlid, J., Wiebenga, A., Xie, X., Kües, U., Hibbett, D. S., Hoffmeister, D., Högberg, N., Martin, F., Grigoriev, I. V., & Watkinson, S. C. 2011. The plant cell wall-decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi. Science 333: 762-765.

Eaton, C. J. [et al. 2010], Cox, M. P., Ambrose, B., Becker, M., Hesse, U., Schardl, C. J., & Scott, B. 2010. Disruption of signaling in a fungal-grass symbiosis leads to pathogenesis. Plant Physiol. 153: 1780-1794.

Eaton, D. A. R. [et al. 2012], Fenster, C. B., Hereford, J., Shuang-Quan, H., & Ree, R. H. 2012. Floral diversity and community structure in Pedicularis (Orobanchaceae). Ecology 93 [suppl.]: S182-S194.

Eben, A. 1999. Host plant breadth and importance of cucurbitacins for the larvae of diabroticites (Galerucinae: Luperini). Pp. 361-374, in Cox, M. L. (ed.), Advances in Chrysomelidae Biology 1. Backhuys, Leiden.

Eberhard, S. H. [et al. 2009], Hikl, A. L., Boggs, C. L., & Krenn, H. W. 2009. Saliva or regurgitated nectar? What Heliconius butterflies use for pollen feeding. Ann. Entom. Soc. America 102: 1105-1108.

Eberwein, R. [2009], Nickrent, D. L., & Weber, A. 2009. Development and morphology of flowers and infloresences in Balanophora papuana and B. elongata (Balanophoraceae). American J. Bot. 96: 1055-1067.

Ebihara, A. 2011. RbcL phylogeny of Japanese pteridophyte flora and implications on infrafamilial systematics. Bull. National Mus. Nat. Sci., Ser. B, 37: 63-74.

Ebihara, A. [et al. 2007], Iwatsuki, K., Ito, M., Hennequin, S., & Dubuisson, J.-Y. 2007. A global molecular phylogeny of the fern genus Trichomanes (Hymenophyllaceae) with special reference to stem anatomy. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 155: 1-27.

Ebihara, A. [et al. 2009], Matsumoto, S., & Ito, M. 2009. Hybridization involving independent gametophytes in the Vandenboschia radicans complex (Hymenophyllaceae): A new perspective on the distribution of fern hybrids. Molec. Ecol. 18: 4904-4911.

Ebihara, A. [et al. 2013], Yamaoka, A., Mizukami, N., Sakoda, A., Nitta, J. H., & Imaichi, R. 2013. A survey of the fern gametophyte flora of Japan: Frequent independent occurrences of noncordiform gametophytes. American J. Bot. 100: 735-743.

Echternacht, L. [et al. 2014], Sano, P. T., Bonillo, C., Cruaud, C., Couloux, A., & Dubuisson, J.-Y. 2014. Phylogeny and taxonomy of Syngonanthus and Comanthera (Eriocaulaceae): Evidence from expanded sampling. Taxon 63: 47-63.

Eckardt, T. 1937. Untersuchungen über Morphologie, Entwicklungsgeschichte und systematische Bedeutung des pseudomonomeren Gynoeceums. Nova Acta Leopoldina N.F. 5: 1-112, pl. I-XXIII.

Eckardt, T. 1963. Some observations on the morphology and embryology of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 42A: 27-34.

Eckenwalder, J. E. 1976. Re-evaluation of Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae: A proposed merger. Madroño 23: 237-256.

Eckenwalder, J. E. 2009. Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press, Portland.

Eckert, A. J., & Hall, B. D. 2006. Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and patterns of diversification for Pinus (Pinaceae): Phylogenetic tests of fossil-based hypotheses. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 40: 166-182.

Eckert, G. 1966. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche und blütenanatomische Untersuchungen zum Problem der Obdiplostemonie. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 85: 523-604.

Eckardt, N. A., & Baum, D. 2010. The podostemad puzzle: The evolution of unusual morphology in the Podostemaceae. Plant Cell.

Eckardt, T. 1937. Untersuchungen über Morphologie, Entwicklungeschichte und systematische Bedeutung des pseudomonomeren Gynoeceums. Nova Aacta Leopoldina N.F. 5(26): 1-122.

Eckardt, T. 1963. Some observations on the morphology and embryology of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 42A [Maheshwari Commemorative Volume]: 27-34.

Eddie, W. M. [et al. 2002], Haberle, R. C., & Jansen, R. K. 2002. The phylogeny of the Campanulaceae inferred from DNA sequences of the chloroplast gene matK. P. 122, in Botany 2002: Botany in the Curriculum, Abstracts. [Madison, Wisconsin.]

Eddie, W. M. [et al. 2004], Shulkina, T., Gaskin, J. F., Haberle, R. C., & Jansen, R. K. 2004. The phylogeny of Campanulaceae s. str. inferred from ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 544-576.

Eddie, W. M. [et al. 2010], Cupido, C. N., & Skvarla, J. J. 2010. Pollen and reproductive morphology of Rhigiophyllum and Siphocodon (Campanulaceae): Two unique genera of the fynbos vegetation of South Africa. Bothalia 40: 103-115.

Edeoga, H. O., & Ikem, C. I. 2001. Midrib anatomy and systematics in Dioscorea L. (Dioscoreaceae). Pp. 191-195, in Maheshwari, J. K., & Jain, A. P. (eds), Recent Researches in Plant Anatomy and Morphology. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur.

Edgar, J. A. 1984. Parsonsieae: Ancestral larval foodplants of the Danainae and Inthomiinae. Pp. 92-93, in Vane-Wright & Ackery, P. R. (eds), The Biology of Butterflies. Academic Press, London. [Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society, vol. 11.]

Edgar, J. A. [et al. 1974], Culvenor, C. C. J., & Pliske, T. E. 1974. Coevolution of danaid butterflies with their host plants. Nature 250: 646-648.

Edwards, D. 2003. Xylem in early tracheophytes. Plant Cell. Environ. 26: 57-72.

Edwards, D., & Hawkins, J. A. 2007. Are Cape floral clades the same age? Contemporaneous origins of two lineages in the genistoids s.l. (Fabaceae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 45: 952-970.

Edwards, D. [et al. 2003], Axe, L., & Duckett, J. G. 2003. Diversity of conducting cells in early land plants and comparisons with extant bryophytes. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 141: 297-347.

Edwards, D. [et al. 2006], Li, C.-S., & Raven, J. A. 2006. Tracheids in an early vascular plant: A tale of two branches. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 150: 115-130.

Edwards, D. [et al. 2014], Morris, J. L., Richardson, J. B., & Kenrick, P. 2014. Cryptospores and cryptophytes reveal hidden diversity in early land floras. New Phytol. 202: 50-78. doi: 10.1111/nph.12645

Edwards, E. J. 2006. Correlated evolution of stem and leaf hydraulic traits in Pereskia (Cactaceae). New Phytol. 172: 479-489.

Edwards, E. J. 2009. C4 the straw man? Evolution of cold tolerance better explains global distribution of C3/C4 grasslands. P. 109, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Edwards, E. J., & Diaz, M. 2006. Ecological physiology of Persekia guamacho, a cactus with leaves. Plant, Cell Environ. 29: 247-256.

Edwards, E. J., & Donoghue, M. J. 2006. Pereskia and the origin of the cactus life form. American Naturalist 167: 777-793.

Edwards, E. J., & Ogburn, R. M. 2012. Angiosperm responses to a low CO2 world: CAM and C4 photosynthesis as parallel evolutionary trajectories. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 173: 724-733.

Edwards, E. J., & Still, C. J. 2007. Phylogeny and the ecological distribution of C4 grasses. P. 183, in Plant Biology and Botany 2007. Program and Abstract Book. Chicago.

Edwards, E. J., & Smith, S. A. 2010. Phylogenetic analyses reveal the shady hisotory of C4 grasses. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107: 2532-2537.

Edwards, E. J., & Still, C. J. 2008. Climate, phylogeny and the ecological distribution of C4 grasses. Ecol. Letters 11: 266-276.

Edwards, E. J. [et al. 2005], Nyffeler, R., & Donoghue, M. J. 2005. Basal cactus phylogeny: Implications of Pereskia paraphyly for the transition to the cactus life form. American J. Bot. 92: 1177-1188.

Edwards, E. J.[et al. 2007], Still, C. J., & Donoghue, M. J. 2007. The relevance of phylogeny to studies of global change. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22: 243-249.

Edwards, E. J. [et al. 2010], Osborne, C. P., Strömberg, C. A. E., Smith, S. A., & C4 Grasses Consortium. 2010. The origins of C4 grasslands: Integrating evolutionary and ecosystem science. Science 328: 587-591.

Edwards, G. E., & Voznesenskaya, E. V. 2011. C4 photosynthesis: Kranz forms and single-cell C4 in terrestrial plants. Pp. 29-61, in Raghavendra, A. S., & Sage, R. F. (eds), C4 Photosynthesis and Related CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms. Springer, Dordrecht.

Edwards, R. D. [et al. 2010], Craven, L. A., Crisp, M. D., & Cook, L. G. 2010. Melaleuca revisited: cpDNA and morphological data confirm that Melaleuca L. is not monophyletic. Taxon 59: 744-754.

Edwards, J. [et al. 2005], Whitaker, D., Klionsky, S., & Laskowski, M. J. 2005. Botany: A record-breaking pollen catapult. Nature 435: 164.

Efroni, I. [et al. 2010], Eshed, Y., & Lifscitz, E. 2010. Morphogenesis of simple and compound leaves: A critical review. Plant Cell 22: 1019-1032.

Egan, A. N., & Crandall, K. A. 2008. Incorporating gaps as phylogenetic characters across eight DNA regions: Ramifications for North American Psoraleeae (Leguminosae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 46: 532-546.

Eggeling, W. J. 1947. Observations on the ecology of Budongo rain forest, Uganda. J. Ecol. 34: 20-87.

Egger, K. N., & Hibbett, D. S. 2004. The evolutionary implications of exploitation in mycorrhizas. Canadian J. Bot. 82: 1110-1121.

Eggli, U. 1984. Stomatal types of Cactaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 146: 197-214.

Eggli, U. (ed.). 2003. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent plants. Vol. VI. Crassulaceae. Springer, Berlin.

Eggli, U., & Nyffeler, R. 2009. Living under temporarily arid conditions - succulence as an adaptive strategy. Bradleya 27: 13-36.

Eguiarte, L. E. 1995. Hutchinson (Agavales) vs. Huber y Dahlgren (Asparagales): análisis moleculares sobre la filogenia y evolucíon de la familia Agavaceae sensu Hutchinson dentro de las monocotiledóneas. Bull. Soc. Bot. México 56: 45-56.

Eguiarte, L. E. [et al. 1994], Duvalll, M. R., Learn, G. H. Jr, & Clegg, M. T. 1994. The systematic status of the Agavaceae and Nolinaceae and related Asparagales in the monocotyledons: An analysis based on the rbcL gene sequence. Bull. Soc. Bot. México 54: 35-56.

Ehleringer, J. R. [et al. 1997], Cerling, T. E., & Helliker, B. R. 1997. C4photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2, and climate. Oecologia 112: 285-299.

Ehleringer, J. R. 2005. The influence of atmospheric CO2, temperature, and water on the abundance of C3/C4 taxa. Pp. 214-231, in Ehleringer, J. R., Cerling, T. E., & Dearing, M. D. (eds), A History of Atmospheric CO2 and its Effects on Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems. Springer, New York. [Ecological Studies 177.]

Ehlers, B. K., & Bataillon, T. 2007. "Inconstant males" and the maintenance of labile sex expression in subdioecious plants. New Phytol. 174: 194-211.

Ehrendorfer, F., & Lambrou, M. 2000. Chromosomes of Takhtajania, other Winteraceae, and Canellaceae: Phylogenetic implications. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 407-413.

Ehrendorfer, F. [et al. 2009], Ziman, S. N., König, C., Keener, C. S., Dutton, B. E., Tsarenko, O. N., Bulakh, E. V., Boscaiu, M., Médail, F., & Kästner, A. 2009. Taxonomic revision, phylogenetics and transcontinental distribution of Anemone section Anemone (Ranunculaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 160: 312-354.

Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1979. Pollination of three species of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce with special reference to bees. American Midl. Natur. 101: 87-98.

Ehrhardt, W. 1992. Hemerocallis: Day Lilies. Batsford, London.

Ehrhart, C. 2000. Die Gattung Calceolaria (Scrophulariaceae) in Chile. Biblio. Bot. 153: viii + 1-283.

Ehrlich, P. R., & Raven, P. H. 1964. Butterflies and plants: A study in coevolution. Evolution 18: 586-608.

Eich, E. 2008. Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae: Secondary Metabolites. Springer, Berlin.

Eichler, A. W. 1875-78. Bluthendiagramme Construirirt und Erlautert. 2 vols. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.

Eichler, A. W. 1880. [No title.] Sitz. Gesellsch. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, 1880: 135-141.

Eichke, R. 1957. Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an Gymnospermenhölzern als Beitrag zur Phylogenie der Gnetales. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 77: 193-217

Eiserhardt, W. L. [et al. 2011a], Pintaud, J.-C., Asmussen-Lange, C., Hahn, W. J., Bernal, R., Baslev, H., & Borchsenius, F. 2011a. Phylogeny and divergence times in Bactridiinae (Arecaceae, Palmae) based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Taxon 60: 485-498.

Eiserhardt, W. L. [et al. 2011b], Svenning, J.-C., Kissling, W. D., & Baslev, H. 2011b. Geographical ecology of the palms (Arecaceae): Determinants of diversity and distributions across spatial scales. Ann. Bot. 108: 1391-1416.

Eisner, T., & Meinwald, J. 1995. The chemistry of sexual selection. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92: 50-55.

Ejeta, G. 2007. The Striga scourge in Africa: A growing pandemic. Pp. 71-84, in Ejeta, G., & Gressel, J. (eds), Integrating New Technolgies for Striga Control: Towards Ending the Witch-Hunt. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore

Ekambaram, T., & Panje, R. R. 1935. Contributions to our knowledge of Balanophora. II. Life-history of B. dioica. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. B, 1: 522-543.

Eklund, H. 1999. Big Survivors with Small Flowers: Fossil History and Evolution of Laurales and Chloranthaceae. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.

Eklund, H. [et al. 1997], Friis, E. M., & Pedersen, K. R. 1997. Chloranthaceous floral structures from the Late Cretaceous of Sweden. Plant Syst. Evol. 207: 13-42.

Eklund, H. [et al. 2004], Doyle, J. A., & Herendeen, P. S. 2004. Morphological phylogenetic analysis of living and fossil Chloranthaceae. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 165: 107-151.

Ekman, S. [et al. 2008], Andersen, H. L., & Wedin, M. 2008. The limitations of ancestral state reconstruction and the evolution of the ascus in the Lecanorales (lichenized Ascomycota). Syst. Biol. 57: 141-156.

Elbaum, R. [et al. 2007], Zaltzman, L., Burgert, I., & Fratzl, P. 2007. The role of wheat awns in the seed dispersal unit. Science 316: 884-886.

Eldredge, N. 1985. Unfinished Synthesis: Biological Hierarchies and Modern Evolutionary Thought. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Eldrett, J. S. [et al. 2009], Greenwood, D. R., Harding, I. C., & Huber, M. 2009. Increased seasonality through the Eocene to Oligocene transition in northern high latitudes. Nature 459: 969-973.

Eleftheriou, E. 1990. Monocotyledons. Pp. 139-159, in Behnke, H.-D., & Sjolund, R. D. (eds), Sieve Elements: Comparative Structure, Induction, and Development. Springer, Berlin.

El-Gazzar, A. 1979. Ravenelia and its segregates (Uredinales) as indicators of taxonomic affinity in Leguminosae. Symb. Bot. Upsalienses 22(4): 182-193.

El Ghazali, G. E. B. [et al. 1998], Tsuji, S., El Ghazaly, G. A., & Nilsson, S. 1998. Combretaceae R. Brown. World Pollen and Spore Flora 21: 1-40.

Elias, M. [et al. 2009], Joron, M., Willmott, K. R., Silva-Brandão, K. L., Kaiser, V., Arias, C. F., Gomez Piñerez, L. M., Uribe, S., Brower, A. V. Z., Freitas, A. V. L., & Jiggins, C. D. 2009. Out of the Andes: Patterns of diversification in clearwing butterflies. Mol. Ecol. 18: 1716-1729.

Elias, T. S. 1983. Extrafloral nectaries: Their structure and distribution. Pp. 174-203, in Bentley, B., & Elias, T. S. (eds), The Biology of Nectaries. Columbia University Press, New York.

Eliasson, U. H. 1988. Floral morphology and taxonomic relations among the genera of Amaranthaceae in the New World and Hawaiian islands. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 96: 235-283.

Elisens, W. J., & Tomb, A. S. 1983. Seeed morphology in new World Antirrhineae (Scrophulariaceae): Systematic and phylogenetic implications. Plant Syst. Evol. 142: 23-47.

Elliott, G. N. [et al. 2007], Chen, W.-M., Chou, J.-H., Wang, H.-C., Sheu, S.-Y., Perin, L., Reis, V. M., Moulin, L., Simon, M. F., Bontemps, C., Sutherland, J. M., Bessi, R., de faria, S. M., Trinick, M. J., Prescott, A. R., Sprent, J. I., & James, E. K. 2007. Burkholderia phymatum is a highly effective nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa spp. and fixes nitrogen ex planta. New Phytol. 173: 168-180.

Elliott, L. L. [et al. 2006], Mindell, R. A., & Stockey, R. A. 2006. Beardia vancouverensis gen. et spec. nov. (Juglandaceae): Permineralized fruits from the Eocene of British Columbia. American J. Bot. 93: 577-565.

Ellis, A. G., & Weis, A. E. 2006. Coexistence and differentiation of 'flowering stomes': The role of local adaptation to soil microenvironment. J. Ecol. 94: 322-335.

Ellis, B. [et al. 2009], Daly, D. C., Hickey, L. J., Johnson, K. R., Mitchell, J. D., Wilf, P., & Wing, S. L. 2009. Manual of Leaf Architecture. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Ellis, E. G., & Midgley, J. J. 1996. A new plant-animal mutualism involving a plant with sticky leaves and a resident hemipteran insect. Oecologia 106: 478-481.

Ellison, A. M., & Gotelli, N. J. 2009. Energetics and the evolution of carnivorous plants - Darwin's 'most wonderful plants in the world'. Experim. Bot. 60: 19-42.

Ellison, A. M. [et al. 1999], Farnsworth, E. J., & Merkt, R. E. 1999. Origins of mangrove ecosystems and the mangrove biodiversity anomaly. Global Ecol. Biogeog. 8: 95-115.

Ellison, A. M. [et al. 2003], Gotelli, N. J., Brewer, J. S., Cochran-Stafira, D. L., Kneitel, D. M., Miller, T. E., Worley, A. S., & Zamora, R. 2003. The evolutionary ecology of carnivorous plants. Adv. Ecol. Res. 33: 1-74.

Ellison, A. M. [et al. 2012], Butler, E. D., Hicks, E. J., Naczi, R. F. C., Calie, P. J., Bell, C. D., & Davis, C. C. 2012. Phylogeny and biogeograpjhy of the carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae. Plos ONE 7(6): e39291.

Ellison, N. W. [et al. 2006], Liston, A., Steiner, J. J., Williams, W. M., & Taylor, N. L. 2006. Molecular genetics of the clover genus (Trifolium - Leguminosae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 39: 688-705.

El Mehdawi, A. F. [et al. 2012] Cappa1, J. J., Fakra, S. C., Self, J., & Pilon-Smits, E. A. H. 2012.Interactions of selenium hyperaccumulators and nonaccumulators during cocultivation on seleniferous or nonseleniferous soil – the importance of having good neighbors. New Phytol. 194: 264-277.

El Ottra, J. H. L. [et al. 2011], Pansarin, E. R., & Piramni, J. R. 2011. Union of floral whorls in species of Neotropical Galipeinae (Rutaceae) and its implications for the evolution and pollination of the group. P. 280, in XVIII International Botanical Congress 2011, Melbourne. [Abstracts.]

El Ottra, J. H. L. [et al. 2013], Pirani, J. R., & Endress, P. K. 2013. Fusion within and between whorls of floral organs in Galipeinae (Rutaceae): Structural features and evolutionary implications. Ann. Bot. 111: 821-837.

Elsik, W. C. 1974. Nothofagus in North America. Pollen et Spores 16: 285-299.

Elven, R. [et al. 2011], Maurray, D. F., Razzhivin, V. Y., & Yurtsev, B. A. (eds). 2011 onwards. Annotated Checklist of the Panarctic Flora (PAF) Vascular Plants. PAF

Ely, F., & Luque Arias, R. 2006. Estudio morfoanatómico comparado de Eccremis coarctat (Ruiz & Pav.) Baker (Phormiaceae) en diferentes altitudes de la Cordillera de Mérida. Plantula 4: 23-37.

Emadzade, K., & Hörandl, E. 2011. Northern hemisphere origin, transoceanic dispersal, and diversification of Ranunculeae DC. (Ranunculaceae) in the Cenozoic. J. Biogeogr. 38: 517-530.

Emadzade, K. [et al. 2010], Lehnebach, C., Lockhart, P., & Hörandl, E. 2010. A molecular phylogeny, morphology and classification of genera of Ranunculeae (Ranunculaceae). Taxon 59: 809-828.

Emadzade, K. [et al. 2011], Gehrke, B., Linder, H. P., & Hörandl, E. 2011. The biogeographical history of the cosmopolitan genus Ranunculus L. (Ranunculaceae) in the temperate to meridional zones. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 58: 4-21.

Emshwiller, E. 2002. Biogeography of the Oxalis tuberosa alliance. Bot. Review 68: 128-152.

Emshwiller, E., & Doyle, J. J. 2002. Origins of domestication and polyploidy in oca (Oxalis tuberosa: Oxalidaceae). 2. Chloroplast-expressed glutamine synthase data. American J. Bot. 89: 1042-1056.

Emshwiller, E. [et al. 2009], Gardner, A., Oberlander, K. C., Heibl, C., & Dreyer, L. 2009. Phylogeny and biogeography of Oxalis: Preliminary results based on plastid loci. P. 157, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Endara, M.-J., & Coley, P. D. 2011. The resource availability hypothesis revisited: A meta-analysis. Funct. Ecol. 25: 389-399.

Endo, Y. 2012a. Anatomical diversity of fruits in Leguminosae. J. Plant Res. 125: 41-53.

Endo, Y. 2012b. Characterization and systematic implications of the diversity in timing of programmed cell death of the suspensors in Leguminosae. American J. Bot. 99: 1399-1407.

Endo, Y., & Ohashi, H. 1998. The features of cotyledon areoles in Leguminosae and their systematic utility. American J. Bot. 85: 753-759.

Endress, M. E. 2004. Apocynaceae: Brown and now. Telopea 10: 525-541.

Endress, M. E., & Bittrich, V. 1993. Molluginaceae. Pp. 419-425, in Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., & Bittrich, V. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families. Springer, Berlin.

Endress, M. E., & Bruyns, P. V. 2000. A revised classification of the Apocynaceae s. l. Bot. Review 66: 1-56.

Endress, M. E. [et al. 1996], Sennblad, B., Nilsson, S, Civeyrel, L., Chase, M. W., Huysmans, S., Grafström, E., & Bremer, B. 1996. A phylogenetic analysis of Apocynaceae s. str. and some related taxa in Gentianales: A multidisciplinary approach. Op. Bot. Belgica 7: 59-102.

Endress, M. E. [et al. 2007a], van der Ham, R. W. J. M., Nilsson, S., Civeyrel, L., Chase, M. W., Sennblad, B., Potgeiter, K., Joseph, J., Powell, M., Lorence, D., Zimmermann, Y.-M., & Albert, V. A. 2007a. A phylogenetic analysis of Alyxieae (Apocynaceae) based on rbcL, matK, trnL intron, L-F spacer sequences, and morphological characteristics. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94: 1-35.

Endress, M. E. [et al. 2007b], Liede-Schumann, S., & Meve, U. 2007b. Advances in Apocynaceae: The enlightenment, an introduction. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94: 259-267.

Endress, M. E. [et al. 2014], Liede-Schumann, S., & Meve, U. 2014. An updated classification for Apocynaceae. Phytotaxa 159: 175-194.

Endress, P. K. 1967. Systematische Studie über die verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen zwischen den Hamamelidaceen und Betulaceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 87: 431-525.

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