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Palicourea Aubl. (Rubiaceae: Psychotrieae)

Charlotte M. Taylor [webpage]
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166
Palicourea crocea in Puerto Rico
Palicourea crocea in Puerto Rico

Palicourea Aubl. includes in its traditional sense about 250 species of shrubs and small trees distributed widely in the New World tropics. Palicourea plants are typically found in the understory and subcanopy of moist to wet tropical forests, from low to high elevations. Palicourea flowers have well developed tubes and are odorless, mostly brightly colored, and assumed to be pollinated by hummingbirds, and its fleshy blue or purple-black fruits are dispersed by birds. Nearly all Palicourea species are distylous; this appears to be the ancestral condition for the genus, and it seems to have been lost in at least a few species on Caribbean islands (Taylor, 1993).

Palicourea has not been surveyed as a whole since Schumann's review of the Rubiaceae (Schumann, 1891), although several regional treatments are available (Steyermark 1972, 1974; Bacigalupo 1952; Burger & Taylor 1993; Jung-Mendaçolli et al 2007; Taylor 1989, 1993, 2000, Taylor et al. 2007) and monographic work is in progress (Taylor, 1997). Palicourea is notable for the large number of apparently closely related species it includes, and for the frequent sympatric occurrence of several different species of Palicourea in a particular site.

Palicourea is closely related to Psychotria subg. Heteropsychotria Steyerm., and in fact both morphological (Taylor, 1996) and molecular studies (Nepokroeff et al., 1999; Andersson, 2001; Andersson & Rova, 1999) show that Palicourea is polyphyletic and derived from within Subg. Heteropsychotria. These genera have been separated by their flower morphology: Palicourea has the usually colored flowers separated on developed pedicles, corollas with well developed tubes, abundant nectar, and other adaptations for hummingbird pollination, while Subg. Heteropsychotria generally has small white flowers that are pollinated by insects. Thus the reproductive characters that have been used to circumscribe Palicourea are plastic. Much work remains to be done in understanding species identities and relationships before these genera can be united in a meaningful fashion. The whole group takes the name Palicourea, and also includes species formerly called Cephaelis.

References

  • Andersson, L. 2001. Margaritopsis (Rubaiceae, Psychotrieae) is a pantropical genus. Syst. Geogr. Pl. 71: 73-85.
  • Andersson, L. & J.H.E. Rova. 1999. The rps16 intron and the phylogeny of the Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 214: 161-186.
  • Bacigalupo, N. M. 1952. Las especies argentinas de los géneros Psychotria, Palicourea y Rudgea (Rubiaceae). Darwiniana 10: 31-64.
  • Burger, W.C. & C.M. Taylor. 1993. Flora Costaricensis: Family #202. Rubiaceae. Fieldiana, Bot. n. s. 33: 1-333.
  • Jung-Mendaçolli, S.L. et al. 2007. Rubiaceae. In: M.G.L. Wanderley, G.J. Shepherd, T.S. Melhem, & A.M. Giulietti. Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo 5: 259--460.
  • Nepokroeff, M., B. Bremer & K.J. Sytsma. 1999. Reorganization of the genus Psychotria and tribe Psychotrieae (Rubiaceae) inferred from ITS and rbc L sequence data. Syst. Bot. 24: 5-27.
  • Schumann, K. 1891. Rubiaceae. In: A. Engler & K. Prantl, eds., Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien 4(4): 1-156. Engelmann, Leipzig.
  • Steyermark, J.A. 1972. Palicourea. In: B. M. Maguire & Collaborators, Flora of the Guayana Highlands. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 23: 717-777.
  • Steyermark, J.A. 1974. Rubiaceae. In: T. Lasser, ed., Flora de Venezuela 9: 1-2070. Instituto Botánico, Dirección de Recursos Naturales Renovables, Ministerio de Agricultura y Cria. Caracas, Venezuela.
  • Taylor, C.M. 1989. Revision of Palicourea (Rubiaceae) in Mexico and Central America. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 26: 1-102.
  • Taylor, C.M. 1993. Revision of Palicourea (Rubiaceae: Psychotrieae) in the West Indies. Moscosoa 7: 201-241.
  • Taylor,C.M. 1996. Overview of the Psychotrieae (Rubiaceae) in the Neotropics. Opera Bot. Belg. 7: 261-270.
  • Taylor, C.M. 1997. Conspectus of the genus Palicourea (Rubiaceae: Psychotrieae) with the description of some new species from Ecuador and Colombia. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84(2): 224-262.
  • Taylor, C.M. 2000. Palicourea. Fl. Ecuador 162(3): 134-235.
  • Taylor, C.M., M.T.V.A. Campos, & D. Zappi. 2007. Rubiaceae. In: M. Hopkins et al., Flora of the Ducke Reserve. Rodriguesia 58: 549--616.

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Provisional Species List and Synonymy for Palicourea

The following list is based on ongoing monographic work on this genus. This list is not complete for Palicourea, but represents the species and names that have so far been studied. Accepted names are in bold; synonymous names appear with an equals sign. Further information on the names can be found in the TROPICOS data base [http://www.tropicos.org/]

Cephaelis [webpage]
Cephaelis acanthacea Standl. ex Steyerm.= Palicourea acanthacea
Cephaelis dimorphandrioides Dwyer = Palicourea dimorphandrioides
Cephaelis grandistipula Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea grandistipula
Cephaelis jacobinioides Standl. = Palicourea remyana
Cephaelis jamesonii Standl. = Palicourea fuchsioides
Cephaelis remyana (Baill.) Standl. = Palicourea remyana
Cephaelis rigidifolia Dwyer & M.V. Hayden = Palicourea rigidifolia
Cephaelis spectabilis Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea grandistipula
Cephaelis subtomentosa (Ruiz & Pav.) Spreng.= Palicourea subtomentosa

Coussarea
Coussarea jefensis Dwyer = Palicourea tubuliflora

Palicourea
Palicourea abbreviata Rusby, Colombia
Palicourea acanthacea Standl. ex C.M. Taylor, Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea acanthaceoides Wernham = Palicourea macrobotrys
Palicourea acetosoides Wernham, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela
Palicourea aculeifera Steyerm. = Palicourea longistipulata
Palicourea adusta Standl., Nicaragua to Panama
Palicourea affinis Standl., Central Amazonia
Palicourea albertsmithii Standl., Colombia, Venezuela
Palicourea albiflora Standl., Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea albocaerulea C.M. Taylor, Costa Rica
Palicourea alpina (Sw.) DC., Greater Antilles
Palicourea amapaensis Steyerm., Brazil, Guianas
Palicourea amethystina (Ruiz & Pav.) DC., Andes
Palicourea anacardifolia (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Roem. & Schult.) Standl. =

Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea anceps Standl., Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea andaluciana Standl., Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea anderssoniana C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea andrei Standl., Ecuador, Colombia
Palicourea angustifolia Kunth, Andes to Central America
Palicourea anianguana C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea anisoloba (Muell. Arg.) B.M. Boom & M.T. Campos, Amazonian Brazil
Palicourea antioquiana Standl., Colombia
Palicourea aphthosa Standl. = Palicourea sulphurea
Palicourea apicata Kunth, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea aragmatophylla K. Schum. & K. Krause= Palicourea heterochroma
Palicourea aristei Standl.= Palicourea albertsmithii
Palicourea aschersonianoides (Wernham) Steyerm., Venezuela, Colombia
Palicourea asplundii C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea attenuata Rusby, Bolivia
Palicourea aurantiaca Miq. = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea aurata Mart.= Palicourea rigida
Palicourea austin-smithii Standl. = Palicourea salicifolia
Palicourea australis C.M. Taylor, Brazil
Palicourea awa C.M. Taylor, Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea azurea C.M. Taylor, Ecuador

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Palicourea balnearia Standl.= Palicourea stipularis
Palicourea barbinervia DC.= Palicourea guianensis
Palicourea bella (Standl.) Dwyer, Costa Rica, Panama
Palicourea bellula C.M. Taylor, Costa Rica
Palicourea blanchetiana Schltdl., eastern Brazil
Palicourea bostrychostachya Standl.= Palicourea thyrsiflora
Palicourea boyacana Standl., Colombia
Palicourea brachyloba (Muell. Arg.) B.M. Boom = (probably) Palicourea guianensis
Palicourea brachypoda (Muell. Arg.) L.B. Sm. & Downs= Psychotria brachypoda,

Brazil
Palicourea brachystigma Urb.= Psychotria sp., Haiti
Palicourea bracteosa Standl., Amazonia
Palicourea brenesii Standl., Costa Rica
Palicourea brevithyrsa Britton & Standl.= Palicourea alpina
Palicourea bryophila Standl = Palicourea heterochroma
Palicourea buchtienii Standl., Bolivia
Palicourea buntingii Steyerm., Venezuela

Palicourea caerulea (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult.= Psychotria caerulea Ruiz &

Pav., Andes
Palicourea caerulescens Suess. = Palicourea salicifolia
Palicourea calantha Standl., Amazonia
Palicourea caldasana Standl. = Palicourea demissa
Palicourea caloneura Rusby, Colombia
Palicourea calophlebia Standl., Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea calophlebioides C.M. Taylor, Costa Rica
Palicourea calophylla DC., northern Amazonia
Palicourea calothyrsus K. Schum. & K. Krause, Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea calycina Benth., Ecuador
Palicourea canaguensis Steyerm., = Palicourea demissa
Palicourea canarina C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea candida C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea caprifoliacea Wernham = Palicourea lyristipula
Palicourea cardonae Steyerm., Venezuela
Palicourea carpirostrata Dwyer = Palicourea ochnoides
Palicourea caucana Standl., Colombia
Palicourea chaquirana Standl., Colombia
Palicourea charianthema Stand., Peru, Brazil, Colombia
Palicourea chignul C.M. Taylor, Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea chimboracensis Standl., Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea chimo Standl. & Steyerm. = Palicourea demissa
Palicourea chionantha DC. = Psychotria mapourioides DC.
Palicourea chiriquina Standl., Panama
Palicourea chlorocaerulea K.Krause = Palicourea weberbaueri
Palicourea chrysorrhachis Bremek. = Palicourea longistipulata
Palicourea circinata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Standl. = Psychotria ernestii
K. Krause, Amazonia
Palicourea clerodendroides C.M. Taylor, Ecuador, Peru
Palicourea coccinea Poit. ex DC. = Palicourea crocea
Palicourea cogolloi C.M. Taylor, Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea condensata Standl. = Palicourea lasiantha
Palicourea condorica C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea conferta (Benth.) Sandwith, Peru to Colombia
Palicourea consobrina Standl. = Palicourea herrerae
Palicourea copensis (Dwyer) C.M. Taylor = Palicourea seemannii
Palicourea coriacea (Cham.) K. Schum., eastern South America
Palicourea corniculata C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea cornifolia Standl. = Palicourea buchtienii
Palicourea cornigera C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea corymbifera (Muell. Arg.) Standl., Amazonia
Palicourea costaricensis Benth. = Palicourea padifolia
Palicourea crocea (Sw.) Roem. & Schult., widespread in lowlands
Palicourea crocea var. riparia (Benth.) Griseb. = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea croceoides Ham., Lesser Antilles, Amazonia
Palicourea crystallina C.M. Taylor, Peru
Palicourea cuatrecasasii Standl. ex Steyerm., Colombi
Palicourea cujabensis Schltdl. = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea cutucuana C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea cyanantha Standl., Colombia
Palicourea cyanea Urb. = Psychotria toensis Britton & P. Wilson, Cuba
Palicourea cyclotis Standl. = Palicourea obovata
Palicourea cymosa (Ruiz & Pav.) Standl., western Amazonia

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Palicourea danielis Standl., Colombia
Palicourea demissa Standl., nothern Andes
Palicourea densa Standl., Colombia
Palicourea denslowiae J.H. Kirkbr., Colombia
Palicourea deviae C.M. Taylor, Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea didymocarpa (A. Rich.) Griseb. = Psychotria cornigera Benth.,

South American lowlands
Palicourea dimorphandrioides (Dwyer) C.M. Taylor, Panama, Colombia
Palicourea discolor K. Krause, Costa Rica, Panama
Palicourea diuretica Mart. ex Schltdl. = Palicourea rigida
Palicourea dives Standl. = Psychotria dives (Standl.) C.M. Taylor. Colombia
Palicourea domingensis (Jacq.) DC. = Psychotria domingensis Jacq., Antilles,
Central America
Palicourea dorantha Werham, western Colombia
Palicourea duckei Standl. = Palicourea anisoloba

Palicourea eburnea C.M. Taylor, Colombia
Palicourea effusa Standl. = Palicourea lineariflora
Palicourea egena Standl. = Palicourea weberbaueri
Palicourea elliptica Kunth = Psychotria ernestii K. Krause, Amazonia
Palicourea elongata Britton & P. Wilson ex Britton = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea ensiformis Steyerm. = Palicourea angustifolia
Palicourea eriantha DC., Cuba, Hispaniola
Palicourea exiguiflora Standl. = Psychotria tipuanensis Standl.
Palicourea expetens Standl. = Palicourea corymbifera

Palicourea fastigiata Kunth, Amazonia
Palicourea fendleri Standl. = Palicourea semirasa
Palicourea flavescens Kunth, Ecuador, Peru, Colombia
Palicourea flavifolia (Rusby) Standl., Bolivia
Palicourea foldatsii Steyerm., Venezuela, Colombia
Palicourea fragilior Wernham = Palicourea calothyrsus
Palicourea frontinoensis Cogollo & C.M. Taylor, Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea fuchsioides C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea fulgens (Muell. Arg.) Standl., eastern Brazil

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Palicourea gachetaensis M.C.G. Kirkbr. = Palicourea tamaensis
Palicourea galeottiana M. Martens = Psychotria galeottiana (M. Martens)

C.M. Taylor & Lorence, Central America
Palicourea garciae Standl., Costa Rica to Colombia
Palicourea garciae Steyerm. = Palicourea steyermarkii
Palicourea garcioides C.M. Taylor, Colombia
Palicourea gardenioides (Schiedw.) Hemsl. = Psychotria gardenioides Schiedw.,
Mexico
Palicourea gardneriana (Muell. Arg.) Standl. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Palicourea gelsemiiflora C.M. Taylor, Peru
Palicourea gemmiflora C.M. Taylor, Peru
Palicourea gentryi C.M. Taylor, Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea gibbosa Standl. = Palicourea pyramidalis
Palicourea gilgiana Standl. = Psychotria brachypoda
Palicourea glabrata H. Winkl. = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Palicourea glabriflora Steyerm., Venezuela
Palicourea glandulifera C.M. Taylor, Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea glaziovii Standl. = Psychotria ararum C.M. Taylor, southeastern Brazil
Palicourea gomezii C.M. Taylor, Costa Rica to Peru
Palicourea graciliflora Standl. = Palicourea hospitalis
Palicourea grandibractea Dwyer = Palicourea ochnoides
Palicourea grandiflora (Kunth) Standl., Amazonia
Palicourea grandifolia (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Standl., Amazonia
Palicourea grandistipula (Standl. ex Steyerm.) C.M. Taylor, Colombia
Palicourea guianensis Aubl., widespread in wet lowlands

Palicourea haenkeana DC. = Palicourea obovata
Palicourea hammelii C.M. Taylor, Costa Rica, Panama
Palicourea harlingii C.M. Taylor, Ecuador, Colombia
Palicourea hassleriana Chodat = Psychotria hassleriana (Chodat) Standl.,

Paraguay
Palicourea hebeantha DC. = Palicourea marcgravii
Palicourea hedyosmoides Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea hedyotoides Wernham = Palicourea calothyrsus
Palicourea heilbornii Standl., Ecuador
Palicourea herrerae Standl., Peru
Palicourea herzogii Standl., Bolivia
Palicourea heterantha Standl. = Palicourea stipularis
Palicourea heterochroma K. Schum. & K. Krause, Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea hispidula Standl. = Psychotria setulifera C.M. Taylor, southeastern
Brazil
Palicourea hoehnei K. Krause = Palicourea marcgravii
Palicourea holmgrenii Standl., Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea hospitalis Standl., Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea huberi Steyerm., Guayana Highlands
Palicourea huigrensis Standl. = Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea hyacinthifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult. = Palicourea obovata
Palicourea hypomalaca Standl. = Palicourea guianensis

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Palicourea ianthina C.M Taylor, Panama
Palicourea insignis Steyerm., Venezuela
Palicourea insularis Ridl. = Erithalis insularis (Ridl.) Zappi & T.S. Nunes, eastern

Brazil
Palicourea intermedia Oerst. ex Pol. = Palicourea angustifolia
Palicourea ionantha Standl., Colombia
Palicourea iquitoensis K. Krause, Peru
Palicourea irrasiflora Wernham, Peru: identity unclear
Palicourea irwinii Steyerm., Guianas

Palicourea jahnii Standl., Venezuela
Palicourea jamesonii Standl. = Palicourea lineata
Palicourea jaramilloi C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea jatunsachensis C.M. Taylor, Amazonian Colombia, Peru, Ecuador
Palicourea jelskii Standl., Peru
Palicourea josephi Benoist, Ecuador: identity unclear
Palicourea juruana K. Krause = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea justicioides Standl., Colombia
Palicourea justicioides var. macrocalyx M.C.G. Kirkbr. = Palicourea kirkbrideae

Palicourea kalbreyeri Standl. = Palicourea lasiorrhachis
Palicourea kanehirae Standl. = Palicourea macbridei
Palicourea kerasocarpa K. Krause, Ecuador: identity unclear
Palicourea killipii Standl., western Colombia
Palicourea kirkbrideae C.M. Taylor, Colombia
Palicourea klugii Standl. = Palicourea nigricans
Palicourea kuhlmannii Standl., identity unclear, perhaps = Palicourea iquitoensis

Palicourea lachnantha Standl., western Amazonia
Palicourea lagesii K. Schum. & K. Krause = Palicourea lasiantha
Palicourea lanceolata Benth. ex Oerst. = Palicourea angustifolia
Palicourea lancifera Standl. & L.O. Williams, Costa Rica, Panama
Palicourea lancigera (Standl.) Steyerm., Guayana Highlands
Palicourea laniflora Standl. = Palicourea lasiantha
Palicourea lasiantha K. Krause, western Amazonia
Palicourea lasioneura K. Krause = Palicourea macrobotrys
Palicourea lasiophylla K. Krause, western Amazonia
Palicourea lasiorrhachis Oerst., Costa Rica to Ecuador
Palicourea lasseri Steyerm. = Palicourea apicata
Palicourea latifolia K. Krause, Colombia, Peru
Palicourea laxa Roem. & Schult., Peru, Ecuador
Palicourea lehmannii (K. Schum. & K. Krause) Standl., Colombia
Palicourea lemoniana C.M. Taylor, Venezuela
Palicourea leucantha Donn. Sm., Mexico, Guatemala
Palicourea leuconeura Standl., Venezuela, Colombia
Palicourea levis Standl. = Psychotria levis (Standl.) C.M. Taylor, Peru
Palicourea libana Standl., Colombia
Palicourea lindenii Standl. = Palicourea perquadrangularis
Palicourea lineariflora Wernham, Venezuela, Colombia
Palicourea lineata Benth., Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Palicourea lobbii Standl., Ecuador
Palicourea longibracteata Bartl. ex DC. = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea longiflora (Aubl.) A. Rich. = Palicourea longiflora DC.
Palicourea longiflora DC., Amazonia
Palicourea longifolia Kunth, Colombia: identity unclear
Palicourea longifolia St. Hil. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Palicourea longipedunculata Gardner, eastern Brazil
Palicourea longipes Rusby = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea longistipula Standl., Peru
Palicourea longistipulata subsp. chrysorrhachis (Bremek.) Steyerm., Amazonia
Palicourea longistipulata (Muell. Arg.) Standl. subsp. longistipulata, Amazonia
Palicourea lopeziana Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea loxensis C.M. Taylor, Ecuador, Peru
Palicourea lucentifolia Standl. = Palicourea quadrifolia
Palicourea lucidula Standl. = Palicourea bracetosa
Palicourea lugoana C.M. Taylor, Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea lugubris K. Schum. & K. Krause = Palicourea conferta
Palicourea lusinaturalis Dwyer = Psychotria luxurians Rusby, Costa Rica to Brazil
Palicourea luteonivea C.M. Taylor, Ecuador, Colombia
Palicourea lutulenta Standl., Colombia
Palicourea lyristipula Wernham, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador

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Palicourea macarthurorum C.M. Taylor, western Amazonia
Palicourea macbridei Standl., Peru
Palicourea macrantha Loes., Mexico
Palicourea macrobotrys (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult., Amazonia
Palicourea macrocalyx Standl., Costa Rica
Palicourea macrocarpa Kunth = Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea macrophylla (Kunth) Standl. = Palicourea grandifolia
Palicourea macrosepala K Krause = Palicourea discolor
Palicourea mansoana (Muell. Arg.) Standl., western Amazonia
Palicourea mapirensis Standl. = Palicourea mansoana
Palicourea marcgravii A. St. Hil., eastern Amazonia to southern Brazil
Palicourea martinicensis Standl. = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea melheana Jung-Mendaçolli = Palicourea rudgeoides
Palicourea mello-barretoi Standl., Brazil
Palicourea membranifolia K. Schum. & K. Krause = Psychotria berteroana DC.,

widespread in wet lowlands
Palicourea mexiae Standl. = Palicourea seemannii
Palicourea mexicana Benth. = Palicourea padifolia
Palicourea micrantha Urb. & Ekman = Psychotria sp., Hispaniola
Palicourea microcarpa (Ruiz & Pav.) Zappi, Peru
Palicourea molliramis K. Schum. & K. Krause = Psychotria hebeclada DC.,
Mexico to Ecuador
Palicourea mollis H. Winkl. = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea montensis Dwyer = Psychotria croceovenosa Dwyer, Panama
Palicourea montivaga Standl., Costa Rica, Panama
Palicourea moritzii Wernham = Palicourea angustifolia
Palicourea myriantha Standl., Colombia
Palicourea myrtifolia K. Schum. & K. Krause, Ecuador

Palicourea nicotianifolia auctt. = Palicourea calophylla
Palicourea nicotianifolia Cham. & Schltdl. = Palicourea macrobotrys
Palicourea nigrescens M. Martens & Galeotti = Psychotria mexiae Standl.,

Mexico, Central America
Palicourea nigricans K. Krause, Amazonia
Palicourea nitidella (Muell. Arg.) Standl., eastern Amazonia
Palicourea nubicola Steyerm. = Palicourea apicata
Palicourea nubigena Standl., Colombia

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Palicourea obesiflora Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea chimboracensis
Palicourea obliqua H. Winkl. = Palicourea mansoana
Palicourea obovata (Ruiz & Pav.) DC., Peru, Ecuador
Palicourea obtusata K. Krause, Venezuela
Palicourea ochnoides Dwyer, Panama
Palicourea ochreata Wernham = Palicourea flavescens
Palicourea officinalis Mart., Brazil
Palicourea oreadium Standl. = Palicourea lineata
Palicourea orosiana C.M. Taylor, Costa Rica, Panama
Palicourea orquidea C.M. Taylor, Colombia
Palicourea orthoneura Standl. = Psychotria allenii Standl., Panama to Ecuador
Palicourea otongaensis C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea ottohuberi J.H. Kirkbr., Venezuela
Palicourea ovalifolia (Rusby) Standl. = Palicourea mansoana
Palicourea ovalis Standl., Panama to Ecuador

Palicourea pacapacensis K.Krause, Ecuador: identity unclear, perhaps =

Psychotria berteroana DC.
Palicourea pachycalyx Standl., western Amazonia
Palicourea padifolia (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) C.M. Taylor & Lorence, Mexico
through Panama
Palicourea palustris A.C. Gilman & C.M. Taylor, Costa Rica
Palicourea panamensis Standl. = Palicourea discolor
Palicourea papyracea Rusby= Palicourea grandiflora
Palicourea paradisiaca Standl., identity unclear, perhaps = Palicourea ovalis
Palicourea parviflora Benth. = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea pasti Wernham = Palicourea apicata
Palicourea patens (Sw.) Urb. = Psychotria patens Sw., Greater Antilles
Palicourea pauciflora Standl., Costa Rica to Colombia
Palicourea pavetta (Sw.) DC. = Psychotria domingensis Jacq., Antilles,
Central America
Palicourea pearcei Standl. = Palicourea ponasae
Palicourea pendula C.M. Taylor, Panama
Palicourea pennellii Standl. = Palicourea calothyrsus
Palicourea pensilis J.H. Kirkbr., Venezuela
Palicourea pentandra (Sw.) K. Schum. = Psychotria domingensis Jacq., Antilles,
Central America
Palicourea perquadrangularis Wernham, northern Andes
Palicourea petiolaris Kunth, Venezuela, Colombia
Palicourea phanaerandra Standl. & Steyerm. = Psychotria phanerandra (Standl.
& Steyerm.) Lorence, Mexico to Panama
Palicourea phoeniciana Standl. = Palicourea macrantha
Palicourea pittieri Standl., Venezuela, Colombia
Palicourea platypodina (Muell. Arg.)Standl. = Palicourea marcgravii
Palicourea plowmanii C.M. Taylor, western Amazonia
Palicourea pluricostata Standl. = Psychotria pluricostata (Standl.) C.M. Taylor,
Ecuador
Palicourea polyneura K. Krause = Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea ponasae K. Krause, Peru
Palicourea popayanensis Benth. = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Palicourea populifolia Rusby = Palicourea petiolaris
Palicourea premontana C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea prodiga Standl. ex C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea prolata Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Palicourea psittacorum Standl., Colombia to Peru
Palicourea pulchra Griseb., Jamaica
Palicourea pulchra var. hispidula Proctor = Palicourea pulchra
Palicourea punicea (Ruiz & Pav.) DC., southern Amazonia
Palicourea purdiei Standl. = Palicourea caloneura
Palicourea purpurascens Urb. = Psychotria toensis Britton & P. Wilson, Cuba
Palicourea purpurea C.M. Taylor, Costa Rica, Panama
Palicourea purpusii Standl. = Palicourea macrantha
Palicourea pustulata Steyerm., Venezuela
Palicourea pyramidalis Standl., Panama to Ecuador

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Palicourea quadrifolia (Rudge) DC. subsp. quadrifolia, east and central

Amazonia
Palicourea quadrifolia subsp. leticiana C.M. Taylor, northwestern Amazonia
Palicourea quadrilateralis C.M. Taylor, Colombia
Palicourea querceticola K. Schum. & K. Krause = Palicourea angustifolia
Palicourea quinquepyrena C.M. Taylor, Ecuador, Peru

Palicourea radians (Muell. Arg.) Standl., Brazil
Palicourea radicans Standl. = Palicourea conferta
Palicourea raimondii Standl,  identity not clear
Palicourea remyana (Baill.) C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea rigida Kunth, eastern South America
Palicourea rigida var. brevipes Rusby = Palicourea grandiflora
Palicourea rigidifolia (Dwyer & M.V. Hayden) Dwyer, Panama, Colombia
Palicourea riparia Benth. = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea roraimae Standl. = Psychotria oblita Werham, Venezuela
Palicourea roseiflora K. Schum. & K. Krause = Palicourea nitidella
Palicourea roseofaucis C.M. Taylor, Panama
Palicourea rudgeoides (Muell. Arg.) Standl., southeastern Brazil

Palicourea salicifolia Standl., Costa Rica, Panama
Palicourea salmonea K. Schum. & K. Krause = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Palicourea sandiensis K. Krause = Palicourea flavifolia
Palicourea schimpffii Diels = Palicourea tectoneura
Palicourea seemannii Standl., Nicaragua to Peru
Palicourea seleri Loes. = Psychotria galeottiana (M. Martens) C.M. Taylor &

Lorence, Central America
Palicourea sellowiana DC. = Palicourea guianensis
Palicourea semirasa Standl. Colombia, Venezuela
Palicourea skotakii C.M. Taylor, Costa Rica, Panama
Palicourea smithiana C.M. Taylor, Peru
Palicourea sodiroi Standl., Ecuador
Palicourea sonans Mart. ex Schltdl. = Palicourea rigida
Palicourea sopkinii C.M. Taylor, Colombia
Palicourea spathacea C.M. Taylor, Costa Rica
Palicourea sprucei (Muell. Arg.) K. Schum. = Palicourea grandifolia
Palicourea standleyana C.M. Taylor, Costa Rica to Ecuador
Palicourea stellata C.M. Taylor, Colombia
Palicourea stenoclada (Muell. Arg.) Standl. = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea stenophylla K. Krause = Rudgea stenophylla (K. Krause) Standl., Peru
Palicourea stenophylla Spreng. = Palicourea angustifolia
Palicourea stenosepala Standl., Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea stenostachya K. Krause,  identity unclear, perhaps = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea stevensonii Standl. = Psychotria capitata Ruiz & Pav., Guatemala to
southeastern Brazil
Palicourea steyermarkii C.M. Taylor, Venezuela
Palicourea stipularis Benth., Andes
Palicourea strepens Mart. ex Schltdl. = Palicourea rigida
Palicourea subaenofusca (Muell. Arg.) Standl. = Palicourea marcgravii
Palicourea subalata Standl. ex Steyerm., Colombia, Ecuador
Palicourea subalatoides C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea subrubra Pol. = Palicourea padifolia
Palicourea subscandens Standl. ex Steyerm., Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Palicourea subsecunda K. Schum. = Palicourea sodiroi
Palicourea subspicata Huber, western Amazonia
Palicourea subtomentosa (Ruiz & Pav.) C.M. Taylor subsp. subtomentosa, Peru
to Bolivia
Palicourea subtomentosa subsp. lojana C.M. Taylor, Ecuador to Peru
Palicourea sulphurea (Ruiz & Pav.) DC., Andes
Palicourea susungensis Standl.ex Steyerm. = Palicourea garciae

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Palicourea tabernifolia DC. = Psychotria domingensis Jacq., Antilles,

Central America
Palicourea tachirensis Standl. & Steyerm. = Psychotria schlimii Standl.,
Venezuela
Palicourea talamancana Standl. & L.O. Williams= Palicourea brenesii
Palicourea tamaensis (Standl. & Steyerm.) Steyerm., Venezuela, Colombia
Palicourea tectoneura K. Schum. & K. Krause, Ecuador
Palicourea tenuis Standl. = Palicourea herrerae
Palicourea tepuicola Steyerm., Venezuela
Palicourea ternata Urb. = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea tetraphylla Cham. & Schltdl., Brazil
Palicourea thermydri J.H. Kirkbr., Colombia
Palicourea thyrsiflora (Ruiz & Pav.) DC., Andes, Venezuela and Colombia
through Bolivia
Palicourea tilaranensis C.M. Taylor, Costa Rica
Palicourea tinctoria (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult. = Psychotria tinctoria Ruiz
& Pav., Ecuador, Peru
Palicourea toensis (Britton & P. Wilson) Standl. = Psychotria toensis Britton &
P. Wilson, Cuba
Palicourea torbeciana Urb. & Ekman = Psychotria sp., Hispaniola
Palicourea toroi Standl., Colombia
Palicourea trichoneura Diels = Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea triphylla DC., widespread in continental lowlands, Cuba
Palicourea tubuliflora Dwyer, Panama
Palicourea tumidonodosa Dwyer, Panama
Palicourea tunjaenis C.M. Taylor, Colombia

Palicourea ulloana C.M. Taylor, Ecuador
Palicourea urbaniana Standl., Brazil

Palicourea vacillans Standl. = Palicourea marcgravii
Palicourea vagans Wernham, Colombia
Palicourea vaginata Benth., Colombia
Palicourea velutina Schltdl. = Palicourea marcgravii
Palicourea venezuelensis Steyerm. = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Palicourea veraguensis Dwyer = Palicourea lasiorrhachis
Palicourea verrucifera Standl. = Palicourea buchtienii
Palicourea verticillata DC. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Palicourea vestita Standl., Costa Rica, Panama
Palicourea veterinariorum J.H. Kirkbr., Brazil
Palicourea violacea (Aubl.) A. Rich. = Psychotria capitata
Palicourea virens (Poepp. & Endl.) Standl., eastern Amazonia
Palicourea viridis (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult. = Psychotria viridis Ruiz & Pav.,

Costa Rica to Bolivia
Palicourea vulcanalis Standl. ex C.M. Taylor, Colombia, Ecuador

Palicourea weberbaueri K. Krause, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Palicourea weddelliana (Muell. Arg.) Standl. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Palicourea wilesii C.D. Adams, Jamaica
Palicourea williamsii Rusby= Palicourea mansoana
Palicourea wurdackiana J.H. Kirkbr., Venezuela

Palicourea xanthina DC. = Palicourea longiflora

Palicourea zarucchii C.M. Taylor, Colombia

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Psychotria
Psychotria aenofusca Muell. Arg. = Palicourea marcgravii
Psychotria amazonica Muell. Arg. = Palicourea grandifolia
Psychotria amethystina Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea amethystina
Psychotria amplissima Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea amplissima
Psychotria anisoloba Muell. Arg. = Palicourea anisoloba
Psychotria bangii Romero, nom. illeg. = Palicourea attenuata
Psychotria barraensis Muell. Arg. = Palicourea longiflora
Psychotria boyacana Standl. = Palicourea tunjaensis
Psychotria brenesii Standl. = Palicourea standleyana
Psychotria cataractarum Muell. Arg. = Palicourea guianensis
Psychotria consanguinea Muell. Arg. = Palicourea longiflora
Psychotria conferta Benth. = Palicourea conferta
Psychotria copensis Dwyer = Palicourea seemannii
Psychotria copeyana Standl. ex L.O. Williams = Palicourea garciae
Psychotria corymbifera Muell. Arg. = Palicourea corymbifera
Psychotria cymosa Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea cymosa
Psychotria diversicolor Muell. Arg. = Palicourea longiflora
Psychotria edaphothrix Steyerm. = Palicourea bracteosa
Psychotria fraterna Muell. Arg. = Palicourea longiflora
Psychotria fulgens Muell. Arg. = Palicourea fulgens
Psychotria gallerana Standl. = Palicourea garciae
Psychotria gardneriana Muell. Arg. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Psychotria hyacinthiflora Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea obovata
Psychotria laxa Ruiz & Pav., hom. illeg. = Palicourea laxa
Psychotria longiflora (Aubl.) Willd. = Palicourea longiflora
Psychotria longistipulata Muell. Arg. = Palicourea longistipulata
Psychotria mansoana Muell. Arg. = Palicourea mansoana
Psychotria marcgravii (A. St. Hil.) Spreng. = Palicourea marcgravii
Psychotria mexicana Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. = Palicourea padifolia
Psychotria mitis Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea sulphurea
Psychotria neurothrix Muell. Arg. = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Psychotria nitidella Muell. Arg. = Palicourea nitidella
Psychotria obovata Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea obovata
Psychotria obscurata Muell. Arg. = Palicourea grandiflora
Psychotria ovalifolia Rusby = Palicourea mansoana
Psychotria platypodina Muell. Arg. = Palicourea marcgravii
Psychotria punicea Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea punicea
Psychotria quadrifolia Rudge = Palicourea quadrifolia
Psychotria radians Muell. Arg. = Palicourea radians
Palicourea rudgeoides Muell. Arg. = Palicourea rudgeoides
Psychotria salicifolia Rusby, nom. illeg. = Palicourea attenuata
Psychotria sancti-caroli Standl. = Palicourea longistipulata
Psychotria squarrosa Muell. Arg. = Palicourea rudgeoides
Psychotria stenoclada Muell. Arg. = Palicourea croceoides
Psychotria stenophylla Spreng. = Palicourea angustifolia
Psychotria subcrocea Muell. Arg. = Palicourea croceoides
Psychotria subscandens Muell. Arg. = Palicourea croceoides
Psychotria subtomentosa Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea subtomentosa
Psychotria sulphurea Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea sulphurea
Psychotria tabacifolia Muell. Arg. = Palicourea macrobotrys
Psychotria tetraphylla (Cham. & Schltdl.) Muell. Arg. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Psychotria thyrsiflora Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Psychotria verrucosa Muell. Arg. = Palicourea corymbifera
Psychotria verticillata (DC.) Muell. Arg. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Psychotria weddelliana Muell. Arg. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Psychotria xanthophylla Muell. Arg. = Palicourea coriacea
Rudgea lehmannii K. Schum. & K. Krause = Palicourea lehmannii
Uragoga lineata (Benth.) Kuntze = Palicourea lineata
Uragoga remyana Baill. = Palicourea remyana
Watsonamra sordidiflora Rusby = Palicourea lasiantha

Text and Images, unless otherwise indicated, Copyright © by Charlotte M. Taylor. All rights reserved.

This page was revised on June 1, 2009.

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