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Cephaelis Sw. (Rubiaceae: Psychotrieae)

Cephaelis axillaris Sw. = Psychotria aubletiana Steyerm. in Costa Rica Charlotte M. Taylor [webpage]
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166

Cephaelis Sw. has been shown to comprise a polyphyletic assemblage of species, many of which are more closely related to species in other genera than they are to each other (Steyermark, 1972). Cephaelis was originally distinguished by its inflorescence arrangement, capitate or subcapitate with well developed, sometimes involucral bracts surrounding individual capitula and/or the entire inflorescence. These characteristics are highly variable in many genera (Robbrecht, 1988), and thus are no longer considered good indicators of evolutionary relationships. Therefore, Cephaelis is not currently recognized as a separate genus, and its species have been or are being transferred to other genera, in most cases Psychotria (see "List of Netropical Cephaelis Names", below).

Psychotria poeppigiana Mull. Arg. in GuyanaThe type of Cephaelis is C. muscosa (Jacq.) Sw. (type cons.), originally described from Martinique, which belongs to the Neotropical group Psychotria Subg. Heteropsychotria Steyerm. (Taylor, 1996). Thus, "Cephaelis" in its original circumscription was completely Neotropical; species from Africa and Asia that have been included in this genus belong to Psychotria Subg. Psychotria or other genera. Many of the African species with capitate, bracteate inflorescences were originally described in Grumilea, Uragoga or Evea; Uragoga and Evea were also based on Neotropical type species, and are synonyms of Cephaelis.

Several names in Cephaelis have entered into wide use in herbaria but were never actually published. Some principal sources for these unpublished names are:

1.) photos of type specimens from the Rockefeller project, distributed by F: several names originally published in Psychotria were simply written on these photos as "Cephaelis", with no indication of the genus of original publication. This apparently was done as a curatorial indication that these species would be better placed in Cephaelis. In particular, Mueller Argoviensis did not recognize the genus Cephaelis, so any Cephaelis name attributed to him was not published in that form. This list also contains several incorrectly spelled epithets.

2.) early volumes of Index Kewensis: several names that were actually published in Evea, a synonym of Cephaelis, were "corrected" in early parts of this work, and cited as if they had been originally published in Cephaelis.

3.) annotations on specimens: in particular, several of these were distributed through annotations by K. Krause (B), K. Schumann (B), and Dwyer (MO).


  • Robbrecht, E. 1988. Tropical Woody Rubiaceae. Opera Bot. Belg. 1: 1-271.
  • Steyermark, J. A. 1972. Psychotria. In: B. M. Maguire & Collaborators, Flora of the Guayana Highlands. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 23: 406-717.
  • Taylor, C. M. 1996. Overview of the Psychotrieae (Rubiaceae) in the Neotropics. Opera Bot. Belg. 7: 261-270.

    Cephaelis tomentosa (Aubl.) Vahl. = Psychotria poeppigiana Mull. Arg. List of Neotropical Cephaelis Names

    The list below gives validly published names for neotropical species of Cephaelis and their currently accepted identities. Place of valid publication and other information can be found for these names by consulting TROPICOS or by clicking on the linked name. The indication "??" following a name means that no combination has yet been made and no taxonomic equivalence has been indicated in any other genus; however, these names should not be assumed to be transferrable to Psychotria, but may belong to other genera. For names from regions outside of the Americas, a similar list is not yet available; a partial list of nomenclatural equivalents for individual names may be found by consulting TROPICOS. For names found on type photos but not included on this list, see the notes on unpublished names, above.

    All of the names below are linked to their TROPICOS records. At the last revision of this page, TROPICOS may not have included all the published names in this group, but this database is continually updated.

    C. acanthacea Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea acanthacea Standl. ex C.M. Taylor
    C. acreana Krause = Psychotria ostreophora (Wernham) C.M. Taylor
    C. acuminata H. Karst. = ??
    C. aetantha Sandwith = Psychotria aetantha (Sandwith) Steyerm.
    C. affinis Standl. = Carapichea affinis (Standl.) L. Andersson
    C. alba (Aubl.) Willd. = Psychotria ulviformis Steyerm.
    C. altsonii Sandwith = Psychotria altsonii (Sandwith) Steyerm.
    C. ambigua DC. = Psychotria salzmanniana Müll. Arg.
    C. amoena Bremek. = Psychotria colorata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Müll. Arg.
    C. aneurophylla Standl. = Notopleura aneurophylla (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
    C. anisopoda Standl. = Psychotria anisopoda (Standl.) Steyerm.
    C. appendiculata (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria appendiculata Müll. Arg.
    C. attenuata Miq. = Psychotria sessilis (Vell.) Müll. Arg.
    C. axillaris Sw. = Psychotria aubletiana Steyerm.
    C. barcellana (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg.
    C. bearii Linden = ??
    C. bella Standl. = Psychotria ostreophora (Wernham) C.M. Taylor
    C. beskeana Schltdl. = Psychotria beskeana (Schltdl.) Müll. Arg.
    C. biternata (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria biternata Müll. Arg.
    C. blepharophora Standl. = Psychotria blepharophora (Standl.) Steyerm.
    C. bolivarensis Standl. & Steyerm. = Psychotria bolivarensis (Standl. & Steyerm.) Steyerm.
    C. borucana Ant. Molina R. = Carapichea affinis (Standl.) L. Andersson
    C. botryocephala Standl. = Psychotria botryocephala (Standl.) Steyerm.
    C. bracteocardia DC. = Psychotria bracteocardia (DC.) Müll. Arg.
    C. bradei Standl. = ??
    C. bristanii Dwyer & M.V. Hayden = Notopleura polyphlebia (Donn. Sm.) C.M. Taylor
    C. cacuminis Steyerm. = Psychotria aubletiana var. cacuminis (Steyerm.) Steyerm.
    C. callithrix Miq. = Psychotria callithrix (Miq.) Steyerm.
    C. calycina Lindl. = Psychotria lindleyana Müll. Arg.
    C. camponutans Dwyer & M.V. Hayden = Notopleura camponutans (Dwyer & M.V. Hayden) C.M. Taylor
    C. campyloneuroides (Standl.) Standl. = Psychotria campyloneuroides (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
    C. caruruensis Standl. ex Steyerm. = ??
    C. caudata Standl. ex Steyerm. = Psychotria oleandrella (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
    C. chiapensis (Standl.) Standl. = Psychotria molinarum Lorence
    C. chiriquiensis Standl. = Psychotria chiriquiensis (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
    C. chlorochlamys Standl. = Psychotria hazenii Standl.
    C. colorata Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. = Psychotria colorata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Müll. Arg.
    C. conephoroides Rusby = Psychotria conephoroides (Rusby) C.M. Taylor
    C. correae Dwyer & M.V. Hayden = Psychotria correae (Dwyer & M.V. Hayden) Hammel
    C. costaricensis Schltdl. = Psychotria elata (Sw.) Hammel
    C. cotejensis Standl. = Psychotria cotejensis (Standl.) J.H. Kirkbr.
    C. crassifolia Standl. = Psychotria cordobensis C.M. Taylor
    C. crebrinervia Standl. = ??
    C. croatii Dwyer = Psychotria gentryi (Dwyer) C.M. Taylor
    C. cuatrecasasii Standl. ex Steyerm. = Psychotria cuatrecasasii (Standl. ex Steyerm.) C.M. Taylor
    C. cuspidulata K. Krause = Psychotria cuspidulata (K. Krause) Standl.
    C. cymosa Spreng. = Psychotria lupulina var. maypurensis (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Roem. & Schult.) Steyerm.
    C. dichotoma Rudge = Psychotria platypoda DC.
    C. dichroa (Standl.) Standl. = Psychotria dichroa (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
    C. diguana Standl. ex Steyerm. = Psychotria diguana (Standl. ex Steyerm.) C.M. Taylor
    C. dimorphandrioides Dwyer = Palicourea dimorphandrioides (Dwyer) C.M. Taylor
    C. discolor Pol. = Psychotria guapilensis (Standl.) Hammel
    C. dolichophylla Standl. = Carapichea dolichophylla (Standl.) C.M. Taylor, comb. ined.
    C. domingensis (Urb.) Standl. = Psychotria liogieri Steyerm.
    C. dressleri Dwyer = Psychotria dressleri (Dwyer) C.W. Ham.
    C. duckei Standl. = Psychotria spectabilis Steyerm.
    C. elata Sw. = Psychotria elata (Sw.) Hammel
    C. emetica (L.f.) Pers. = Ronabea emetica (L.f.) A. Rich.
    C. ernesti K. Krause = Psychotria transiens Wernham
    C. evea DC. = Faramea guianensis (Aubl.) Bremek.
    C. fanshawei Standl. = Psychotria fanshawei (Standl.) Steyerm.
    C. flaviflora (K. Krause) Standl. = Psychotria flaviflora (K.Krause) C.M. Taylor
    C. florentina Standl. ex Steyerm. = ??
    C. gaugeri Dwyer = Notopleura camponutans (Dwyer & M.V. Hayden) C.M. Taylor
    C. gentryi Dwyer = Psychotria gentryi (Dwyer) C.M. Taylor
    C. glabra (Aubl.) Willd. = Psychotria blepharophylla (Standl.) Steyerm.
    C. glabrescens (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria glabrescens Müll. Arg.
    C. glaziovii Standl. = ??
    C. glomerulata Donn. Sm. = Psychotria glomerulata (Donn. Sm.) Steyerm.
    C. grandiflora Standl. ex Steyerm. = Psychotria diguana (Standl. ex Steyerm.) C.M. Taylor
    C. grandistipula Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea grandistipula (Standl. ex Steyerm.) C.M. Taylor
    C. guapilensis (Standl.) Standl. = Psychotria guapilensis (Standl.) Hammel
    C. guarupana Standl. = ??
    C. guianensis (Aubl.) Standl. = Carapichea guianensis Aubl.
    C. hastisepala (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria hastisepala Müll. Arg.
    C. hemicephaelis (Wernham) Steyerm. = Psychotria hemicephaelis Wernham
    C. hirsuta M. Martens & Galeotti = Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg.
    C. hirta Miq. = Psychotria bremekampiana Steyerm.
    C. hoffmannseggiana Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. = Psychotria hoffmannseggiana (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Müll. Arg.
    C. horridula (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria horridula Müll. Arg.
    C. humboldtiana Cham. = Psychotria humboldtiana (Cham.) Müll. Arg.
    C. insueta Dwyer = Psychotria insueta (Dwyer) Dwyer & C.W. Ham.
    C. involucrans (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria involucrans Müll. Arg.
    C. involucrata Willd. = Carapichea guianensis Aubl.
    C. iodotricha (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria iodotricha Müll. Arg.
    C. ipecacuanha (Brot.) A. Rich. = Carapichea ipecacuanha (Brot.) L. Andersson
    C. jacobinioides Standl. = Palicourea remyana (Baill.) C.M. Taylor
    C. jamesonii Standl. = Palicourea fuchsioides C.M. Taylor
    C. jenmanii Wernham = Psychotria mazaruniensis Standl.
    C. jervisei Standl. = Psychotria jervisei (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
    C. justiciifolia Rudge = Psychotria lupulina Benth.
    C. kaieteurensis Wernham = Psychotria appuniana (Wernham) Steyerm.
    C. kappleri (Miq.) Standl. = Margaritopsis kappleri (Miq.) C.M. Taylor, comb. ined.
    C. kennedyae Dwyer = Psychotria muscosa (Jacq.) Steyerm.
    C. killipii Standl. = Psychotria schunkei C.M. Taylor
    C. krauseana Standl. = ??
    C. krukovii Standl. = ??
    C. latistipula Standl. = Notopleura latistipula (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
    C. leucantha (K. Krause) Standl. = Notopleura leucantha (K. Krause) C.M. Taylor
    C. ligularis (Rudge) DC. = Psychotria ligularis (Rudge) Steyerm.
    C. longiflora Standl. = Psychotria diguana (Standl. ex Steyerm.) C.M. Taylor
    C. macrocarpa Standl. = Psychotria costanensis Steyerm.
    C. madeirana Standl. = ??
    C. malmei Standl. = ??
    C. microcephala Miq. = Psychotria hoffmannseggiana (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Müll. Arg.
    C. microcephala Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. = Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm.
    C. mosenii Standl. = ??
    C. multiplex (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria multiplex Müll. Arg.
    C. muscosa (Jacq.) Sw. = Psychotria muscosa (Jacq.) Steyerm.
    C. nana (Standl.) Standl. = Psychotria guapilensis (Standl.) Hammel
    C. nicaraguensis Standl. = Psychotria guapilensis (Standl.) Hammel
    C. nivea Sandw. = Psychotria nivea (Sandw.) Steyerm.
    C. nuda Cham. & Schltdl. = Psychotria nuda (Cham. & Schltdl.) Wawra
    C. oblonga DC. = Psychotria oblonga (DC.) Steyerm.
    C. oinochrophylla Standl. = Psychotria oinochrophylla (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
    C. oleandrella Standl. = Psychotria oleandrella (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
    C. ostreophora Wernham = Psychotria ostreophora (Wernham) C.M. Taylor
    C. panamensis Dwyer = Rudgea panamensis (Dwyer) C.M. Taylor
    C. panchocoensis Dwyer = Psychotria dressleri (Dwyer) C.W. Ham.
    C. papirifolia Standl. ex Steyerm. = Faramea papirifolia (Standl. ex Steyerm.) C.M. Taylor
    C. paraensis Huber ex Standley = Psychotria ulviformis Steyerm.
    C. patrisii (DC.) D. Dietr. = ??
    C. pebasensis Standl. = Psychotria pebasensis (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
    C. peruviana Spreng. = Psychotria capitata Ruiz & Pav.
    C. peruviana Wernham = Palicourea fuchsioides C.M. Taylor
    C. phaneroneura Standl. = Psychotria peruviana Steyerm.
    C. phoenicia (K. Schum. ex Engl. & Prantl) Donn. Sm. = Psychotria elata (Sw.) Hammel
    C. phyllocalymma (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria phyllocalymma Müll. Arg.
    C. phyllocalymmoides (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria phyllocalymmoides Müll. Arg.
    C. pittieri K. Krause = Psychotria aurantibractea C.M. Taylor
    C. plagiantha Standl. = Notopleura plagiantha (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
    C. polycephala Schltdl. = Psychotria caerulea Ruiz & Pav.
    C. potaroensis Sandwith = Psychotria potaroensis (Sandwith) Steyerm.
    C. prunifolia Kunth = Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm.
    C. pseudaxillaris Wernham = Psychotria cooperi Standl.
    C. psychotriifolia Seem. = Psychotria psychotriifolia (Seem.) Standl.
    C. pubescens Hoffmanns. ex Roem. & Schult. = Psychotria bracteocardia (DC.) Müll. Arg.
    C. punicea Vahl = Psychotria elata (Sw.) Hammel
    C. purpurea (Aubl.) Willd. = Psychotria variegata Steyerm.
    C. remyana (Baill.) Standl. = Palicourea remyana (Baill.) C.M. Taylor
    C. reniformis Kunth = Geophila repens (L.) I.M. Johnst.
    C. rigidifolia Dwyer & M.V. Hayden = Palicourea rigidifolia (Dwyer & M.V. Hayden) Dwyer
    C. rosea Benth. = Psychotria rosea (Benth.) Müll. Arg.
    C. rubra Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. = Psychotria hoffmannseggiana (Roem. & Schult.) Müll. Arg.
    C. ruelliaefolia Cham. & Schltdl. = Psychotria ruelliifolia (Cham. & Schltdl.) Müll. Arg.
    C. salicifolia Kunth = Psychotria lucentifolia (S.F. Blake) Steyerm.
    C. sandwithiana Steyerm. = Psychotria sandwithiana (Steyerm.) Steyerm.
    C. schraderoides (K. Krause) Standl. = Psychotria schraderoides (K. Krause) C.M. Taylor
    C. schunkeana Standl. = Psychotria schunkeana (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
    C. sessiliflora Willd. = Ixora davisii Sandwith
    C. sessilifolia Standl. = Psychotria molinarum Lorence
    C. setifera Standl. = Psychotria ostreophora (Wernham) C.M. Taylor
    C. silvicola (K. Krause) Standl. = ??
    C. sororiella (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria turbinella var. sororiella (Müll. Arg.) Steyerm.
    C. spathicalyx (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria spathicalyx Müll. Arg.
    C. spectabilis Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea grandistipula (Standl. ex Steyerm.) C.M. Taylor
    C. sphaerocephala (Müll. Arg.) B.L. Rob. = Psychotria sphaerocephala Müll. Arg.
    C. stipulosa (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria stipulosa Müll. Arg.
    C. subtomentosa (Ruiz & Pav.) Spreng. = Palicourea subtomentosa (Ruiz & Pav.) C.M. Taylor
    C. surinamensis Standl. = Psychotria variegata Steyerm.
    C. swartzii DC. = Psychotria urbaniana Steyerm.
    C. sylvatica Bremek. = Psychotria ctenophora Steyerm.
    C. tatei Standl. = Psychotria crocochlamys Sandw.
    C. tepuiensis Steyerm. = Psychotria tepuiensis (Steyerm.) Steyerm.
    C. tetragona Donn. Sm. = Psychotria chiapensis Standl.
    C. thibaudiifolia Wernh. = Pagamea capitata subsp. thibaudiifolia (Wernh.) Steyerm.
    C. timbiquensis Standl. = Psychotria timbiquensis (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
    C. tinctoria Standl. & Steyerm. = Psychotria eciliata Steyerm.
    C. tomentosa (Aubl.) Vahl = Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg.
    C. tonduzii K. Krause = Psychotria guapilensis (Standl.) Hammel
    C. tontaneoides (Britton & Standl.) Williams & Cheesm. = Psychotria callithrix var. tontaneoides (Britton & Standl.) Steyerm.
    C. trianae Standl. = Psychotria aviculoides J.H. Kirkbr.
    C. trichocephala (Poepp. & Endl.) Standl. = Psychotria trichocephala Poepp. & Endl.
    C. tricholoba (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria tricholoba Müll. Arg.
    C. trichophoroides (Müll. Arg.) Standl. = Psychotria trichophoroides Müll. Arg.
    C. umbellata (Ruiz & Pav.) Standl. = Psychotria conephoroides (Rusby) C.M. Taylor
    C. umbriana Standl. = Psychotria ostreophora (Wernham) C.M. Taylor
    C. vallis Standl. ex Steyerm. = Rudgea vallis (Standl. ex Steyerm.) C.M. Taylor
    C. violacea (Aubl.) Sw. = Psychotria apoda Steyerm.
    C. violaefolia Kunth = Geophila macropoda (Ruiz & Pav.) DC.
    C. vultusmimi Dwyer = Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg.
    C. williamsii Standl. = Psychotria zevallosii C.M. Taylor

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    This page was last revised on April 8, 2008.



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