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Pollination Biology of Lapeirousia subgenus Lapeirousia (Iridaceae) in southern Africa; floral divergence and adaptation for long-tongued fly-pollination


Abstract | Materials and Methods | Results | Discussion | Literature

Table 5. Floral characters and pollinators of Lapeirousia sub. Lapeirousia of Namaqualand and the Cape West Coast. Prosoeca and Megistorhynchus are long-proboscid flies of the family Nemestrinidae; Philoliche is a long-tongued fly of the family Tabanidae (only P. gulosa has been collected on species of subgenus Lapeirousia). Data here represent original observations; pollination of L. oreogena by Prosoeca sp. was first observed by K. Steiner (pers. comm.); pollination of L. anceps by M. longirostris was first reported by Hesse in Vogel (1954). Visits to L. barklyi by Parafidelia major, its presumed pollinator, have been noted by V. Whitehead (pers. comm.). Z = zygomorphic; A = actinomorphic; V = vivid red, purple or violet shades with contrasting pale nectar guides; P = pale blue (or pink); W = white; CR = pale cream with red markings; N = no scent; S = weak odor; SS strong odor; - = no data.

SpeciesFlowerPollinator Mouth part mmFloral tube mm
Symmetry Color Scent
L. silenoides group
L. dolomitica
subsp. dolomiticaZV SPr. peringueyi3335-40
subsp. lewisianaZV N --45-50
L. jacquiniiZV N Pr. sp. and
Pr. peringueyi
3033-35
L. pyramidalis subsp. regalisZVNPr. peringueyi3540-47
L. oreogenaAVN Pr. sp.3753-63(-70)
L. silenoidesZVN Pr. peringueyi3543-55
L. violaceaZVN Pr. peringueyi3234-40
L. divaricata group
L. barklyiZP N Parafidelia-
L. divaricataZWS noctuid moth and7-823-25
anthophorid bees 8-109-11
L. exilisAWSS bombyliid flies
honey bees
6-8 20-251
L. montanaAP-WS various26-12 43-553
L. plicataAW Nbombyliid flies
and honey bees
6-8 15-203
L. pyramidalis subsp.
pyramidalis
ZPSS hawkmoth2225-28
L. spinosaZWS Hoplitis similis510-12
L. tenuisZP S --12-15
L. fabricii group
L. ancepsZCRN Megistorhynchus54-60 65-76
L. arenicolaZCRN --17-21
L. fabriciiZCRN Megistorhynchus42-46 38-47
and Philoliche31-3445-48
L. macrospathaZ CR N--31-34
L. simulansZCR N--28-35
L. verecundaZCR N --38-49

1 A pocket of air in the base of the tube forces the nectar upward ca. 8-10 mm, effective tube length 8-10 mm
2 Anthophorid bees (Anthophora krugeri), butterflies (Cynthia cardui), bombyliid flies, noctuid moths
3 Lower half of tube completely closed, effective tube length ca. 25 mm for L. montana, 5-8 mm for L. plicata

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