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Pollination Biology of Lapeirousia subgenus Lapeirousia (Iridaceae) in southern Africa; floral divergence and adaptation for long-tongued fly-pollination


Abstract | Materials and Methods | Results | Discussion | Literature

LITERATURE CITED

Baker, H. G. & I. Baker. 1983. Floral nectar sugar constituents in relation to pollinator type. Pp. 117-141 in C. E. Jones & R. J. Little (editors), Handbook of Experimental Pollination Biology. Scientific and Academic editions, New York.

_____ & _____. 1990. The predictive value of nectar chemistry to the recognition of pollinator types. Israel J. Bot. 39: 157-166.

Barth, F. G. 1985. Insects and Flowers: The Biology of a Partnership (transl. M. A. Biederman-Thorsen). Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton.

Bernhardt, P. 1989. The floral ecology of Australian Acacia. Pp. 127-135 in: C. H. Stirton & J. L. Zarucchi (editors), Advances in Legume Biology. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 29.

_____. 1990. Anthecology of Schranckia nuttallii (Mimosaceae) on the tallgrass prairie. Pl. Syst. Evol. 170: 247-255.

_____. 1995. The floral ecology of Dianella caerulea var. assera (Phormiaceae). Cunninghamia 4:1-12.

_____ & E. A. Montalvo. 1979. The pollination of Echeandia macrocarpa (Liliaceae). Brittonia 31: 64-71.

Dafni, A. & P. Bernhardt. 1989. Pollination of terrestrial orchids of southern Australia and the Mediterranean Region: Systematic, ecological and evolutionary implications. Pp. 193-252 in M. K. Hecht, B. Wallace & R. J. MacIntyre (editors), Evolutionary Biology, Volume 24. Plenum Press, New York.

Darwin, C. 1862. The Various Contrivances by which British and Foreign Orchids are Fertilised by Insects. D. Appleton, New York.

Faegri, K. & L. van der Pijl. 1979. The Principles of Pollination Ecology. Third revised edition. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Farris, J. S. 1988. Hennig86 version 1.5. Program and software documentation. Published by the author, Port Jefferson Station, New York.

Feinsinger, P. & R. K. Colwell. 1978. Community organization among neotropical nectar-feeding birds. American Zool. 18: 779-795.

_____, L. A. Swarm & J. A. Wolfe. 1985. Nectar-feeding birds on Trinidad and Tobago: Comparison of diverse and depauperate guilds. Ecol. Monogr. 55: 1-28.

Goldblatt, P. 1972. A revision of the genera Lapeirousia Pourret and Anomatheca Ker in the winter rainfall region of South Africa. Contr. Bolus Herb. 4: 1-111.

_____. 1978. An analysis of the flora of southern Africa: Its characteristics, relationships and origins. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65: 369­436.

_____. 1990. Systematics of Lapeirousia (Iridaceae­Ixioideae) in tropical Africa. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 430­484.

_____. 1994. Geography of African Iridaceae. Pp. 931-940 in: J. H. Seyani & A. C. Chikuni (editors), Proceedings of the XIIIth Plenary Meeting AETFAT, Malawi, Volume 2. National Herbarium and Botanic Gardens of Malawi, Zomba.

_____ & P. Bernhardt. 1990. Pollination biology of Nivenia (Iridaceae) and the presence of heterostylous self­compatibility. Israel J. Bot. 39: 93­111.

_____ & J. C. Manning. 1994. New taxa and revisions to the taxonomy of southern African Lapeirousia subgenus Lapeirousia (Iridaceae subfamily Ixioideae). Novon 4: 339-346.

_____, P. Bernhardt & J. C. Manning. 1989. Notes on the pollination of Moraea inclinata and M. brevistyla (Iridaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 163: 201­209.

Grant, V. 1971. Plant Speciation. Columbia Univ. Press, New York.

_____. 1994. Modes and origins of mechanical and ethological isolation in angiosperms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 3-10.

_____ & K. Grant. 1965. Flower Pollination in the Phlox Family. Columbia Univ. Press, New York.

Jeppe, B. 1989. Spring and Winter Flowering Bulbs of the Cape. Oxford Univ. Press, Cape Town.

Johnson, S. D. 1992. Plant animal relationships. Pp. 175-205 in R. M. Cowling (editor), The Ecology of Fynbos: Nutrients, Fire and Diversity. Oxford Univ. Press, Cape Town.

_____ & W. J. Bond. 1994. Red flowers and butterfly pollination in the fynbos of South Africa. Pp. 137-148 in M. Arianoutsou & R. Groves (editors), Plant-Animal Interactions in Mediterranean Ecosystems. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht.

_____, A. Ellis, P. Carrick, A. Swift, N. Horner, S. Janse van Rensburg & W. J. Bond. 1993. Moth pollination and rhythms of advertisement and reward in Crassula fascicularis (Crassulaceae). S. African J. Bot. 59: 311-313.

Marloth, R. 1908. Some observations on entomophilous flowers. S. African J. Sci. 4: 110-113.

_____. 1917-1932. The Flora of South Africa. Darter Brothers, Cape Town.

Nilsson, L. A. 1988. The evolution of flowers with deep corolla tubes. Nature 334: 147-149.

Ogden, E. C., G. S. Raynor, J. V. Hayers & D. M. Lewis. 1974. Manual of Sampling Airborne Pollen. Hafner Press, London.

Schemske, D. W., M. F. Wilson, M. N. Melampy, L. I. Littler, L. Werner & L. B. Best. 1978. Flowering ecology of some spring woodland herbs. Ecology 59: 351-366.

Scott Elliot, G. E. 1890. Ornithophilous flowers in South Africa. Ann. Bot. 4: 265-280.

_____. 1891. Notes of the fertilisation of South African and Madagascar flowering plants. Ann. Bot. 5: 333-405.

Vogel, S. 1954. Blütenbiologische Typen als Elemente der Sippengliederung. Bot. Stud. 1: 1­338.

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