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Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador

Main | Introduction | Geography | Geology | Paleoclimates | Climates
Vegetation | History of Collecting | Format of the Catalogue
Results | Acknowledgements | Search the Catalogue


The Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador was financed primarily by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. We are profoundly grateful for their support. We also wish to thank Henrik Balslev who, through his grant from DANIDA (no. 104.Dan.8.1/201 Natural Resources for Development—A Botanical Research Collaboration between Denmark and Ecuador), supported the work carried out at the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador's herbarium QCA by Susana León-Yánez. We thank the National Geographic Society for its support of fieldwork in southern Ecuador through its grants to Peter M. Jørgensen (no. 5181-94 and 6327-98).

The project has been carried out as a collaborative effort between four institutions: the National Herbarium of Ecuador (QCNE), the Herbarium QCA at Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, the Department of Systematic Botany at Aarhus University, Denmark (AAU), and the Missouri Botanical Garden, USA (MO). The institutions have throughout the project made all information available to the editors and contributors.

The project could not have been completed without the assistance of Amada Pedroni González, Vallery A. Swift, and Nancy Hediger, who have gathered and entered information from literature sources, as well as information provided by the contributors; we thank them for their work. The TROPICOS database used to compile the information is the daily tool for many colleagues at Missouri Botanical Garden, who have all contributed to this project indirectly by their work with the database. We thank Robert Magill for his help in providing programs to extract the information from the database. Gerrit Davidse, James Zarucchi, Roy Gereau, Dan Nicolson, and John McNeill provided valuable assistance on nomenclature issues.

Individual contributors and reviewers are acknowledged in the listing below. A project of this magnitude would not have been possible without the help of numerous specialists from all over the world. We are very grateful for the efforts of the contributors and reviewers.

We thank the herbarium staff at the Department of Systematic Botany at Aarhus University (AAU), the Department of Systematic Botany at Göteborg University (GB), The Field Museum of Natural History (F), The New York Botanical Garden (NY), Riksmuseet in Stockholm (S), the Smithsonian Institution (US), and the University of Wisconsin (WIS) for their help and logistical assistance during visits. Special thanks are given to Lennart Andersson, Uno Eliasson, Laurence Dorr, Robin Foster, Nancy Hensold, Hugh H. Iltis, Inger Juste, Roger Lundin, James Luteyn, Carol Niezgoda, Bertil Nordenstam, Flemming Nørgaard, Paul Peterson, and Benjamin Øllgaard.

Additional thanks are extended to the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew (K) for providing a copy of the relevant data subset from Index Kewensis. The Internet version of Gray Card Index were likewise searched for records matching Ecuador, and we thank the Gray Herbarium (GH) at Harvard University for making that possible. Carol Todzia made the relevant type information available from the University of Texas (TEX). Lists of ferns and fern allies and Asteraceae were made available by Benjamin Øllgaard and Vicki Funk, respectively, which was of great help.

John Blake, Kathy Graham, and Robert Ricklefs are thanked for their help with the cluster and multivariate analyses. Henrik Balslev, Paul E. Berry, John Blake, Kathy Hurlbert, and Carmen Ulloa U. are thanked for their careful reading of the introduction. Amy McPherson is thanked for her meticulous reading of the entire Catalogue.

Authors and co-authors of family treatments

Al-Shehbaz, I., (MO), Brassicaceae
Alverson, W. S., (WIS, GH), Bombacaceae
Andersen, E. Ø., (AAU), Gleicheniaceae
Anderson, W. R., (MICH), Malpighiaceae
Arbeláez A., A. L., (MO), Pteridaceae
Aymard, G., (PORT), Dilleniaceae
Ballard, H. E., (WIS, BHO), Violaceae
Balslev, H., (AAU), Arecaceae
Barriera, G., (G), Aquifoliaceae
Berg, C. C., (BG), Cecropiaceae, Moraceae
Bergmann, B., (AAU), Araliaceae
Berry, P. E., (MO, WIS), Onagraceae, Rapateaceae
Bonifaz, C., (GUAY), Nymphaeaceae
Borchsenius, F., (AAU), Araliaceae, Arecaceae
Bradford, J., (MO), Cunoniaceae
Callejas, R., (HUA), Piperaceae
Camelbeke, K., (GENT), Cyperaceae
Claes, F., (GENT), Cyperaceae
Clark, L. G., (ISC), Poaceae
Cochrane, T. S., (WIS), Capparaceae
Cornejo, X., (GUAY), Nymphaeaceae
Croat, T. B., (MO), Araceae
Daly, D., (NY), Burseraceae
Dodson, C. H., (QCNE), Cypripediaceae, Orchidaceae
Dorr, L. J., (US), Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae
Dressler, S., (FR), Marcgraviaceae
Eriksen, B., (GB), Polygalaceae
Eriksson, R., (GB), Basellaceae, Cyclanthaceae
Faden, R. B., (US), Commelinaceae
Forero, E., (COL), Connaraceae
Freire F., A., (MO, QCA), Crassulaceae, Grossulariaceae, Hydrangeaceae, Saxifragaceae
Friis, I., (C), Urticaceae
Gaskin, J., (MO), Smilacaceae
Gereau, R. E., (MO), Agavaceae, Alliaceae, Anthericaceae, Asparagaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteliaceae, Dracaenaceae, Melanthiaceae, Phormiaceae
Goetghebeur, P., (GENT), Cyperaceae
González, F., (COL, NY), Aristolochiaceae
Harley, R. M., (K), Lamiaceae
Hedin, J., (ARIZ), Hippocrateaceae
Hiepko, P., (B), Opiliaceae
Holst, B. K., (SEL), Myrtaceae
Hunt, D. R., (K), Commelinaceae
Iltis, H. H., (WIS), Capparaceae
Jaramillo, J. L., (QCA), Elaeocarpaceae
Jaramillo, T., (QCA), Myristicaceae
Jørgensen, P. M., (MO), Aceraceae, Achatocarpaceae, Actinidiaceae, Alismataceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apiaceae, Araucariaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Balanophoraceae, Balsaminaceae, Bataceae, Begoniaceae, Bignoniaceae, Bixaceae, Blechnaceae, Buddlejaceae, Burmanniaceae, Cabombaceae, Cactaceae, Campanulaceae, Cannaceae, Caricaceae, Casuarinaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Chloranthaceae, Clethraceae, Clusiaceae, Columelliaceae, Convolvulaceae, Coriariaceae, Costaceae, Cuscutaceae, Cyatheaceae, Cyperaceae, Cyrillaceae, Davalliaceae, Dicksoniaceae, Dipsacaceae, Droseraceae, Dryopteridaceae, Elatinaceae, Equisetaceae, Eremolepidaceae, Ericaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Goodeniaceae, Haemodoraceae, Heliconiaceae, Hippocastanaceae, Hugoniaceae, Humiriaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Hymenophyllaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Iridaceae, Isoetaceae, Juncaceae, Juncaginaceae, Krameriaceae, Lemnaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Limnocharitaceae, Linaceae, Lophosoriaceae, Loranthaceae, Loxsomataceae, Lycopodiaceae
Judziewicz, E., Poaceae
Kearns, D., (USF), Cucurbitaceae
Klitgaard, B. B., (AAU), Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae, Mimosaceae
Knapp, S., (BM), Ebenaceae, Solanaceae
Kral, R., (VDB, BRIT), Xyridaceae
Lægaard, S., (AAU), Betulaceae, Juglandaceae, Myricaceae, Poaceae, Salicaceae
León, B., (USM), Polypodiaceae
León-Yánez, S., (QCA, MO), Aizoaceae, Buxaceae, Callitrichaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Geraniaceae, Humiriaceae, Lacistemataceae, Molluginaceae, Myristicaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Podostemaceae, Portulacaceae, Ranunculaceae, Thymelaeaceae, Turneraceae, Ulmaceae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae, Vochysiaceae, Winteraceae
Lewis, G. P., (K), Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae, Mimosaceae
Lidén, M., (GB), Fumariaceae, Papaveraceae
Liesner, R. L., (MO), Celastraceae, Cornaceae, Hernandiaceae, Icacinaceae, Loganiaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ochnaceae, Quiinaceae, Rhamnaceae, Sabiaceae
Loizeau, P. A., (G), Aquifoliaceae
Londoño, X., (INCIVA), Poaceae
Lorea-Hernández, F., (MO, XAL), Lauraceae
Lundin, R., (S), Asteraceae
Luther, H. E., (SEL), Bromeliaceae
Mora, L. E., (Academía Colombiana de Ciencias), Gunneraceae, Haloragaceae
Mori, S., (NY), Lecythidaceae
Morillo, G. N., (MERF), Asclepiadaceae
Morrone, O., (SI), Poaceae
Muriel, P., (QCA), Myristicaceae
Navarrete, H., (QCA), Blechnaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae
Neill, D. A., (MO), Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae, Mimosaceae
Neuendorf, M., (GB), Alstroemeriaceae
Nordenstam, B., (S), Asteraceae
Orozco, C. I., (COL), Brunelliaceae
Ott, C., (MJG), Menispermaceae
Palacios, W. A., (QCNE), Meliaceae
Pennington, T. D., (K), Sapotaceae
Pipoly, J. J., (BRIT), Myrsinaceae
Plana, V., (K), Proteaceae
Porter, D. M., (VPI), Zygophyllaceae
Potgieter, K., (ILL), Apocynaceae
Prance, G. T., (K), Caryocaraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Dichapetalaceae, Rhizophoraceae
Pringle, J. S., (HAM), Gentianaceae, Menyanthaceae
Raven, P. H., (MO), Onagraceae
Renner, S. S., (MO), Melastomataceae, Monimiaceae
Reynel, C., (MOL), Rutaceae
Ricketson, J., (MO), Myrsinaceae
Riedl, H., (W), Boraginaceae
Robinson, H., (US), Asteraceae
Robson, N. K. B., (BM), Clusiaceae
Romoleroux, K., (QCA), Rosaceae
Schatz, G. E., (MO), Annonaceae
Short, M., (BM), Solanaceae
Sidwell, K., (BM), Oxalidaceae
Simmons, S. L., (TEX), Staphyleaceae
Skog, L., (US), Gesneriaceae
Smith, B., (DAV), Euphorbiaceae
Stace, C. A., (LTR), Combretaceae
Stevenson, D. W., (NY), Cupressaceae, Ephedraceae, Gnetaceae, Pinaceae, Podocarpaceae, Taxodiaceae, Zamiaceae
Taylor, C. M., (MO), Rubiaceae
Tellez V., O., (MEXU), Dioscoreaceae
Thomas, W. W., (NY), Simaroubaceae
Ulloa U., C., (MO), Berberidaceae, Santalaceae
Werff, H. van der, (MO), Lauraceae
Wasshausen, D. C., (US), Acanthaceae, Mendonciaceae
Webster, G. L., (DAV), Euphorbiaceae
Weigend, M., (M), Loasaceae
Weitzman, A. L., (US), Theaceae
Wunderlin, R. P., (USF), Cucurbitaceae
Zardini, E. M., (MO), Onagraceae
Zarucchi, J. L., (MO), Apocynaceae
Zuloaga, F., (SI), Poaceae

Reviewers of family treatments:

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., (US), Sapindaceae
Aedo, C., (MA), Geraniaceae
Almeda, F., (CAS), Melastomataceae
Al-Shehbaz, I., (MO), Resedaceae
Alverson, W. S., (WIS), Tiliaceae
Anderson, C., (MICH), Malpighiaceae
Anderson, G. J., (CONN), Solanaceae
Andersson, L. B., (GB), Araliaceae, Rubiaceae, Tovariaceae, Tropaeolaceae
Arbo, M. M., (CTES), Turneraceae
Atwood, J. T., (SEL), Orchidaceae
Austin, D. F., (FAU), Convolvulaceae, Cuscutaceae
Aymard, G., (PORT), Buxaceae, Polygalaceae, Verbenaceae
Badillo, V. M., (MY), Caricaceae
Balslev, H., (AAU), Juncaceae
Barfod, A. S., (AAU), Anacardiaceae
Barringer, K., (BKL), Balsaminaceae, Thymelaeaceae
Beckner, J., (SEL), Orchidaceae
Berg, C. C., (BG), Urticaceae
Berry, P. E., (WIS), Hugoniaceae, Linaceae, Polygalaceae, Xyridaceae
Bohs, L., (DUKE), Solanaceae
Bonifaz, C., (GUAY), Proteaceae
Boom, B. M., (NY), Theaceae
Brandbyge, J., (AAU), Polygonaceae
Brant, A. E., (MO), Loganiaceae
Breteler, F. J., (WAG), Dichapetalaceae
Burger, W., (F), Moraceae, Piperaceae
Castillo, R., (PTIS), Solanaceae
Chatrou, L., (U), Annonaceae
Clark, L. G., (ISC), Poaceae
Constance, L., (UC), Apiaceae
Correa, M. D., (PMA), Droseraceae
Cotton, E., (AAU), Melastomataceae
Cruden, R. W., (IA), Agavaceae, Alliaceae, Anthericaceae, Asparagaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteliaceae, Dracaenaceae, Melanthiaceae, Phormiaceae
Dalström, S., (SEL), Orchidaceae
Daniel, T. F., (CAS), Acanthaceae
D'Arcy, W. G., (MO), Solanaceae
Davenport, L. J., (BBG), Hydrophyllaceae
Davidse, G., (MO), Poaceae
de Roon, A. C., (U), Marcgraviaceae
Dillon, M. O., (F), Asteraceae, Nolanaceae
Dorr, L. J., (US), Balsaminaceae
Eliasson, U., (GB), Achatocarpaceae, Aizoaceae, Amaranthaceae, Basellaceae, Bataceae, Chenopodiaceae, Molluginaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Portulacaceae, Rafflesiaceae
Eriksen, B., (GB), Valerianaceae
Fernández-Alonso, J. L., (COL), Bombacaceae, Rhamnaceae
Ferreira da Silva, N. M., (RB), Combretaceae
Fritsch, P. W., (CAS), Styracaceae
Fryxell, P. A., (TEX), Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae
Geltman, D. V., (LE), Urticaceae
Gereau, R. E., (MO), Alstroemeriaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Sapindaceae
Gil ad, N. L., (CAS), Violaceae
Goldblatt, P., (MO), Iridaceae
González-Elizondo, M. S., (CIIDIR), Cyperaceae
Graham, S. A., (KE), Lythraceae
Grayum, M. H., (MO), Araceae, Hernandiaceae
Gustafsson, C., (GB), Clethraceae
Hágsater, E., (AMO), Orchidaceae
Hahn, W. J., (NY), Aquifoliaceae
Hammel, B. E., (MO), Clusiaceae, Cyclanthaceae
Hansen, B. F., (C), Balanophoraceae
Harling, G., (GB), Cunoniaceae
Hauk, W. D., (MO), Bignoniaceae
Haynes, R. R., (UNA), Alismataceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Juncaginaceae, Limnocharitaceae, Najadaceae, Potamogetonaceae, Zannichelliaceae
Hempel, A., (ARIZ), Loasaceae
Henderson, A., (NY), Arecaceae
Hensold, N., (F), Eriocaulaceae
Hoch, P. C., (MO), Onagraceae
Holm-Nielsen, L. B., (AAU), Alismataceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Juncaginaceae, Limnocharitaceae, Najadaceae, Potamogetonaceae, Typhaceae, Zannichelliaceae
Horn, C. N., (NBYC), Pontederiaceae
Howard, R. A., (GH), Icacinaceae
Hufford, L. D., (WS), Loasaceae
Jarvinen, J., (TUR), Myristicaceae
Jonsell, B. E., (SBT), Brassicaceae
Jørgensen, P. M., (MO), Aristolochiaceae, Betulaceae, Bromeliaceae, Brunelliaceae, Buxaceae, Callitrichaceae, Capparaceae, Caryocaraceae, Cecropiaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Connaraceae, Cornaceae, Crassulaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Dilleniaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Fumariaceae, Gentianaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Grossulariaceae, Gunneraceae, Haloragaceae, Hydrangeaceae, Icacinaceae, Juglandaceae, Lecythidaceae, Mendonciaceae, Menyanthaceae, Monimiaceae, Myricaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Opiliaceae, Papaveraceae, Podostemaceae, Proteaceae, Quiinaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rapateaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Rosaceae, Sabiaceae, Salicaceae, Santalaceae, Sapotaceae, Saxifragaceae, Smilacaceae, Styracaceae, Ulmaceae, Winteraceae, Zygophyllaceae
Kallunki, J. A., (NY), Rutaceae
Kennedy, H., (UBC), Marantaceae
Knapp, S., (BM), Ochnaceae
Kress, W. J., (US), Heliconiaceae, Musaceae, Strelitziaceae
Kuijt, J., (UVIC), Eremolepidaceae, Loranthaceae, Viscaceae
Kvist, L. P., (CP), Gesneriaceae
Lammers, T. G., (F), Campanulaceae, Goodeniaceae, Sphenocleaceae
Landolt, E., (ZT), Lemnaceae
Landrum, L. R., (ASU), Berberidaceae, Myrtaceae
Leeuwenberg, A. J. M., (WAG), Apocynaceae
León, B., (USM), Callitrichaceae, Haloragaceae
León-Yánez, S., (QCA, MO), Casuarinaceae, Polemoniaceae, Pittosporaceae, Punicaceae
Liesner, R. L., (MO), Caprifoliaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Humiriaceae, Lacistemataceae, Staphyleaceae, Ulmaceae
Litt, A., (NY), Vochysiaceae
Lombardi, J. A., (BHCB), Vitaceae
Lorence, D. H., (PTBG), Monimiaceae
Lozano C., G., (COL), Magnoliaceae
Luer, C. A., (SEL), Orchidaceae
Luteyn, J. L., (NY), Ericaceae, Plumbaginaceae
Maas, P. J. M., (U), Annonaceae, Burmanniaceae, Cannaceae, Costaceae, Gentianaceae, Haemodoraceae, Triuridaceae, Zingiberaceae
MacDougal, J. M., (MO), Passifloraceae
Madsen, J. E., (AAU), Cactaceae
McNeill, J., (TRT), Caryophyllaceae
McPherson, G., (MO), Euphorbiaceae
Meerow, A. W., (FLAS), Amaryllidaceae
Mennega, A. M. W., (U), Celastraceae, Hippocrateaceae
Miller, J. S., (MO), Boraginaceae
Mione, T., (CCSU), Solanaceae
Mitchell, J., (NY), Burseraceae
Molau, U., (GB), Bixaceae, Elatinaceae, Scrophulariaceae
Moran, R. C., (AAU, NY), Aspleniaceae, Blechnaceae, Cyatheaceae, Davalliaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Dicksoniaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Hymenophyllaceae, Lophosoriaceae, Loxsomataceae, Marattiaceae, Marsileaceae, Metaxyaceae, Ophioglossaceae, Osmundaceae, Plagiogyriaceae, Polypodiaceae, Psilotaceae, Pteridaceae, Salviniaceae, Schizaeaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Vittariaceae
Moreno, N. P., (SBSC), Ranunculaceae
Nee, M., (NY), Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae
Niezgoda, C., (F), Erythroxylaceae
Norman, E. M., (DLF), Buddlejaceae
Ortiz G., R., (MO), Menispermaceae
Paton, A. J., (K), Lamiaceae
Pennington, T. D., (K), Meliaceae
Peterson, P. M., (US), Poaceae
Pipoly, J. J., (BRIT), Clusiaceae
Pirani, J. R., (SPF), Simaroubaceae
Prance, G. T., (K), Lecythidaceae
Prather, L. A., (MSC), Polemoniaceae
Pruski, J., (US), Asteraceae
Rahn, K., (C), Plantaginaceae
Reznicek, A. A., (MICH), Cyperaceae
Robson, N. K. B., (BM), Clusiaceae
Rohwer, J. G., (HEID), Lauraceae
Romoleroux, K., (QCA), Columelliaceae
Rueda, R. M., (HNMN), Verbenaceae
Sawyer, N. W., (CONN), Solanaceae
Seigler, D. S., (ILL), Mimosaceae
Simpson, B. B., (TEX), Krameriaceae
Skog, L. E., (US), Coriariaceae
Smith, A. R., (UC), Aspleniaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Hymenophyllaceae, Polypodiaceae, Thelypteridaceae
Smith, D. A., Elaeocarpaceae
Solomon, J. C., (MO), Cactaceae, Mayacaceae, Vitaceae
Soreng, R., (US), Poaceae
Sothers, C., (K), Ebenaceae
Spooner, D. M., (PTIS), Solanaceae
Ståhl, B., (GB), Cyrillaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Primulaceae, Symplocaceae, Theophrastaceae
Stevens, W. D., (MO), Asclepiadaceae
Taylor, P., (K), Lentibulariaceae
Thomas, W. W., (NY), Cyperaceae
Till, W., (WU), Bromeliaceae
Todzia, C. A., (TEX), Chloranthaceae
Tucker, G. C., (NYS), Cyperaceae
Ulloa U., C., (MO), Olacaceae
Valdespino, I. A., (PMA), Selaginellaceae
Veldkamp, J., (L), Oxalidaceae
Wagner, W. L., (US), Onagraceae
Wasshausen, D. C., (US), Begoniaceae
Watson, M. F., (E), Oxalidaceae
Weitzman, A. L., (US), Pellicieraceae
Wheeler, G. A., (MIN), Cyperaceae
Wiersema, J., (BARC), Cabombaceae, Nymphaeaceae
Zanoni, T., (NY), Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae, Ephedraceae, Gnetaceae, Pinaceae, Podocarpaceae, Taxodiaceae, Zamiaceae
Zarucchi, J. L., (MO), Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae, Mimosaceae
Øllgaard, B., (AAU), Aspleniaceae, Blechnaceae, Cyatheaceae, Davalliaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Dicksoniaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Equisetaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Hymenophyllaceae, Isoetaceae, Lophosoriaceae, Loxsomataceae, Lycopodiaceae, Marattiaceae, Marsileaceae, Metaxyaceae, Ophioglossaceae, Osmundaceae, Plagiogyriaceae, Polypodiaceae, Psilotaceae, Pteridaceae, Salviniaceae, Schizaeaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Vittariaceae

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