Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana
35. TABEBUIA Gomes ex A. DC., Biblioth. Universelle Genéve n.s. 2, 17: 130. 1838.
Shrubs to large trees, the branchlets terete to subtetragonal. Leaves simple, 1-foliolate, or digitately 3-7-foliolate. Inflorescence terminal, an open or congested panicle or raceme, or reduced to a single flower. Calyx cupular, campanulate, or tubular, truncate, bilabiate, or shallowly 5-lobed; corolla white, yellow, lavender, magenta, or red, tubular-funnel-shaped to tubular-campanulate, glabrous or puberulous on the tube outside. Anthers glabrous, the thecae straight, divaricate, included or subexserted. Ovary linear-oblong, often ± lepidote; ovules 2-multiseriate in each locule; disk annular-pulvinate to short-cupular. Fruit a subterete, elongate-linear or short-oblong capsule, dehiscing ± perpendicularly to the septum, smooth to irregularly wavy-muricate, glabrous to lepidote or variously pubescent, often with stellate or dendroid trichomes. Seeds thin and 2-winged with hyaline-membranous wings or thick, corky and suborbicular and without wings.
Mexico, Central America, West Indies, South America south to northern Argentina; ca. 100 species, 20 in Venezuela, 17 of these in the flora area.
Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC., commonly called "Apamate," is found in northern Venezuela and is cultivated in the flora area. Tabebuia sp. A does not appear in the keys below.
Key to the Species of Tabebuia (based on flowering specimens)
see also: Key to the Species of Tabebuia (based on vegetative and fruiting material)
1. Calyx thin, membranous, of the same texture as the corolla; inflorescence with the central rachis well developed ..... T. donnell-smithii
1. Calyx coriaceous, thicker than the corolla; inflorescence without a central rachis ..... 2
2(1). Flowers magenta or white; calyx lepidote or farinaceous-pubescent (if pubescent, the corolla tube puberulous outside) ..... 3
2. Flowers yellow; calyx ± stellate-pubescent; corolla tube glabrous outside ..... 9
3(2). Corolla magenta, the tube pubescent outside; calyx puberulous ..... 4
3. Corolla white, the tube glabrous outside; calyx lepidote ..... 5
4(3). Calyx glandular, ± bilabiate, 13-19 mm long ..... T. barbata
4. Calyx eglandular, truncate, less than 9 mm long ..... T. impetiginosa
5(3). Corolla tubular, ± salverform; calyx 2.5-4 cm long ..... T. stenocalyx
5. Corolla tubular-funnel-shaped; calyx less than 2 cm long ..... 6
6(5). Corolla lobes not ciliate, the throat glabrous inside except at stamen insertion; Delta Amacuro state ..... T. fluviatilis
6. Corolla lobes ciliate, the throat pubescent inside at least along the throat ridges; widespread ..... 7
7(6). Leaves 5-foliolate, pilose and intricately reticulate below; calyx with glandular fields below margins ..... T. pilosa
7. Leaves simple to 7-foliolate, lepidote or rarely lepidote and pilose (but not raised-reticulate) below; calyx eglandular or with scattered plate-shaped glands ..... 8
8(7). Leaves simple to 7-foliolate, lepidote, otherwise glabrous, when simple or 1-foliolate large (> 8 × 3 cm); inflorescence at anthesis usually also with small buds; not on igneous outcrops ..... T. insignis
8. Leaves simple (rarely also in part 3-foliolate), often puberulous on lower surface when young, small (less than 10 × 3.5 cm); inflorescence at anthesis without small buds; on igneous outcrops ..... T. orinocensis
9(2). Calyx sparsely thick-stellate, not lepidote, pubescent to macroscopically subglabrous ..... 10
9. Calyx densely pubescent with stellate or dendroid trichomes, sometimes villous ..... 12
10(9). Corolla throat essentially glabrous ..... T. uleana
10. Corolla throat pilose ..... 11
11(10). Corolla throat densely pilose, the trichomes to 1.5 mm long; ovary without stalked glands, smooth or verrucose toward the apex ..... T. guayacan
11. Corolla throat lightly pilose, the trichomes to 0.8 mm long; ovary glandular-verrucose, at least at the apex ..... T. serratifolia
12(9). Trichomes of corolla throat short, stiff, almost papilliform ..... T. obscura
12. Trichomes of corolla throat mostly long, lax, several-celled ..... 13
13(12). Calyx villous with long trichomes; inflorescence densely congested, virtually lacking pedicels and peduncle ..... T. ochracea
13. Calyx stellate and dendroid-pubescent with short trichomes; inflorescence contracted but the pedicels and peduncle clearly visible ..... 14
14(13). Calyx 8-12 mm long, the trichomes all short and rather thick-stellate; leaflets stellate below mostly in vein axils and sometimes along main veins; lowlands below 400 m ..... T. capitata
14. Calyx > 10 mm long, the trichomes stellate to ± dendroid; leaflets densely to sparsely stellate below, usually with some trichomes scattered over surface; strongly seasonal lowland forests or upland tepui forests above 400 m ..... 15
15(14). Forests below 500 m elevation; leaflets always scattered-stellate below, not conspicuously discolorous; leaflets membranous to chartaceous ..... T. chrysantha
15. Forests above 400 m elevation; leaflets sometimes densely stellate and discolored below; leaflets ± coriaceous ..... T. subtilis
Key to the Species of Tabebuia (based on vegetative and fruiting material)
1. Leaves completely glabrous or lepidote, even in the axils of the lateral veins below; fruit conspicuously lepidote, never with simple or stellate trichomes ..... 2
1. Leaves pubescent below, sometimes only in axils of lateral veins below; fruit glabrous or variously ubescent, often with stellate trichomes ..... 6
2(1). Leaves simple (rarely in part 3-foliolate) ..... 3
2. Leaves (3-)5-7-foliolate ..... 5
3(2). Calyx striate, persistent and spathaceously divided in fruit ..... T. stenocalyx
3. Calyx not striate, persistent and campanulate in fruit ..... 4
4(3). Leaves small (less than 10 × 3.5 cm); fruit 1.3-2 cm wide; plants on igneous out-crops ..... T. orinocensis
4. Leaves large (> 8 × 3 cm); fruit 1.2-1.3 cm wide; not on igneous outcrops ..... T. insignis
5(2). Fruits oblong, stipitate, > 3 cm wide; seeds corky, wingless ..... T. fluviatilis
5. Fruits linear-oblong, not stipitate, less than 3 cm wide; seeds thin, membranous-winged ..... T. insignis
6(1). Leaves pilose over whole lower surface with simple trichomes; fruit ecostate, densely lepidote to glabrous ..... 7
6. Leaves mostly stellate-pubescent (with simple trichomes restricted to the axils of lateral veins on lower surface in T. serratifolia and T. barbata) ..... 9
7(6). Fruits glabrous, not lepidote ..... T. uleana
7. Fruits densely lepidote ..... 8
8(7). Leaves 5-foliolate, raised-reticulate on lower surface ..... T. pilosa
8. Leaves 3-foliolate (or simple), not raised-reticulate on lower surface ..... T. insignis
9(6). Fruits essentially glabrous; leaves with trichomes only in axils of lateral veins on lower surface ..... 10
9. Fruits pubescent; leaflets puberulous over whole surface below or with stellate trichomes along the main veins or with simple trichomes mostly in vein axils but also extending along midvein above vein axil ..... 13
10(9). Fruit surface uniformly smooth; flowers magenta ..... T. impetiginosa
10. Fruit surface striate or with scattered raised warts; flowers yellow ..... 11
11(10). Adult leaflets with simple trichomes in vein axils below; fruit surface with scattered projections ..... T. serratifolia
11. Adult leaflets with stellate trichomes in vein axils below; fruit striate with relatively thin valves ..... 12
12(11). Fruits striate with thin valves ..... T. capitata
12. Fruits with muricate-reticulate protuberances ..... T. guayacan
13(9). Fruits conspicuously costate with irregularly raised and anastomosing ribs; leaflets mostly with simple trichomes ..... T. donnell-smithii
13. Fruits ecostate, sometimes striate, the pubescence various but never of simple trichomes (when villous, the trichomes appearing simple but with stellate bases or mixed with short, branched trichomes) ..... 14
14(13). Lower surface of leaves with simple trichomes in vein axils; fruit drying with conspicuously darker glandular zones ..... T. barbata
14. Lower surface of leaves stellate-pubescent at least along main veins and often over whole surface; fruit uniformly pubescent or with scattered darker glandular zones ..... 15
15(14). Fruits villous, in part with trichomes > 1 mm long ..... T. ochracea
15. Fruits stellate-puberulous with short trichomes ..... 16
16(15). Southern Bolívar state above 400 m elevation; calyx persistent ..... T. subtilis
16. Widespread in lowlands; calyx caducous in fruit (at least in southern Bolívar state) ..... 17
17(16). Flowering and fruiting while leaves present; corolla throat papillose-puberulous ..... T. obscura
17. Flowering and fruiting while mostly deciduous; corolla throat pilose ..... 18
18(17). Lower surface of leaves conspicuously lepidote-punctate, stellate trichomes mostly restricted to main veins ..... T. capitata
18. Lower surface of leaves not lepidote-punctate, sometimes sparsely lepidote, usually with stellate trichomes over whole surface ..... T. chrysantha
Tabebuia barbata (E. Mey.) Sandwith, Lilloa 3: 462. 1938. -Bignonia barbata E. Mey., Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 12: 782. 1825. -Apamate, Jaico, Palo mosquito.
Tree. Seasonally flooded riparian forests, 50-300 m; Bolívar (Serranía Carichana), Amazonas (widespread). Adjacent Apure; Colombia (Vichada), Amazonian Brazil, Bolivia (Pando). Fig. 417.
Tabebuia capitata (Bureau & K. Schum.) Sandwith, Recueil Trav. Bot. Néerl. 34: 226. 1937. -Tecoma capitata Bureau & K. Schum. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 8(2): 337. 1897. -Araguaney, Araguaney puy, Araui-yé.
Tabebuia glomerata Urb., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 14: 305. 1916.
Tree. Nonflooded evergreen lowland to montane forests, 200-500(-1000) m; Delta Amacuro (Serranía de Imataca), Bolívar (Gran Sabana, near La Paragua, Río Caura at mouth of Río Nichare, Serranía de Imataca), Amazonas (Río Casiquiare basin, Río Ocamo, Río Siapa). Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Amazonian Colombia, Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia.
Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.) G. Nicholson, Ill. Dict. Gard. 4: 1. 1887. -Bignonia chrysantha Jacq., Pl. Hort. Schoenb. 2: 45, t. 211. 1797. -Araguaney, Araguaney puy, Flora amarilla, Guay-acán.
Tabebuia rufescens J. Johnst., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 40: 696. 1905.
Tree. Seasonally dry or very dry forests, 100-500 m; northern Bolívar, northernmost Amazonas. Widespread elsewhere in Venezuela; Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Trinidad, Tobago, Guyana, Ecuador, Peru. Fig. 416.
This highly variable species is the national tree of Venezuela.
Tabebuia donnell-smithii Rose, Bot. Gaz. 17: 418. 1892. -Cybistax donnell-smithii (Rose) Seib., Publ. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 522: 392. 1940.
Cybistax millsii Miranda, Bol. Soc. Bot. México 26: 129. 1961. -Tabebuia millsii (Miranda) A.H. Gentry, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63: 75. 1976.
Large tree. Rather seasonally moist, nonflooded lowland forests, 100-400 m; northern Bolívar. Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Colombia, Ecuador.
This species was treated as Tabebuia millsii in Flora de Venezuela, but that species is here considered a synonym of T. donnell-smithii. The anastamosing-costate fruit, the gland-tipped trichomes of the inflorescence and young growth, and the very thin calyx are very different from other Tabebuia species.
Tabebuia fluviatilis (Aubl.) A. DC., Prodr. 9: 215. 1845. -Bignonia fluviatilis Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 655. 1775. -Watasabu (Warao).
Bignonia aquatilis E. Mey., Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 12: 780. 1825.
-Tabebuia aquatilis (E. Mey.) Sprague & Sandwith, Bull. Misc. Inform. 1932: 21. 1932.
Tree. Swampy and riverside forests, mostly at interface between mangrove and fresh-water swamps, 0-100 m; Delta Amacuro (scattered). Adjacent Monagas; coastal lowlands of Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Amazonian Brazil.
In the Flora de Venezuela this species was treated as Tabebuia aquatilis, following Sandwith's rejection of Bignonia fluviatilis because it was based on a mixture, but a re-examination of Aublet's description and illustration led to resurrection of that epithet in the Flora Neotropica treatment.
Tabebuia guayacan (Seem.) Hemsl., Biol. Cent.-Amer., Bot. 2: 495. 1882. -Tecoma guayacan Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald 180. 1854. -Guayacán.
Canopy or emergent tree. Evergreen lowland forests, 100-300 m; Bolívar (from La Isabel to Río Toro). Mérida, Táchira, Zulia; southern Mexico to Panama, Colombia, Peru.
Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 11: 176. 1936. -Tecoma impetiginosa Mart. ex A. DC., Prodr. 9: 218. 1845. -Araguaney pui, Polvillo.
Canopy or emergent tree. Semideciduous to evergreen lowland forests, 100-400 m; Bolívar (near La Paragua, Río Cuyuní basin), Amazonas (Río Cunucunuma, Cocui). Barinas, Lara; Mexico and Central America to northern Argentina. Fig. 420.
Tabebuia insignis (Miq.) Sandwith, Recueil Trav. Bot. Néerl. 34: 224. 1937. -Tecoma insignis Miq., Stirp. Surinam. Select. 122. 1850 .
Tabebuia roraimae Oliv., Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, 2: 280. 1887. -Tecoma roraimae (Oliv.) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 4(3b): 238. 1894.
Tecoma dura Bureau & K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 4(3b): 238. 1894. -Tabebuia dura (Bureau & K. Schum.) Sprague & Sandwith, Bull. Misc. Inform. 1932: 21. 1932.
Southern Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, southern Amazonian Peru, Brazil, much of Amazonia to the cerrado area, Bolivia; 3 varieties, all in the flora area.
Key to the Varieties of T. insignis
1. Leaves 3-7-foliolate ..... var. insignis
1. Leaves simple or 1-foliolate ..... 2
2. Leaves > 14 × 5 cm; secondary veins raised on lower surface; Delta Amacuro state ..... var. monophylla
2. Leaves less than 13 × 4.2 cm; secondary veins not raised on lower surface; Amazonas state ..... var. pacimonensis
T. insignis var. insignis. -Apamate, Cacho de chino, Imauaritarkari, Mabari tarkari.
Tree. Gallery forests, evergreen lowland to montane forests, especially over poor soils, 50-1600 m; Delta Amacuro (Caño Araguao), Bolívar (widespread), Amazonas (scattered). Southern Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia.
T. insignis var. monophylla Sandwith, Recueil Trav. Bot. Néerl. 34: 225. 1937. -Aheru, Apamate.
Tabebuia longipes Baker in Hook., Icon. Pl. 18: t. 1738. 1888.
Small to large tree. Fresh-water swampy forests of coastal areas, 50-200 m; southern Delta Amacuro, Bolívar (Río Cuyuní basin). Sucre; Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Peru, Brazil. Fig. 422.
In the flora area, it seems possible that this taxon, with its distinctive ecology and geographical distribution, should be considered as specifically distinct, but similar forms turn up elsewhere in the range of T. insignis.
T. insignis var. pacimonensis Sandwith, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 365. 1957.
Shrub or small tree. Lowland to upland riparian forests, 50-1000 m; Delta Amacuro (Caño Jotajana), northern Bolívar, Amazonas (Cerro Coro Coro, Río Cunucunuma, Río Pacimoni). Colombia (Vaupés).
Tabebuia obscura (Bureau & K. Schum.) Sandwith, Recueil Trav. Bot. Néerl. 34: 226. 1937. -Tecoma obscura Bureau & K. Schum. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 8(2): 343. 1897.
Tabebuia subtilis var. schultesiana Sandwith, Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 17: 96. 1955. -Tabebuia obscura var. schultesiana (Sandwith) Sandwith in Dugand, Mutisia 25: 16. 1956.
Small to middle-sized tree. Mostly of poor-soil, nonflooded, evergreen lowland forests, especially in rather sandy areas, sometimes along rocky riversides and then ± rheophytic, 100-400 m; Amazonas (widespread). Amazonian, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil.
Tabebuia ochracea (Cham.) Standl., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 11: 176. 1936. -Tecoma ochracea Cham., Linnaea 7: 653. 1832.
Tree. Deciduous to semideciduous forests, 50-300 m. Southern Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Trinidad, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina; 3 subspecies, 2 of these in Venezuela, both in the flora area.
Key to the Subspecies of T. ochracea
1. Calyx trichomes mostly barbate; leaves irregularly stellate-puberulous below, relatively concolorous ..... subsp. heterotricha
1. Calyx trichomes mostly long and not branched; leaves densely stellate-puberulous and obviously whitish below, discolorous ..... subsp. neochrysantha
T. ochracea subsp. heterotricha (A. DC.) A.H. Gentry in Luces & Steyerm., Fl. Venez. 8(4): 391. 1982.
-Bignonia heterotricha A. DC., Prodr. 9: 219. 1845. -Araguán, Araguaney, Cañaguate negro, Pendá.
Northern Bolívar, northernmost Amazonas. Widespread elsewhere in Venezuela; Colombia, Trinidad, Guyana.
T. ochracea subsp. neochrysantha (A.H. Gentry) A.H. Gentry, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 948. 1973.
-Tabebuia neochrysantha A.H. Gentry, Brittonia 22: 260. 1970. -Cañaguate, Guayacán, Flor amarilla, Vero.
Northern Bolívar. Apure, Distrito Federal, Falcón, Mérida, Portuguesa, Táchira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia; El Salvador to Panama, Colombia.
Generally the collections from farther west and north in Venezuela are this subspecies, those from farther east are subsp. heterotricha, but there is considerable overlap.
Tabebuia orinocensis (Sandwith) A.H. Gentry, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 29. 267. 1978. -Tabebuia insignis var. orinocensis Sandwith, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 364. 1957.
Shrub or small tree. Granitic outcrops, 50-300 m; northwestern Bolívar, northwestern Amazonas. Apure; Colombia (Vichada). Fig. 421.
Tabebuia pilosa A.H. Gentry, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 29: 268. 1978. -Cacho de venado.
Shrub or small to medium-sized tree. Granitic outcrops, 100-300 m; northwestern Bolívar, northwestern Amazonas. Colombia (Vichada), Brazil (Roraima: Serra da Lua).
Tabebuia pilosa often grows sympatrically with T. orinocensis, from which it is easily distinguished when leaves are present by the very different 5-foliolate leaves with raised-reticulate venation on the lower surface.
Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl) G. Nicholson, Ill. Dict. Gard. 4: 1. 1889. -Bignonia serratifolia Vahl, Eclog. Amer. 2: 46. 1798. -Acapro, Araguaney, Cachovenado, Puy, Vero.
Large canopy tree. Moist nonflooded evergreen lowland forests, 100-600 m; northern Bolívar, Amazonas (widespread). Widespread elsewhere in Venezuela; Colombia, Trinidad-Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia. Fig. 418.
This is the least conspicuously pubescent yellow-flowered Tabebuia species in the flora area.
Tabebuia stenocalyx Sprague & Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. 1910: 196. 1910. -Guachamaca, Guachimacá, Palo blanco, Purguillo blanco.
Small to medium-sized tree. Nonflooded evergreen lowland forests, 200-600 m; Delta Amacuro (Serranía de Imataca), Bolívar (Serranía de Imataca). Trinidad-Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil (Amapá, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro).
The narrowly tubular white flower, presumably hawkmoth pollinated, is unmistakable in this species.
Tabebuia subtilis Sprague & Sandwith, Bull. Misc. Inform. 1932: 23. 1932.
Tree to 15 m. Moist montane and lower montane forests, 400-1700 m; Bolívar (Cerro Guaiquinima, Cerro Venamo, Gran Sabana, Uaipán-tepui). Adjacent Guyana. Fig. 419.
This species is weakly differentiated from Tabebuia chrysantha and may be no more than a high-altitude form of that species.
Tabebuia uleana (Kraenzl.) A.H. Gentry, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 29: 279. 1978. -Tecoma uleana Kraenzl., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 217. 1921.
Tree. Forest patches on granitic outcrops, 100-200 m; northwestern Bolívar, Amazonas (scattered). Colombia (Meta, Vichada), adjacent Guyana, Brazil (Roraima).
Tabebuia sp. A
Shrub or tree ca. 2 m tall; leaflets 5, entire, each with 11-15 secondary veins per side. Swampy white-sand savanna near Mauritia palm stands, 50-200 m; Amazonas (Canaripó).
Two specimens are referred here, Huber 1861 (VEN) and Williams 14616. Although it is almost certain that this species is undescribed, it is close to several other species, and it seems best to await discovery of the flowers before describing it. The leaflets are very densely and finely golden-stellate-puberulous on the lower surface, similar to Tabebuia incana, but the lower surface is yellow rather than silvery and with scattered dark-drying glands. The fruit is similar to that of T. barbata, with a persistent, finely puberulous calyx with scattered dark-drying glandular areas and a fine yellowish tomentum throughout, also with scattered darker glandular areas. It is also possible that this could represent an aberrant lowland form of T. subtilis.
Paul Berry (firstname.lastname@example.org) or Kay Yatskievych (email@example.com).