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Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana

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BIGNONIACEAE

3. ANEMOPAEGMA Mart. ex Meisn., Pl. Vasc. Gen. 1: 300; 2: 208. 1840, nom. cons.

Woody lianas (sometimes suffrutescent in the Brazilian cerrado), the branches terete, with or without interpetiolar glandular fields; pseudostipules foliaceous or absent. Leaves 2-5-foliolate, frequently with the terminal leaflet replaced with a simple or trifid tendril. Inflorescence a terminal or axillary raceme. Calyx cupular, truncate or 5-denticulate, often with glands near the margin; corolla cream to bright yellow, tubular-campanulate, glabrous or glandular-lepidote outside. Anthers glabrous, the thecae straight, divaricate. Ovary ellipsoid, usually stipitate, lepidote or puberulous; ovules 2-6-seriate in each locule; disk pulviniform. Fruit an elliptic to orbicular capsule, the valves parallel to the septum, usually strongly flattened, smooth. Seeds flat, completely surrounded by a hyaline-membranous wing or without wings and the seed body thick and corky.

Neotropics from Mexico to Brazil and Argentina; 45 species, 15 in Venezuela, 11 of these in the flora area. Anemopaegma is one of the most taxonomically difficult genera of the Bignoniaceae. Many of the species display great phenotypic plasticity, and many local phenotypes have been described as species.

Key to the Species of Anemopaegma

1. Calyx conspicuously subulate-dentate, the teeth as long as the calyx or extended to form elevated ribs on the calyx ..... 2

1. Calyx truncate or 5-denticulate with teeth less than 1 mm long, the teeth not extended as calyx wings ..... 3

2(1). Calyx teeth 2-3 mm long, extended to form elevated ribs along length of calyx; leaves sparsely puberulous below ..... A. alatum

2. Calyx teeth 4-5 mm long, not extended to form wings on calyx; leaves pilose below ..... A. jucundum

3(1). Corolla tube glabrous outside; fruits (where known) ellipsoid or elliptic and velutinous ..... 4

3. Corolla tube lepidote or puberulous or both outside; fruit elliptic, glabrous or inconspicuously lepidote ..... 7

4(3). Leaflets narrow, less than 23 mm wide, lanceolate-elliptic; pseudostipules not evident ..... A. salicifolium

4. Leaflets > 20 mm wide, narrowly elliptic to ovate; pseudostipules subulate or foliaceous ..... 5

5(4). Fruit flattened, velutinous; pseudostipules subulate, not foliaceous; seeds thin, winged ..... A. oligoneuron

5. Fruit ellipsoid, glabrous; pseudostipules foliaceous; seeds thick, corky, essentially wingless ..... 6

6(5). Leaves not bullate, the tertiary veins on the upper surface plane or prominulous; usually with 1 or 2 open flowers per inflorescence; corolla > 6 cm long ..... A. chrysoleucum

6. Leaves subbullate, the tertiary veins on the upper surface impressed; usually with several open flowers per inflorescence; corolla less than 6 cm long ..... A. paraense

7(3). Corolla without glandular fields, the tube lepidote ..... 8

7. Corolla with glandular fields outside below base of lobes, the tube lepidote or puberulous or both ..... 9

8(7). Leaves all or almost all 2-foliolate; petioles less than 2.5 cm long; flowers amply spaced ..... A. karstenii

8. Leaves mostly 3-foliolate; petioles 4-10 cm long; flowers clustered near ends of peduncles ..... A. patelliforme

9(7). Corolla tube lepidote and puberulous outside ..... A. robustum

9. Corolla tube lepidote outside ..... 10

10(9). Adult branchlets with striate ribs, the surface not loose nor exfoliating; glands at base of corolla lobes inconspicuous; fruit drying dark brown or blackish ..... A. floridum

10. Adult branchlets with surface splitting and exfoliating; glands at base of corolla lobes conspicuous; fruit drying yellowish tan ..... A. parkeri

Anemopaegma alatum A.H. Gentry, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63: 67. 1976.

Liana. Nonflooded evergreen lowland to lower montane forests, 100-800 m; central to northern Bolívar. Monagas, Sucre; Colombia (Vaupés).

Anemopaegma chrysoleucum (H.B.K.) Sandwith, Lilloa 3: 459. 1938. -Bignonia chrysoleuca H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. (quarto ed.) 3: 134. 1818 [1819].

Liana; fruits water-dispersed. Swamps, riverside forests, 50-500 m; Delta Amacuro (Serranía de Imataca), widespread in Bolívar and Amazonas. Apure, Barinas, Táchira, Zulia; Belize to Panama, Trinidad, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Amazonian Brazil, Bolivia.

Anemopaegma floridum Mart. ex A. DC., Prodr. 9: 188. 1845.

Woody liana. Nonflooded evergreen lowland forests, ca. 100 m; Amazonas (Puerto Ayacucho to Samariapo). Amazonian Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia.

Anemopaegma jucundum Bureau & K. Schum. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 8(2): 144. 1896.

Liana. Evergreen lowland to montane forests, 100-1000 m; Amazonas (Río Orinoco), Bolívar (probably near Roraima-tepui). Guyana (near Mount Roraima), Brazil (Roraima).

A collection from the Río Orinoco (Ayres s.n.), or perhaps actually from the Río Negro, was cited in Flora Brasiliensis 8(2): 145. 1896.

Anemopaegma karstenii Bureau & K. Schum. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 8(2): 130. 1896.
Anemopaegma carrerense E. Arm., J. Bot. 36: 188. 1898.
Distictis robinsonii J. Johnst., Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 110. 1908.

Liana. Nonflooded evergreen lowland to montane forests, forest edges, gallery forests, 100-1200 m; Delta Amacuro (Río Cuyubini), widespread in Bolívar and Amazonas. Widespread elsewhere in Venezuela; Colombia, Trinidad, Guyana.

Anemopaegma oligoneuron (Sprague & Sandwith) A.H. Gentry, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63: 67. 1976. -Pseudopaegma oligoneuron Sprague & Sandwith, Bull. Misc. Inform. 1932: 88. 1932.

Liana. Nonflooded evergreen lowland forests, 100-200 m; northwestern Bolívar, Amazonas (near Puerto Ayacucho). Amazonian Colombia, Guyana, French Guiana, Amazonian Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. Fig. 354.

Flowers collected on the ground from the slopes of Cerro Huachamacari at 1000-1300 m (Liesner 18283, MO), may represent this species.

Anemopaegma paraense Bureau & K. Schum. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 8(2): 131. 1896.

Liana. Swampy or riverside forests, 50-100 m; Delta Amacuro (Río Amacuro), Bolívar (Río Parhueña). Amazonian Colombia, Suriname, French Guiana, Amazonian Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. Fig. 355.

Anemopaegma parkeri Sprague, Bull. Herb. Boissier ser. 2, 6: 375. 1906.

Liana. Nonflooded evergreen lowland to montane forests, 100-900 m; Bolívar (Gran Sabana, east of La Paragua), Amazonas (Solano). Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Amazonian Brazil. Fig. 356.

Anemopaegma patelliforme A.H. Gentry, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63: 69. 1976.

Liana. Along streams, ca. 100 m; Amazonas (Mavaca). Amazonian Brazil, possibly Ecuador and Bolivia.

Anemopaegma robustum Bureau & K. Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 8(2): 123. 1896.

Liana. Nonflooded evergreen lowland forests, 100-200 m; Amazonas (Río Baria, Río Yatúa, San Simón de Cocuy). Guyana, French Guiana, possibly Peru, adjacent Brazil.

Anemopaegma salicifolium (H.B.K.) Sandwith, Lilloa 3: 459. 1938. -Bignonia salicifolia H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. (quarto ed.) 3: 133. 1818 [1819].

Vine or liana. Seasonally flooded forest margins, ca. 100 m; Río Orinoco in northwestern Bolívar and northwestern Amazonas. Endemic.

Anemopaegma salicifolium presumably also occurs on the Colombian side of the Orinoco; it is perhaps not distinct from A. chrysoleucum.

TOP

Scientific Comments:
Paul Berry (peberry@facstaff.wisc.edu) or Kay Yatskievych (kay.yatskievych@mobot.org).

 
 
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