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Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana

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BIGNONIACEAE

15. JACARANDA A.L. Juss., Gen. Pl. 138. 1789.

Medium-sized to large trees (sometimes shrubs or subshrubs in Brazil), without interpetiolar glandular fields or pseudostipules. Leaves bipinnate (sometimes simply pinnate and rarely simple in Brazil). Inflorescence a terminal or axillary panicle, few- to multiflowered, sometimes borne ramiflorously on the leafless branches. Calyx short and broadly campanulate to cupular, ± truncate, usually 5-denticulate or acutely 5-lobed; corolla blue or blue-purple, tubular-campanulate, pubescent to essentially glabrous outside. Anthers glabrous, often reduced to a single theca, the staminode elongate, exceeding the stamens, variously glandular-pubescent, especially at apex. Ovary flattened-cylindric, glabrous or puberulous (even in the same species); ovules ca. 8-seriate in each locule; disk pulviniform. Fruit an oblong capsule, strongly flattened perpendicular to the septum, dehiscing perpendicular to the septum and parallel to the plane of compression, the valves variously glabrous to lepidote, often with undulate margins. Seeds thin, winged, the wings membranous, hyaline to brownish.

Guatemala and the Antilles south to northern Argentina; 49 species, 4 in Venezuela, 3 of these in the flora area.

Key to the Species of Jacaranda

1. Tube of the corolla densely puberulous outside; fruit > 6 cm long ..... J. copaia

1. Tube of the corolla mostly glabrous outside, sometimes glandular-pubescent at base; fruit elliptic-oblong, less than 6.5 cm long ..... 2

2(1). Corolla tube completely glabrous outside; inflorescence often congested; calyx lobes triangular, less than 2.5 mm long ..... J. obtusifolia

2. Corolla tube glandular-puberulous at base; inflorescence lax; calyx lobes foliaceous, 3.5-5 mm long ..... J. orinocensis

Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D. Don, Edinburgh Philos. J. 9: 267. 1823. -Bignonia copaia Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 650, t. 262, t. 265. 1775.

Large canopy tree. Mostly in light gaps or late second growth, evergreen lowland to montane forests. Belize to Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Amazonian Brazil, Bolivia; 2 subspecies, both in the flora area.

Key to the Subspecies of J. copaia

1. Leaflets elliptic or oblong-elliptic, obtuse, subcoriaceous, distinctly petiolulate; capsule valves woody, > 7 cm wide ..... subsp. copaia

1. Leaflets rhomboid-elliptic, acute to acuminate, membranous, sessile or subsessile; capsule valves thinly woody, less than 6 cm wide ..... subsp. spectabilis

J. copaia subsp. copaia

100-200 m; Delta Amacuro (Serranía de Imataca), Bolívar (Serranía de Imataca), Amazonas (Río Cuchakan in Río Atabapo basin). Eastern Venezuela; Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, adjacent northern Brazil. Fig. 382.

J. copaia subsp. spectabilis (Mart. ex A. DC.) A.H. Gentry, Rhodora 79: 441. 1977. -Jacaranda spectabilis Mart. ex A. DC., Prodr. 9: 229. 1845. -Flor azul, Palo azul, Pata de garza, Puti, Uai-cuima-yek, Wei-oima-yek (Arekuna).

Jacaranda superba Pittier, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 6: 19. 1940.

100-900(-1300 m); Delta Amacuro (Serranía de Imataca), widespread in Bolívar and Amazonas. Widespread elsewhere in Venezuela; other distribution as for species. Fig. 383.

Jacaranda obtusifolia Bonpl. in Humb. & Bonpl., Pl. Aequinoct. 1: 62, t. 18. 1808 [1805].

Small to medium-sized tree. Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Amazonian Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Bolivia; 2 subspecies, both in the flora area.

This is distinguished from other flora area species by its smaller leaflets.

Key to the Subspecies of J. obtusifolia

1. Ovary puberulous; fruit less than 3 cm wide ..... subsp. obtusifolia

1. Ovary glabrous; fruit usually > 3 cm wide ..... subsp. rhombifolia

J. obtusifolia subsp. obtusifolia

Semideciduous forests, 50-400 m; northern Bolívar, northern Amazonas. Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Carabobo, Distrito Federal, Guárico, Portuguesa, Táchira; Colombia, Amazonian Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia.

J. obtusifolia subsp. rhombifolia (G. Mey.) A.H. Gentry, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 29: 257. 1978. -Jacaranda rhombifolia G. Mey., Prim. Fl. Esseq. 213. 1818. -Casabe, Clavellino, Guarupa, Patico, Rabo de iguana, Uada camayu, Uadam-kayu.

Evergreen lowland to lower montane forests, 50-600 m; southern Delta Amacuro, central and northern Bolívar, Amazonas (scattered). Anzoátegui, Monagas, Sucre; Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, northern Amazonian Brazil.

Jacaranda orinocensis Sandwith, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 10(1): 139. 1958.

Shrub or small tree. Sandy river banks, 50-100 m; westernmost Bolívar (Río Orinoco, Río Parguaza, Río Parhueña), Amazonas (Raudal de Atures in Río Orinoco). Adjacent Apure.

TOP

Scientific Comments:
Paul Berry (peberry@facstaff.wisc.edu) or Kay Yatskievych (kay.yatskievych@mobot.org).

 
 
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