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Articles or books by two or more authors are cited as follows. When there are two authors, citation is alphabetical after the second author's name. When there are three or more authors, references are cited in the body of the text as (e.g.) Chase et al. 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, and are listed following these sometimes alphabetically qualified dates of publication immediately after all the single- or two-authored articles by the first author.

Qi, X.S. [et al. 2012], Chen, C., Comes, H. P., Sakagushi, S., Liu, Y.-H., Tanaka, N., Sakio, H. & Qiu, Y.-X. 2012. Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal a highly dynamic evolutionary history of the East Asian Tertiary relict Cercidiphyllum (Cercidiphyllaceae). New Phytol. 196: 617–630.

Qi, Z. [et al. 2012], Li, P., Zhao, Y., Cameron, K., & Fu, C. 2012. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Smilacaceae (Liliales), a cosmopolitan family of monocots. P. 197, in Botany 2012: The Next Generation. July 7-11 - Columbus, Ohio. Abstracts.

Qian, H., & Ricklefs, R. E. 2004. Taxon richness and climate in angiosperms: Is there a globally consistent relationship that precludes region effects? American Naturalist 163: 773-779 [see Electronic Appendix for plant distributions].

Qin, H.-N. 1998. A taxonomic revision of the Lardizabalaceae. Cathaya 8-9: 1-214.

Qiu, R.-L. [et al. 2012], Tang, Y.-T., Zeng, X.-W., Thangavel, P., Tang, L., Gan, Y.-Y., Ying, R.-R., & Wang, S.-Z. 2012. Mechanisms of Cd hyperaccumulation and detoxification in heavy metal hyperaccumulators: How plants cope with Cd. Prog. Bot. 73: 127-.

Qiu, Y. L., & Estabrook, G. F. 2008. Inference of phylogenetic relationships among key angiosperm lineages using a compatabilty method on a molecular data set. J. Syst. Evol. 46: 130-141.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1995], Chase, M. W., & Parks, C. R. 1995. A chloroplast DNA phylogenetic study of the eastern Asia - east North America disjunct section Rhytidospermum of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae). American J. Bot. 82: 1582-1588.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1998a], Chase, M. W., Hoot, S. B., Conti, E., Crane, P. R., Sytsma, K. J., & Parks, C. R. 1998a. Phylogenetics of the Hamamelidae and their allies: Parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 159: 891-905.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1998b], Cho, Y., Cox, J. C., & Palmer, J. D. 1998b. The gain of three mitochondrial introns identifies liverworts as the earliest land plants. Nature 394: 671-674.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1999], Lee, J., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Zimmer, E. A., Chen, Z., Savolainen, V., & Chase, M. W. 1999. The earliest angiosperms: Evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genes. Nature 402: 404-407.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2000], Lee, J., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Zimmer, E. A., Chen, Z., Savolainen, V., & Chase, M. W. 2000. Phylogeny of basal angiosperms: Analyses of five genes from three genomes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 161(6: suppl. [Current Perspectives on Basal Angiosperms]): S3-S27.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2005], Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Li, L., Whitlock, B. A., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Rest, J. S., Davis, C. C., Borsch, T., Hilu, K. W., Renner, S. S., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Cannone, J. J., Gutell, R. R., Powell, M., Savolainen, V., Chatrou, L. W., & Chase, M. W. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of basal angiosperms based on nine plastid mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 166: 815-842.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2006a], Li, L., Wang, B., Chen, Z., Knoop, V., Groth-Malonek, M., Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Kent, L., Rest, J. S., Estabrook, G. F., Hendry, T. A., Taylor, D. W., Testa, C. M., Ambros, M., Crandall-Stotler, B., Duff, R. J., Stech, M., Frey, W., Quandt, D., & Davis, C. C. 2006a. The deepest divergences in land plants inferred from phylogenomic evidence. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103: 15511-15516.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2006b], Li, L., Hendry, T, Li, R., Taylor, D. W., Issa, M. J., Ronen, A. J., Vekaria, M. L., & White, A. M. 2006b. Reconstructing the basal angiosperm phylogeny: Evaluating information content of mitochondrial genes. Taxon 55: 837-856.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2007], Li, L., Wang, B., Chen, Z., Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Kent, L., Li, R., Jobson, R. J., Hendry, T. A., Taylor, D. W., Testa, C. M., & Ambros, M. 2007. A nonflowering land plant phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences of seven chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 168: 691-708.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2010], Li, L., Wang, B., Xue, J.-Y., Hendry, T. A., Li, R.-Q., Brown, J. W., Liu, Y., Hudson, G. T., & Chen, Z.-D. 2010. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from sequences of four mitochondrial genes. J. Syst. Evol. 48: 391-425.

Quandt, D., & Stech, M. 2003. Molecular systematics of bryophytes in context of land plant phylogeny. Pp. 267-295, in Sharma, A. K., & Sharma, A. (eds), Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution. Volume 1, part A. Phanerogams. Scientific Publications, Enfield, NH.

Quandt, D. [et al. 2004], Müller, K., Stech, M., Frahm, J.-P., Frey, W., Hilu, K. W., & Borsch, T. 2004. Molecular evolution of the chloroplast trnL-F region in land plants. Pp. 15-37, in Goffinet, B., Hollowell, V., & Magill, R. (eds), Molecular Systematics of Bryophytes. Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, MO.

Quental, T. B., & Marshall, C. R. 2010. Diversity dynamics: Molecular phylogenies need the fossil record. Trends Ecol. Evol. 25: 434-441.

Quezada, I. M., & Gianoli, E. 2011. Crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis in Bromeliaceae: An evolutionary key innovation. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 104: 480-486.

Quinn, C. J. 1986. Embryogeny in Phyllocladus. New Zealand J. Bot. 24: 575-579.

Quinn, C. J. [et al. 2002], Price, R. A., & Gadek, P. A. 2002. Familial concepts and relationships in the conifers based on rbcL and matK sequence comparisons. Kew Bull. 57: 513-531.

Quinn, C. J. [et al. 2003], Crayn, D. M., Heslewood, M. M., Brown, E. A., & Gadek, P. A. 2003. A molecular estimate of the phylogeny of Styphelieae (Ericaceae). Australian Syst. Bot. 16: 581-594.

Quinn, C. J. [et al. 2005], Brown, E. A., Heslewood, M. M., & Crayn, D. M. 2005. Generic concepts in Styphelieae (Ericaceae): The Cyathodes group. Australian Syst. Bot. 18: 439-454.

Quint, M., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2006a. Phylogeny of Bruniaceae based on matK and ITS sequence data. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 167: 135-146.

Quint, M., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2006b. Floral ontogeny, petal diversity and nectary uniformity in Bruniaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 152: 459-477.

Quint, M., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2008. Ancient or recent? Insights into the temporal evolution of the Bruniaceae. Organisms Diversity Environ. 8: 293-304.

Quintinar, A. [et al. 2007], Castroviejo, S., & Catalán, P. 2007. Phylogeny of the tribe Aveneae (Pooideae, Poaceae) inferred from plastid trnT-F and nucear ITS sequences. American J. Bot. 94: 1554-1569.

Quintinar, A. [et al. 2010], Catalán, P., & Castroviejo, S. 2010. A review of the systematics and phylogenetics of the Koeleriinae (Poaceae: Poeae). Pp. 539-556, in Seberg, O., Petersen, G., Barfod, A. S., & Davis, J. I. (eds), Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons. Aarhus University Press, Århus.

Quisumbing, E. 1925. Continuity of protoplasm in endosperm cells of ADiospyros. Bot. Gaz. 80: 439-447.

Raab, T. K. [et al. 1996], Lipson, D. A., & Monson, R. K. 1996. Non-mycorrhizal uptake of amino acids by the roots of the alpine sedge Kobresia myosurides: Implications for the alpine nitrogen cycle. Oecologia 108: 488-494.

Raab, T. K. [et al. 1999], Lipson, D. A., & Monson, R. K. 1999. Soil amino acid utilization among species of Cyperaceae: Plant and soil processes. Ecology 80: 2408-2419.

Rabaey, D. [et al. 2010], Lens, F., Smets, E., & Jansen, S. 2010. The phylogenetic significance of vestured pits in Boraginaceae. Taxon 59: 510-516.

Rabeling, C. [et al. 2008], Brown, J. M., & Verhaagh M. 2008. Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 105: 14913-14917.

Rabinowitch, H. D., & Currah, L. 2002. Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. CABI, Wallingford.

Rabosky, D. L. 2009. Ecological limits and diversification rate: Alternative paradigms to explain variation in species richness among clades and regions. Ecol. Lett. 12: 735-743.

Rabosky, D. L. 2010a. Evolutionary bangs and whimpers: Methodological advances and conceptual frameworks for studying exceptional diversification. Syst. Biol. 59: 615-618.

Rabosky, D. L. 2010b. Primary controls on species richness in higher taxa. Syst Biol. 59: 634-645.

Raboud, X., & Zeyl, C. 1994. Organelle evolution in plants. Heredity 72: 132-140.

Radcliffe-Smith, A. 2001. Genera euphorbiacearum. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Radford, A. E. [et al. 1974], Dickison, W. C., Massey, J. R., & Bell, C. R. 1974. Vascular Plant Systematics. Harper & Row, New York. [See, in part, http://www.ibiblio.org/botnet/glossary/vasc.html ]

Radhika, K. P., & Rodrigues, B. F. 2007. Arbuscular mycorrhizae in association with aquatic and marshy plant species in Goa, India. Aquatic Bot. 86: 291-294.

Radlkofer, L. 1890. Über die Gliederung der familie der Sapindaceen. Sitzungs. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayerische Akad. Wiss. München 20: 105-379.

Radlkofer, L. 1892-1900. Sapindaceae. Pp. 225-658, pl. 58-123, in Urban, I. (ed.), Flora brasiliensis, vol. 13(3).

Radlkofer, L. 1933. Sapindaceae, vol. 1. Engelmann, Leizig.

Radlkofer, L. 1934. Sapindaceae, vol. 2. Engelmann, Leizig.

Radusky, A. R. [et al. 2011], Haney, E. B., & Igic, B. 2011. The expression of self-incompatibility in angiosperms in bimodal. Evolution 66: 1275-1283.

Raguso, R. A. 2008. Wake up and smell the roses: The ecology and evolution of floral scent. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 39: 549-569.

Raguso, R. A., & Roy, B. A. 1998. 'Floral' scent production by Puccinia rust fungi that mimic flowers. Molec. Ecol. 7: 1127-1136.

Rahmanzadeh, R. [et al. 2004], Müller, K., Fischer, E., Bartels, D., & Borsch, T. 2004. The Linderniaceae and Gratiolaceae are further lineages distinct from the Scrophulariaceae (Lamiales). Plant Biol. 7: 67-78.

Rahn, K. 1996. A phlyogenetic study of the Plantaginaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 120: 145-198.

Rahn, K. 1998. Alliaceae, pp. 70-78, and Themidaceae, 436-440, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. III. Flowering Plants. Monocotyledons. Lilianae (except Orchidaceae). Springer, Berlin.

Rai, A. N. [et al. 2000], Söderbäck, E., & Bergman, B. 2000. Cyanobacterium-plant symbioses. New Phytol. 147: 449-481.

Rai, H. S. [et al. 2002], Reeves, P. A., Olmstead, R. G., & Graham, S. W. 2002. Conifer monophyly and higher-order relationships based on a large, multigene plastid set. P. 147, in Botany 2002: Botany in the Curriculum, Abstracts. [Madison, Wisconsin.]

Rai, H. S. [et al. 2003], O'Brien, H. E., Reeves, P. A., Olmstead, R. G., & Graham, S. W. 2003. Inference of higher-order relationships within the cycads from a large chloroplast data set. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 29: 350-359.

Rai, H. S. [et al. 2008a], Reeves, P. A., Peakall, R., Olmstead, R. G., & Graham, S. W. 2008a. Inference of higher-order conifer relationships from a multi-locus plastid data set. Botany 86: 658-669.

Rai, H. [et al. 2008b], Nagalingum, N., Wu, Y., Little, D., Stevenson, D. W., & Mathews, S. 2008b. Phylogenetic relationships within and among cycad genera inferred from phytochrome genes. P. 96, in Botany 2008. Botany without Borders. [Botanical Society of America, etc. Abstracts.]

Rai, H. [et al. 2008b], Chonofsky, M., Kelch, D., Cronn, R. C., Parks, M., Nagalingum, N., Vo, A., Liston, A., & Mathews, S. 2009. Generic and familial relationships within conifers inferred from nuclear data. P. 150, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Raj, B. 1970. Loranthaceae. Indian National Sci. Acad. Bull. [Symposium: Comparative Embryology of Angiosperms] 41: 22-28.

Raj, B. 1985. A contribution to the pollen morphology of Nesogenaceae and Cyclocheilaceae. Pollen et Spores 27: 295-306.

Rajput, K. S. 2002. Stem anatomy of Amaranthaceae: Rayless nature of xylem. Flora 197: 224-232.

Rajput, K. S., & Patil, V. S. 2008. Development of cambial variant of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Club 135: 483-490.

Rajput, K. S. [et al. 2008], Raole, V. M., & Gandhi, D. 2008. Radial secondary growth and formation of successive cambia and their products in Ipomoea hederifolia L. (Convolvulaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 158: 30-40.

Raju, M. V. S. 1956a. Embryology of the Passifloraceae. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 35: 126-138.

Raju, M. V. S. 1956b. Development of embryo and seed coat in Turnera ulmifolia L. var. angustifolia Willd. Bot. Notis. 109: 308-312.

Raju, M. V. S. 1961. Morphology and anatomy of the Saururaceae. Floral anatomy and embryology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 48: 107-124.

Ralphs, M. H. [et al. 2008], Creamer, R., Baucom, D., Gardner, D. R., Welsh, S. L., Graham, J. D., Hart, C., Cook, D., & Stegelmeier, B. L. 2008. Relationship between the endophyte Embellisia spp. and the toxic alkaloid swainsonine in major locoweed species (Astragalus and Oxytropis). J. Chemical Ecol. 34: 32-38.

Ram, M. 1956. Floral morphology and embryology of Trapa bispinosa Roxb. with a discussion on the systematic position of the genus. Phytomorph. 6: 312-322.

Ram, M. 1970. Olacaceae, Opiliaceae, Grubbiaceae, Myzodendraceae. Indian National Sci. Acad. Bull. [Symposium: Comparative Embryology of Angiosperms] 41: 4-8, 9-12, 13-14, 19-21.

Rama Devi, D. 1991. Floral anatomy of Hypseocharis (Oxalidaceae) with a discussion on its systematic position. Plant Syst. Evol. 177: 161-164.

Raman, A. [et al. 2005], Schaefer, C. W., & Withers, T. M. (eds), Biology, Ecology and Evolution of Gall-Inducing Arthropods, 2 vols. Science Publishers, Enfield, N.H.

Raman, S. 1991. The trichomes on the corolla of the Scrophulariaceae - X: Taxa of uncertain relationship to, or within, the family. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 66: 127-143.

Ramana, R. V. [et al. 2000], Rao, P. S. P., Dutt, B. S. M., & Narayana, L. 2000. Embryology of Phryma leptostachya L. (Verbenaceae) with considerations of its systematic status and affinities. Feddes Repert. 111: 231-248.

Ramdhani, S. [et al. 2009], Barker, N. P., & Baijnanth, H. 2009. Rampant non-monophyly of species in Kniphofia Moench (Asphodelaceae) suggests a recent Afromontane radiation. Taxon 58: 1141-1152.

Ramdhani, S. [et al. 2011], Barker, N. P., & Cowling, R. M. 2011. Revisiting monophyly in Haworthia Duval (Asphodelaceae): Incongruence, hybridization and contemporary speciation. Taxon 60: 1001-1014.

Ramirez, N. 2003. Floral specialization and pollination: A quantitative analysis and comparison of the Leppik and Faegri and van der Pijl classification systems. Taxon 52: 687-700.

Ramírez, S. R. [et al. 2002], Dressler, R. L., & Ospina, M. 2002. Abejas euglosinas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) de la región Neotropical: listado de especies con notas sobre su biología. Biota Colombiana 3: 7-118.

Ramírez, S. R. [et al. 2007], Gravendeel, B., Singer, R. B., Marshall, C. R., & Pierce, N. E. 2007. Dating the origin of Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448: 1042-1045.

Ramírez, S. R. [et al. 2010], Roubik, D. W., Skov, C., & Pierce, N. E. 2010. Phylogeny, diversification patterns and historical biogeography of euglossine orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 100: 552-572.

Ramírez, S. R. [et al. 2011], Eltz, T., Fujiwara, M. K., Gerlach, G., Goldman-Huertas, B., Tsutsui, N. D., & Pierce, N. E. 2011. Asynchronous diversification in a specialized plant-pollinator mutualism. Science 333: 1742-1746.

Ramírez-Domenech, J. I., & Tucker, S. C. 1990. Comparative ontogeny of the perianth in mimosoid legumes. American J. Bot. 77: 624-635.

Ramomonjiarisoa, B. 1980. Comparative Anatomy and Systematics of African and Malagasy woody Saxifragaceae sensu lato. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

Ramos, C. O. C. [et al. 2005], Borba, E. L., & Funch, L. S. 2005. Pollination in Brazilian Syngonanthus (Eriocaulaceae) species: Evidence for entomophily instead of anemophily. Ann. Bot. 96: 387-397.

Ramp, E. 1987. Funktionelle Anatomie des Gynoeciums bei Staphylea. Bot. Helvetica 97: 89-98.

Ramstad, E. 1953. Über das Vorkommen und die Verbreitung von Chelidonsäure in einigen Pflanzenfamilien. Pharmacolog. Acta Helvetiae 28: 48-57.

Ran, J. H. [et al. 2010], Gao, H., & Wang, X.-Q. 2010. Fast evolution of the retroprocessed mitochondrial rps3 gene in conifer II and further evidence for the phylogeny of gymnosperms. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 54: 136-149.

Ranere, A. J. [et al. 2009], Piperno, D. R., Holst, I., Dickau, R., & Iriarte, J. 2009. The cultural and chronological context of early Holocene maize and squash domestication in the Central Balsas River valley, Mexico. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106: 5014-5018.

Raninandran, P. N., & Babu, K. N. (eds). 2005. Ginger: The Genus Zingiber. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Rank, C. [et al. 2004], Rasmussen, L. S., Jensen, S. R., Pierce, S., Press, M. C., & Scholes, J. D. 2004. Cytotoxic constituents of Alectra and Striga species. Weed Research 44: 265-270.

Ranker, T. A., & Haufler, C. H. (eds). 2008. Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Rankin, B. D. [et al. 2008], Stockey, R. A., & Beard, G. 2008. Fruits of Icacinaceae from the Eocene Appian Way locality of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 169: 305-314.

Ranney, T. G. [et al. 2003], Eaker, T. A., Fantz, P. R., & Parks, C. R. 2003. xSchimlinia floribunda (Thaceae): A new intergeneric hybrid between Franklinia alatamaha and Schimma argentea. HortScience 38: 1198-1120.

Rao, D. 1968. A contribution to the embryology of Erythroxylaceae. Proc. National Acad. Sci. India B, 38: 53-65.

Rao, D. 1970. Simaroubaceae, Burseraceae. Indian National Sci. Acad. Bull. [Symposium: Comparative Embryology of Angiosperms] 41: 142-147, 148-150.

Rao, P. R. M. 1974. Seed anatomy in some Hamamelidaceae and phylogeny. Phytomorph. 24: 113-139.

Rao, T. A. 1957. Comparative morphology and ontogeny of foliar sclereids in seed plants - 1. Memecylon L. Phytomorph. 7: 306-330.

Rao, T. A. 1991. Compendium of Foliar Sclereids in Angiosperms: Morphology and Taxonomy. Wiley Eastern, New Delhi.

Rao, T. A. [et al. 1983], Bremer, K., & Naidu, T. R. B. 1983. Foliar sclereids in Memecylon and Lijndenia (Melastomataceae) from Borneo, Java, Malaya and Sumatra. Nordic J. Bot. 3: 343-345.

Rao, T. S. [et al. 1958], Sirdeshmukh, K., & Sardar, M. G. 1958. The floral anatomy of the Leguminosae. J. Univ. Bombay Sect. B, 26: 65-138.

Rapini, A. [et al. 2003], Chase, M. W., Goyder, D. J., & Griffiths, J. 2003. Asclepiadeae classification: Evaluating the phylogenetic relationships of New World Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae). Taxon 52: 33-50.

Rapini, A. [et al. 2007], van den Berg, C., & Liede-Schumann, S. 2007. Diversification of Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) in the New World. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94: 407-422.

Raquet, V. 2004. Phylogénie morphologique des Myodocarpaceae: Famille sub-endémique de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Thesis, DEA de Systématique Animale et Végétale, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.

Rask, L. [et al. 2000], Andréasson, E., Ekbom, E., Eriksson, S., Pontoppidan, B., & Meijer, J. 2000. Myrosinase: Gene family evolution and herbivore defense in Brassicaceae. Plant. Mol. Biol. 42: 93-113.

Rasmann, S., & Agrawal, A. A. 2011. Latitudinal patterns in plant defense: Evolution of cardenolides, their toxicity and induction following herbivory. Ecol. Lett. 14: 476-483.

Rasmussen, C., & Olesen, J. M. 2000. Oilflowers and oil-collecting bees. Norske Vidensk.-Akad. I. Matem. Naturvidens. Kl. Skr. N.S. 39: 23-31.

Rasmussen, D. A. [et al. 2009], Kramer, E. M., & Zimmer, E. A. 2009. One size fits all? Molecular evidence for a commonly inherited petal identity program in Ranunculales. American J. Bot. 96: 96-109.

Rasmussen, F. N. 1982. The gynostemium of the neottioid orchids. Op. Bot. 65: 1-96.

Rasmussen, F. N., & Johansen, B. 2006. Carpology of orchids. Selbyana 47: 44-53.

Rasmussen, F. N. [et al. 2006], Frederiksen, S., Johansen, B., Jøregensen, L. B., Petersen, G., & Seberg, O. 2006. Fleshy fruits in liliiflorous monocots. Pp. 135-147, in Columbus, J. T., Friar, E. A., Porter, J. M., Prince, L. M., & Simpson, M. G. (eds), Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution. Excluding Poales. Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, Claremont, Ca. [Aliso 22: 4135-147.]

Rasmussen, H. N. 1995. Terrestrial Orchids: From Seed to Mycotrophic Plant. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Rasmussen, L. S. [et al. 2006], Rank, C., & Jensen, S. R. 2006. Transfer of iridoid glucosides from host plant Galium verum to hemiparasitic Euphrasia stricta. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 34: 763-765.

Ratzka, A. [et al. 2002], Vogel, H., Kliebenstein, D. J., Mitchell-Olds, T., & Kroymann, J. 2002. Disarming the mustard oil bomb. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99: 11223-11228.

Rau, M. A. 1953. Some observations on the endosperm in Pailionaceae. Phytomorph. 3: 209-222.

Raubeson, L. A. 1998. Chloroplast structural similarities shared by conifers and Gnetales: Coincidence or common ancestry? American J. Bot. 85(6, suppl.): 153.

Raubeson, L. A., & Jansen, R. K. 1992a. A rare chloroplast-DNA structural mutation is shared by all conifers. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 20: 17-24.

Raubeson, L. A., & Jansen, R. K. 1992b. Chloroplast DNA evidence on the ancient evolutionary split in vascular land plants. Science 255: 1697-1699.

Raubeson, L. A., & Jansen, R. K. 2005. Chloroplast genomes in plants. Pp. 45-68, in Henry, R. J. (ed.), Plant Diversity and Evolution: Genotypic and Phenotypic Variation in Higher Plants. CAB International, Wallingford.

Raubeson, L. A. [et al. 2006], McCoy, S. K. R., Müller, K., Wall, P. K., Leebens-Mack, J., Boore, J. L., Jansen, R. K., & Depamphilis, C. W. 2006. Seed plant phylogeny based on sequences from 61 (mostly) shared genes. Pp. 250-251, in Botany 2006 - Looking to the Future - Conserving the Past. [Abstracts: Botanical Society of America, etc.]

Rauh, W. 1983. The morphology and systematic position of the Didieriaceae of Madagascar. Bothalia 14: 839-843.

Rauh, W. 1990. Bromelien: Tillandsien und andere kulturwürdige Bromelien. Eugen Ulmer.

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