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Articles or books by two or more authors are cited as follows. When there are two authors, citation is alphabetical after the second author's name. When there are three or more authors, references are cited in the body of the text as (e.g.) Chase et al. 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, and are listed following these sometimes alphabetically qualified dates of publication immediately after all the single- or two-authored articles by the first author.

Qi, X. [et al. 2018], Kuo, L,-Y., Guo, C., Li, H., Li, Z., Qi, J., Wang, L., Hu, Y., Xiang, J., Zhang, C., Guo, J., Huang, C.-H., & Ma, H. 2018. A well-resolved fern nuclear phylogeny reveals the evolution history of numerous transcription factor families. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 127: 961-977. doi:

Qi, X. S. [et al. 2012], Chen, C., Comes, H. P., Sakagushi, S., Liu, Y.-H., Tanaka, N., Sakio, H. & Qiu, Y.-X. 2012. Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal a highly dynamic evolutionary history of the East Asian Tertiary relict Cercidiphyllum (Cercidiphyllaceae). New Phytol. 196: 617–630.

Qi, Z. [et al. 2012], Li, P., Zhao, Y., Cameron, K., & Fu, C. 2012. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Smilacaceae (Liliales), a cosmopolitan family of monocots. P. 197, in Botany 2012: The Next Generation. July 7-11 - Columbus, Ohio. Abstracts.

Qi, Z. [et al. 2013], Cameron, K. M., Li, P., Zhao, Y., Chen, S., Chen, G., & Fu, C. 2013. Phylogenetics, character evolution, and distribution patterns of the greenbriers, Smilacaceae (Liliales), a near cosmopolitan family of monocots. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 173: 535-548.

Qian, H. 2014. Contrasting relationships between clade age and temperature along latitudinal versus elevational gradients for woody angiosperms in forests of South America. J. Vegetat. Sci. 25: 1208–1215. doi: 10.1111/jvs.12175

Qian, H., & Ricklefs, R. E. 2004. Taxon richness and climate in angiosperms: Is there a globally consistent relationship that precludes region effects? American Naturalist 163: 773-779 [see Electronic Appendix for plant distributions].

Qian, H., & Ricklefs, R. E. 2016. Out of the tropical lowlands: Latitude versus elevantion. Trends Ecol. Evol.31: 738-741.

Qian, H., & Zhang, J. 2014. Using an updated time-calibrated family-level phylogeny of seed plants to test for non-random patterns of life forms across the phylogeny. J. Syst. Evol. 52: 423-430.

Qin, A.-L. [et al. 2013], Wang, M.-M., Cun, Y.-Z., Yang, F.-S., Wang, S.-S., Ran, J.-R., & Wang, X.-Q. 2013. Phylogeographic evidence for a link of species divergence in Ephedra in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and adjacent regions to the Miocene Asian aridification. PLoS ONE 8(2):e56243. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056243

Qiu, H., & Gilbert, M. G. 2003. Loranthaceae. Pp. 220-239, in Wu, Z., Raven, P. H., et al. (eds), Flora of China. 5. Ulmaceae through Basellaceae. Science Press, Beijing.

Qin, H.-N. 1998. A taxonomic revision of the Lardizabalaceae. Cathaya 8-9: 1-214.

Qiu, J. 2016. Trouble in Tibet. Nature 529: 142-145.

Qiu, R.-L. [et al. 2012], Tang, Y.-T., Zeng, X.-W., Thangavel, P., Tang, L., Gan, Y.-Y., Ying, R.-R., & Wang, S.-Z. 2012. Mechanisms of Cd hyperaccumulation and detoxification in heavy metal hyperaccumulators: How plants cope with Cd. Prog. Bot. 73: 127-.

Qiu, Y. [et al. 2014], Filipenko, S. J., Darracq, A., & Adams, K. L. 2014. Expression of a transferred nuclear gene in a mitochondrial genome. Curr. Plant Biol. 1: 68-72.

Qiu, Y. L., & Estabrook, G. F. 2008. Inference of phylogenetic relationships among key angiosperm lineages using a compatabilty method on a molecular data set. J. Syst. Evol. 46: 130-141.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1995], Chase, M. W., & Parks, C. R. 1995. A chloroplast DNA phylogenetic study of the eastern Asia - east North America disjunct section Rhytidospermum of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae). American J. Bot. 82: 1582-1588.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1998a], Chase, M. W., Hoot, S. B., Conti, E., Crane, P. R., Sytsma, K. J., & Parks, C. R. 1998a. Phylogenetics of the Hamamelidae and their allies: Parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 159: 891-905.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1998b], Cho, Y., Cox, J. C., & Palmer, J. D. 1998b. The gain of three mitochondrial introns identifies liverworts as the earliest land plants. Nature 394: 671-674.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1999], Lee, J., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Zimmer, E. A., Chen, Z., Savolainen, V., & Chase, M. W. 1999. The earliest angiosperms: Evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genes. Nature 402: 404-407.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2000], Lee, J., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Zimmer, E. A., Chen, Z., Savolainen, V., & Chase, M. W. 2000. Phylogeny of basal angiosperms: Analyses of five genes from three genomes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 161(6: suppl. [Current Perspectives on Basal Angiosperms]): S3-S27.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2001], Lee, J., Whitlock, B. A., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., & Dombrovska, O. 2001. Was the ANITA rooting of the angiosperm phylogeny affected by long-branch attraction? Molec. Biol. Evol. 18: 1745-1753.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2005], Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Li, L., Whitlock, B. A., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Rest, J. S., Davis, C. C., Borsch, T., Hilu, K. W., Renner, S. S., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Cannone, J. J., Gutell, R. R., Powell, M., Savolainen, V., Chatrou, L. W., & Chase, M. W. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of basal angiosperms based on nine plastid mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 166: 815-842.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2006a], Li, L., Wang, B., Chen, Z., Knoop, V., Groth-Malonek, M., Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Kent, L., Rest, J. S., Estabrook, G. F., Hendry, T. A., Taylor, D. W., Testa, C. M., Ambros, M., Crandall-Stotler, B., Duff, R. J., Stech, M., Frey, W., Quandt, D., & Davis, C. C. 2006a. The deepest divergences in land plants inferred from phylogenomic evidence. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 103: 15511-15516.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2006b], Li, L., Hendry, T, Li, R., Taylor, D. W., Issa, M. J., Ronen, A. J., Vekaria, M. L., & White, A. M. 2006b. Reconstructing the basal angiosperm phylogeny: Evaluating information content of mitochondrial genes. Taxon 55: 837-856.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2007], Li, L., Wang, B., Chen, Z., Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Kent, L., Li, R., Jobson, R. J., Hendry, T. A., Taylor, D. W., Testa, C. M., & Ambros, M. 2007. A nonflowering land plant phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences of seven chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 168: 691-708.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2010], Li, L., Wang, B., Xue, J.-Y., Hendry, T. A., Li, R.-Q., Brown, J. W., Liu, Y., Hudson, G. T., & Chen, Z.-D. 2010. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from sequences of four mitochondrial genes. J. Syst. Evol. 48: 391-425.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2012], Taylor, A. B., & McManus, H. A. 2012. Evolution of the life cycle in land plants. J. Syst. Evol. 50: 171-194.

Qiu, Z.-J. [et al. 2015], Lu, Y.-X., Li, C.-Q., Smith, J. F., & Wang, Y.-Z. 2015. Origin and evolution of Petrocosmea (Gesneriaceae) inferred from both DNA sequence and novel findings in morpholoogy with a test of morphology-based hypotheses. BMC Plant Biol. 15:167. doi: 10.1186/s12870-015-0540-3

Qu, X.-J. [et al. 2017], Wu, C.-S., Chaw, S.-M., & Yi, T.-S. 2017. Insights into the existence of isomeric plastomes in Cupressoideae (Cupressaceae). Genome Biol. Evol. 9: 1110–1119. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evx071

Quandt, D., & Stech, M. 2003. Molecular systematics of bryophytes in context of land plant phylogeny. Pp. 267-295, in Sharma, A. K., & Sharma, A. (eds), Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution. Volume 1, part A. Phanerogams. Scientific Publications, Enfield, NH.

Quandt, D. [et al. 2004], Müller, K., Stech, M., Frahm, J.-P., Frey, W., Hilu, K. W., & Borsch, T. 2004. Molecular evolution of the chloroplast trnL-F region in land plants. Pp. 15-37, in Goffinet, B., Hollowell, V., & Magill, R. (eds), Molecular Systematics of Bryophytes. Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, MO.

Queenborough, S. A. [et al. 2013], Metz, M. A., Valencia, R., & Wright, S. J. 2013. Demographic consequences of chromatic leaf defence in tropical tree communities: Do red young leaves increase growth and survival. Ann. Bot. 112: 677-684.

Quental, T. B., & Marshall, C. R. 2010. Diversity dynamics: Molecular phylogenies need the fossil record. Trends Ecol. Evol. 25: 434-441.

Quested, H. M. [et al. 2003], Cornelissen, J. H. C., Press, M. C., Callaghan, T. V., Aerts, R., Trosien, F., Riemann, P., Gwynn-Jones, D., Kondratchuk, A., & Jonasson, S. E. 2003. Decomposition of sub-Arctic plants with differing nitrogen economies: A functional role for hemiparasites. Ecology 84: 3209-3221.

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Quilichini, T. D. [et al. 2015], Grienenberger, E., & Douglas, C. j. 2015. The biosynthesis, composition and assembly of the outer pollen wall: A tough case to crack. Phytochem. 113: 170-182.

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Quinn, C. J. [et al. 2003], Crayn, D. M., Heslewood, M. M., Brown, E. A., & Gadek, P. A. 2003. A molecular estimate of the phylogeny of Styphelieae (Ericaceae). Australian Syst. Bot. 16: 581-594.

Quinn, C. J. [et al. 2005], Brown, E. A., Heslewood, M. M., & Crayn, D. M. 2005. Generic concepts in Styphelieae (Ericaceae): The Cyathodes group. Australian Syst. Bot. 18: 439-454.

Quinn, C. J. [et al. 2015], Crowden, R. K., Brown, E. A., Southam, M. J., Thornhill, A. H., & Crayn, D. M. 2015. A reappraisal of the generic concepts of Epacris, Rupicola and Budawangia (Ericaceae, Epacridoideae, Epacrideae) based on phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data. Australian Syst. Bot. 28: 63-77.

Quint, M., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2006a. Phylogeny of Bruniaceae based on matK and ITS sequence data. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 167: 135-146.

Quint, M., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2006b. Floral ontogeny, petal diversity and nectary uniformity in Bruniaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 152: 459-477.

Quint, M., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2008. Ancient or recent? Insights into the temporal evolution of the Bruniaceae. Organisms Diversity Environ. 8: 293-304.

Quintero, E. [et al. 2016], Genzoni, E., Mann, N., Nuttman, C., & Anderson, B. 2017 [= 2016]. Sunbird surprise: A test of the predictive power of the syndrome concept. Flora 232: 22-29.

Quintinar, A. [et al. 2007], Castroviejo, S., & Catalán, P. 2007. Phylogeny of the tribe Aveneae (Pooideae, Poaceae) inferred from plastid trnT-F and nucear ITS sequences. American J. Bot. 94: 1554-1569.

Quintinar, A. [et al. 2010], Catalán, P., & Castroviejo, S. 2010. A review of the systematics and phylogenetics of the Koeleriinae (Poaceae: Poeae). Pp. 539-556, in Seberg, O., Petersen, G., Barfod, A. S., & Davis, J. I. (eds), Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons. Aarhus University Press, Århus.

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Quirk, J. [et al. 2014], Andrews, M. Y., Leake, J. R., Banwart, S. A., & Beerling, D. J. 2014 Ectomycorrhizal fungi and past high CO2 atmospheres enhance mineral weathering through increased below-ground carbon-energy fluxes. Biol. Lett. 10: 20140375.

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Rabosky, D. L. 2018. How to make any method "fail": BAMM at the kangaroo court of false equivalency. bioRχiv

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Ronse Decraene, L. P., & Smets, E. 1995d. The floral development of Neurada procumbens L. (Neuradaceae). Acta Bot. Neerlandica 44: 439-451. [Reprinted with better illustrations - Acta Bot. Neerlandica 45: 229-241. 1996.]

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Ronse De Craene, L.-P., & Stuppy, W. 2010. Floral development and anatomy of Aextoxicon punctatum (Aextoxicaceae-Berberidopsidales): An enigmatic tree at the base of core eudicots. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 171: 244-257.

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Ronse De Craene, L.-P., & Wanntorp, L. 2009. Floral development and anatomy of Salvadoraceae. Ann. Bot. 104: 913-923.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1997], Vanvinckenroye, P., & Smets, E. 1997. A study of the floral morphological diversity in Phytolacca (Phytolaccaceae) based on early floral ontogeny. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 158: 57-72.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1998b], Smets, E. F., & Vanvinckenroye, P. 1998b. Floral development and anatomy of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae): What is the evidence for a Capparalean or Sapindalean affinity? Ann. Bot. 82: 273-284.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1998c], Roels, P., Smets, E. F., & Backlund, A. 1998c. The floral development and floral anatomy of Chrysosplenium alternifolium, an unusual member of the Saxifragaceae. J. Plant Res. 111: 573-580.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 2000b], Smets, E., & Clinckemaillie, D. 2000b. Floral anatomy and ontogeny in Koelreuteria with special emphasis on monosymmetry and septal cavities. Plant Syst. Evol. 223: 91-107.

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Simmons, M. P. [et al. 2000], Savolainen,V., Clevinger, C. C., Archer, R. H., & Davis, J. I. 2000. Phylogeny of the Celastraceae inferred from morphology and nuclear and plastid loci. American J. Bot. 87(6, suppl.): 156.

Simmons, M. P. [et al. 2001a], Clevinger, C. C., Savolainen, V., Archer, R. H., Mathews, S., & Doyle, J. J. 2001a. Phylogeny of the Celastraceae inferred from phytochrome B gene sequence and morphology. American J. Bot. 88: 313-325.

Simmons, M. P. [et al. 2001b], Savolainen, V., Clevinger, C. C., Archer, R. H., & Davis, J. I. 2001b. Phylogeny of the Celastraceae inferred from 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA, phytochrome B, rbcl, atpB, and morphology. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 19: 353-366.

Simmons, M. P. [et al. 2008], Cappa, J. J., Archer, R. H., Ford, A. J., Eichstedt, D., & Clevinger, C. C. 2008. Phylogeny of the Celastreae (Celastraceae) and the relationships of Catha edulis (qat) inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid genes. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 48: 745-757.

Simmons, M. P. [et al. 2009a], Coughenour, J. M., Lombardi, J. A., & Cappa, J. J. 2009a. Phylogeny of Celastraceae subfamily Salacioideae and tribe Lophopetaleae inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid genes. P. 158, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Simmons, M. P. [et al. 2009b], Coughenour, J. M., Lombardi, J. A., Yakobsen, K., & Archer, R. H. 2009b. Phylogeny of Celastraceae subfamily Hippocrateoideae inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid genes. P. 164, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Simmons, M. P. [et al. 2012a], McKenna, M. J., Bacon, C. D., Yakobsen, K., Cappa, J. J., Archer, R. H., & Ford, A. J. 2012a. Phylogeny of Celastraceae tribe Euonymeae inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid genes. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 62: 9-20.

Simmons, M. P. [et al. 2012], Bacon, C. D., Cappa, J. J., & McKenna, M. J. 2012b. Phylogeny of Celastraceae subfamilies Cassinoideae and Tripterygioideae inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid loci. Syst. Bot. 37: 456-467.

Simmons, S. L. 2006. Staphyleaceae. Pp. 440-445, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Volume IX. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales.... Springer, Berlin.

Simmons, S. L., & Panero, J. L. 2000. Phylogeny and biogeography of Staphyleaceae (DC.) Lindl. American J. Bot. 87(6, suppl.): 157.

Simo-Droissart, M. [et al. 2018], Plunkett, G. M., Droissart, V., Edwards, M. B., Farminhão, J. N. M., Jecmenica, V., D'haijère, T., Lowry, P. P. II, Sonké, B., Micheneau, C., Carlsward, B. S., Azandi, L., Verlynde, S., Hardy, O. J., Martos, F., Bytebier, B., Fischer, E., & Stévart, T. 2018. New phylogenetic insights toward developing a natural generic classification of African angraecoid orchids (Vandeae, Orchidaceae). Molec. Phyl. Evol. 126: 241-249.

Simões, A. O. [et al. 2004], Endress, M., van der Niet, T., Kinoshita, L. S., & Conti, E. 2004. Tribal and intergeneric relationships of Mesechiteae (Apocynaceae, Apocynoideae): Evidence from three non-coding plastid DNA regions and morphology. American J. Bot. 91: 1409-1418.

Simões, A. O. [et al. 2006a], Endress, M., Quast, M. P., & Conti, E. 2006a. Molecular phylogenetics and character evolution of Tabernaemontaneae, a pantropical tribe of Apocynaceae. P. 256, in Botany 2006 - Looking to the Future - Conserving the Past. [Abstracts: Botanical Society of America, etc.]

Simões, A. O. [et al. 2006b], Endress, M., van der Niet, T., Kinoshita, L. S., & Conti, E. 2006b. Is Mandevillia (Apocynaceae, Mesechiteae) monophyletic? Evidence from five plastid DNA loci and morphology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 93: 565-591.

Simões, A. O. [et al. 2007a], Livshultz, T., Conti, E., & Endress, M. E. 2007. Phylogeny and systematics of the Rauvolfioideae (Apocynaceae) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94: 268-297.

Simões, A. O. [et al. 2007b], Scatolin do Rio, M. C., de Moraes Castro, M., & Kinoshita, L. S. 2007b. Gynostegium morphology of Mesechiteae Miers (Apocynaceae, Apocynoideae) as it pertains to the classification of the tribe. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 168: 999-1012.

Simões, A. O. [et al. 2010], Endress, M., & Conti, E. 2010. Systematics and character evolution of Tabernaemontaneae (Apocynaceae, Rauvolfioideae) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Taxon 59: 772-790. [See also Erratum in Taxon 60: 615. 2011.]

Simões, A. O. [et al. 2016], Kinoshita, L. S., Koch, I., Silva, M. J., & Endress, M. E. 2016. Systematics and character evolution of Vinceae (Apocynaceae). Taxon 65: 99-122.

Simões, A. R., & Staples, G. 2017. Dissolution of Convolvulaceae tribe Merremieae and a new classification of the constituent genera. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 183: 561-586.

Simões, A. R. [et al. 2015], Culham, A., & Carine, M. 2015. Resolving the unresolved tribe: A molecular phylogenetic framework for the Merremieae (Convolvulaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 179: 374-387.

Simon, A. [et al. 2006], Glöckner, G., Felder, M., Melkonian, M., & Becker, B. 2006. EST analysis of the scaly green flagellate Mesostigma viride (Streptophyta): Implications for the evolution of green plants (Viridiplantae). BMC Plant Biol. 6, 2.

Simon, B. K. 2007. GrassWorld - interactive key and identification system of world grasses. Kew Bull. 62: 475-484.

Simon, B. K. 2007 [= 2008]. Grass phylogeny and classification: Conflict of morphology and molecules. Pp. 259-266, in Columbus, J. T., Friar, E. A., Porter, J. M., Prince, L. M., & Simpson, M. G. (eds), Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution. Poales. Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, Claremont, Ca. [Aliso 23: 259-266.]

Simon, M. F. 2008. Systematics and Evolution of Mimosa L. (Leguminosae) and the Assembly of a Neotropical Plant Diversity Hotspot. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Oxford.

Simon, M. F., & Pennington, T. 2012. Evidence for adaptation to fire regimes in the tropical savannas of the Brazilian Cerrado. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 173: 711-723.

Simon, M. F. [et al. 2011], Grether, R., de Queiroz, L. P., Skema, C., Pennington, R. T., & Hughes, C. E. 2011. Recent assembly of the Cerrado, a neotropical biodiversity hotspot, by in situ evolution of adaptations to fire. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 106: 20359-20364.

Simon, M. F. [et al. 2011], Grether, R., de Queiroz, L. P., Särkinen, T. E., Dutra, V. F., & Hughes, C. E. 2011. The evolutionary history of Mimosa (Leguminosae): Toward a phylogeny of the sensitive plants. American J. Bot. 98: 1201-1221.

Simon, M. F. [et al. 2015], Pastore, J. F. B., Souza, A. F., Borges, L. M., Scalon, V. R., Ribeiro, P. G., Santos-Silva, J., Souza, V. C., & Queiroz, L. P. 2016 [= 2015]. Molecular phylogeny of Stryphnodendron (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae) and generic delimitations in the Piptadenia group. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 1777: 44-59.

Simon, R. [et al. 2011], Holderied, M. W., Koch, C. U., & von Helversen, O. 2011. Floral acoustics: Conspicuous echoes of a disc-shaped leaf attract bat pollinators. Science 333: 631-633.

Simonin, K. A., & Roddy, A. B. 2018. Genome downsizing, physiological novelty, and the global dominance of flowering plants. PLoS Biol. 16(1):e2003706.

Simonsen, A. K., & Stinchcombe, J. R. 2014. Herbivory eliminates fitness costs of mutualism exploiters. New Phytol. 202: 651-661.

Simonsen, A. K. [et al. 2017], Dinnage, R., Barrett, L. G., Prober, S. M., & Thrall, P. H. 2017. Symbiosis limits establishment of legumes outside their native range at a global scale. Nature Communic. 8:14790. http//

Simonsen, T. J. 2006. Fritillary phylogeny, classification, and larval host plants: Reconstructed mainly on the basis of male and female genitalic morphology (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Argynnini). Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 89: 627-673.

Simonsen, T. J. 2008. Phylogeny of the cactus-feeding phycitines and their relatives (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) based on adult morphology: Evaluation of adult character-systems in phycitine systematic and evidence for a single origin of Cactaceae-feeding larvae. Insect Syst. Evol. 39: 303-325.

Simonsen, T. J. [et al. 2011], Zakharov, E. V., Djernaes, M., Cotton, A. M., Vane-Wright, R. I., & Sperling, F. A. H. 2011. Phylogenetics and divergence times of Papilioninae (Lepidoptera) with special reference to the enigmatic genera Teinopalpus and Meandrusa. Cladistics 27: 113-137.

Simpson, B. B. 1982. Krameria (Krameriaceae) flowers: Orientation and elaiophore morphology. Taxon 31: 517-528.

Simpson, B. B. 1989. Flora Neotropica. Monograph 49. Krameriaceae. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Simpson, B. B. 2006. Krameriaceae. Pp. 208-212, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Volume IX. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales.... Springer, Berlin.

Simpson, B. B. 2009. Economic importance of Compositae. pp. 45-58, in Funk, V. A., Susanna, A., Stuessy, T. F. & Bayer, R. J. (eds), Systematics, Evolution, and Biogeography of Compositae. I.A.P.T.

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Simpson, B. B. [et al. 2003], Larkin, L. L., & Weeks, A. 2003. Progress towards resolving the relationships of the Caesalpinia group (Caesalpinieae: Caesalpinioideae: Leguminosae). Pp. 123-148, in Klitgaard, B. B. & Bruneau, A. (eds), Advances in Legume Systematics. Part 10. Higher Level Systematics. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Simpson, B. B. [et al. 2004], Weeks, A., Helfgott, D. M., & Larkin, L. L. 2004. Species relationships in Krameria (Krameriaceae) based on ITS sequences and morphology: Implications for character utility and biogeography. Syst. Bot. 29: 97-108.

Simpson, D. A. 1995. Relationships within Cyperales. Pp. 497-509, in Rudall, P. J., Cribb, P. J., Cutler, D. F., & Humphries, C. J. (eds), Monocotyledons: Systematics and Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Simpson, D. A. [et al. 2003], Furness, C. A., Hodkinson, T. R., Muasya, A. M., & Chase, M. W. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in Cyperaceae subfamily Mapanioideae inferred from pollen and plastid DNA sequence data. American J. Bot. 90: 1071-1086.

Simpson, D. A. [et al. 2008], Muasya, A. M., Alves, M. V., Bruhl, J. J., Dhooge, S., Chase, M. W., Furness, C. A., Ghamkhar, K., Goetghebeur, P., Hodkinson, T. R., Marchant, A. D., Reznicek, A. A., Nieuwborg, R., Roalson, E. H., Smets, E., Starr, J. R., Thomas, W. W., Wilson, K. L., & Zhang, X. 2007 [= 2008]. Phylogeny of Cyperaceae based on DNA sequence data - a new rbcL analysis. Pp. 72-83, in Columbus, J. T., Friar, E. A., Porter, J. M., Prince, L. M., & Simpson, M. G. (eds), Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution. Poales. Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, Claremont, Ca. [Aliso 23: 72-83.]

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Simpson, K. J. [et al. 2016], Ripley, B. S., Christin, P., Belcher, C. M., Lehmann, C. E. R., Thomas, G. H., & Osborne, C. P. 2016. Determinants of flammability in savanna grass species. J. Ecol. 104: 138-148>

Simpson, M. G. 1988. Embryological development of Lachnanthes caroliniana (Haemodoraceae). American J. Bot. 75: 1394-1408.

Simpson, M. G. 1987. Pollen utrastructure of the Pontederiaceae; Evidence for exine homology with the Haemodoraceae. Grana 26: 113-126.

Simpson, M. G. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of the Haemodoraceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 722-784.

Simpson, M. G. 1993. Septal nectary anatomy and phylogeny of the Haemodoraceae. Syst. Bot. 18: 593-613.

Simpson, M. G. 1998a. Reversal in ovary position from inferior to superior in the Haemodoraceae: Evidence from floral ontogeny. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 159: 466-479.

Simpson, M. G. 1998b. Haemodoraceae. Pp. 212-222, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. IV. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae). Springer, Berlin.

Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. Ed. 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Simpson, M. G. 2010. Plant Systematics. Ed. 2. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Simpson, M. G., & Burton, D. H. 2006. Systematic floral anatomy of Pontederiaceae. Pp. 499-519 in Columbus, J. T., Friar, E. A., Porter, J. M., Prince, L. M., & Simpson, M. G. (eds), Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution. Excluding Poales. Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, Claremont, Ca. [Aliso 22: 499-519.]

Simpson, M. G., & Hasenstab, K. E. 2009. Cryptantha of southern California. Crossosoma 35: 1-59.

Simpson, M. G., & Rudall, P. J. 1998. Tecophilaeaceae. Pp. 429-436, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. III. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Lilianae (except Orchidaceae). Springer, Berlin.

Simpson, M. G. [et al. 2006], Aerne, L., Fay, M. F., & Hopper, S. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of the Haemodoraceae using morphological and molecular data and implications for classification and character evolution. P. 257, in Botany 2006 - Looking to the Future - Conserving the Past. [Abstracts: Botanical Society of America, etc.]

Simpson, M. G. [et al. 2017a], Johnson, L. A., Villaverde, T., & Guilliams, C. M. 2017a. American amphitropical disjuncts: Perspectives from vascular plant analyses and prospects for future research. American J. Bot. 104: 1600-1650.

Simpson, M. G. [et al. 2017b], Guilliams, C. M., Hasenstab-Lehman, K. E., Mabry, M. E., & Ripma, L. 2017b. Phylogeny of the popcorn flowers: Use of genome skimming to evaluate monophyly and interrelationshps in subtribe Amsinkiinae (Boraginaceae). Taxon 66: 1406-1420.

Simpson, N. 2010. Botanical symbols: A new symbol set for new images. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 162: 117-129. [Corrigendum to App. 2: Ibid. 162: 631-633.]

Simpson, W. R. [et al. 2015], Faville, M. J., Moraga, R. A., Williams, W. M., McManus, M. T., & Johnson, R. D. 2014. Epichloë fungal endophytes and the formation of synthetic symbioses in Hordeeae (=Triticeae) grasses. J. Syst. Evol. 52: 794-806.

Sims, H. J. 2010. Paleolatitudinal gradients in seed size during the Cretaceous-Tertiary radiation of angiosperms. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 171: 216-220.

Sims, H. J. 2012. The evolutionary diversification of seed size: Using the past to understand the present. Evolution 66: 1636-1649.

Sims, H. J. 2013. Morphological rates of angiosperm seed size evolution. Evolution 67: 1338-1346.

Sims, H. J., & McConway, K. J. 2003. Non-stochastic variation of species-level diversification rates within angiosperms. Evoution 57: 460-479.

Sims, H. J. [et al. 1998], Herendeen, P. S., & Crane, P. R. 1998. New genus of fossil Fagaceae from the Santonian (Late Cretaceous) of central Georgia, U.S.A.. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 159: 391-404.

Sims, H. J. [et al. 1999], Herendeen, P. S., Lupia, R., Christopher, R. A., & Crane, P. R. 1999. Fossil flowers with Normapolles pollen from the Upper Cretaceous of southeastern North America. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 106: 131-151.

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Smith, J. F. 2001. The phylogenetic relationships of Lembocarpus and Goyazia (Gesneriaceae) based on ndhF sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 135-143.

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Smith, J. F. [et al. 1997b], Wolfram, J. C., Brown, K. D., Carroll, C. L., & Denton, D. S. 1997b. Tribal relationships in the Gesneriaceae: Evidence from DNA sequences of the chloroplast gene ndhF. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84: 50-66.

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