www.mobot.org Research Home | Search | Contact | Site Map  

North America
South America
General Taxonomy
Photo Essays
Training in Latin

Wm. L. Brown Center
Graduate Studies
Research Experiences
  for Undergraduates

Imaging Lab
MBG Press
Climate Change
Catalog Fossil Plants
Image Index
Rare Books

Res Botanica
All Databases
What's New?
People at MO
Visitor's Guide
Jobs & Fellowships
Research Links
Site Map


Browse by Keyword





A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

X and x in Roman script correspond with the Greek xi, the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet.

The Greek xi is pronounced in English within a word like the ks in 'tacks' or the x in 'tax,' or 'wax' hence the xi represents a double consonant (compounded of gamma-s, kappa-s, and chi-s). When pronounced initially in a word, the xi is pronounced like the English z in 'zebra', as, for example, in 'xanthic.'

In Latin x is also a double consonant and arises out of the combination of c and s (dico, dixi), and g and s (lego, lexi).

X (xi), the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet, occurs in Greek dictionaries between the 'n' (nu) and short 'o' (omicron).In English dictionaries x comes between the w and the y. In Latin dictionaries it comes between the v and (y, if noted or) z.

x-, forming an:

chiasto- [> Gk. chiastos, E, on (adj.), arranged diagonally, as of a bandage or incision; in the shape of an X; Gk. chiastos “marked with or characterized by a cross; crossed at right angles;” (WIII);

- chiastobasidial: chiastobasidialis,-e (adj.B), having the nuclear spindles of the basidia at right angles to the longitudinal axis.

decussatim (adv.) in the form of a Roman ten (X); crosswise, transversely (Lewis & Short).

intersected, decussated, divided crosswise or transversely as an X:

decussatus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.

intersecting, decussating, dividing crosswise or transversely as an X:

decussans,-antis (part.B), q.v.

NOTE: In Spanish words, such as place names, the sound of the letter x is interchangeable with that of the letter j, hence in epithets the x and j appear to be interchangeable:

Jalapa, Mexico; Loja, Ecuador:

(Asteraceae): Aster jalapensis Fernald; Hieracium jalapense Standl. & Steyerm.; Perymenium jalapanum Standl. & Steyerm.

(Asteraceae): Baccharis xalapensis Kunth; Bartlettina xalapana (B.L.Turner) B.L.Turner; Eupatorium xalapanum B.L.Turner; Eupatorium xalapense Kunth.

(Asteraceae): Monactis lojaensis H.Rob.; Taraxacum lojoense H.Lindb.

(Asteraceae): Baccharis loxensis Benth.; Cronquistianthus loxensis R.M.King & H.Rob.; Erigeron loxensis Hieron.; Eupatorium loxense Hieron.; Fleischmannia loxensis H.Rob.; Gnaphalium loxense Willd. ex Spreng.;
x: the basic haploid chromosome number of a taxon; n is the hapoid chromosome number of an organism. 2n is the diploid chromosome number of an organism, e.g. basic chromosome number in the Pottiaceae: x = 13. Some species of Pottia may have gametophyte chromosome numbers that can be much higher (usu. multiples of 13); see chromosome, chromosome number.

x (multiplication sign): see noth-, notho-.

-x: for names (nouns) ending in -x, see -ex,-egis, and -ix,-icis;

The presumed declension of Glaux L. is Glaux, nom.sg., gen.sg. Glaucis (s.f.III), dat. sg. Glauci, acc. sg. Glaucem, abl. sg. Glauce [> Gk., glaucos,-e,-on, sea-green].

NOTE: other nouns ending in -x include:

-ex,-egis, q.v., such as grex (group);

-ex,-icis, q.v., such as frutex (fruit);

-ix,-ichis, q.v., such as Acrothrix or generic names ending in -thrix;

-ix, -icis, q.v., such as radix (root);

-ux,-ucis, q.v., such as lux,, gen.sg. lucis, light;

-yx,-ychis, q.v., such as bostryx;

-yx, -ycis, q.v., such as calyx.

-x: some Latin adjectives end in -x:

fallax, gen. sg. fallacis (deceitful, false, treacherous), dat. sg. fallaci, acc. sg. fallacem, abl. sg. fallacy; fugax,-acis (ready to flee, flying, transitory, fleeting).

Also simplex, gen. sg. simplicis, q.v. (simple).

xanth-, xantho-,-xanthus,-a,-um (adj.A): in Gk. comp., yellow [> Gk. xanthos,-E,-on, yellow of various shades, golden or pale yellow; also red-yellow, chestnut, auburn (Liddell & Scott); syn. L. flavus, -a,-um (adj.A), q.v.;

- chloroxanthus, greenish-wellow; xanthacanthus, with yellow spines or thorns; xanthocarpus, with yellow fruits; xanthocephalus, yellow-headed; xanthochymus, with yellow sap or latex; xanthophlebius or xanthoneurus,with yellow veins; xanthophyllus, with yellow leaves; xanthorrhizus, with yellow roots; xanthosphaerus, with yellow spheres or globes; xanthostephanus, with a yellow crown or garland; xanthostylus, with yellow styles; xanthotrichus, with yellow h


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

© 1995-2018 Missouri Botanical Garden, All Rights Reserved
4344 Shaw Blvd.
St. Louis, MO 63110
(314) 577-5100

Technical Support