www.mobot.org Research Home | Search | Contact | Site Map  
 
Research
W³TROPICOS
QUICK SEARCH

MO PROJECTS:
Africa
Asia/Pacific
Mesoamerica
North America
South America
General Taxonomy
Photo Essays
Training in Latin
  America

MO RESEARCH:
Wm. L. Brown Center
Bryology
GIS
Graduate Studies
Research Experiences
  for Undergraduates

Imaging Lab
Library
MBG Press
Publications
Climate Change
Catalog Fossil Plants
MO DATABASES:
W³MOST
Image Index
Rare Books
Angiosperm
  Phylogeny

Res Botanica
All Databases
INFORMATION:
What's New?
People at MO
Visitor's Guide
Herbarium
Jobs & Fellowships
Symposium
Research Links
Site Map
Search

Projects
 
Introduction


Browse by Keyword


Search


Abbreviations


Bibliography


Resources


A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

 
X and x in Roman script correspond with the Greek xi, the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet.

The Greek xi is pronounced in English within a word like the ks in 'tacks' or the x in 'tax,' or 'wax' hence the xi represents a double consonant (compounded of gamma-s, kappa-s, and chi-s). When pronounced initially in a word, the xi is pronounced like the English z in 'zebra', as, for example, in 'xanthic.'

In Latin x is also a double consonant and arises out of the combination of c and s (dico, dixi), and g and s (lego, lexi).

X (xi), the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet, occurs in Greek dictionaries between the 'n' (nu) and short 'o' (omicron).In English dictionaries x comes between the w and the y. In Latin dictionaries it comes between the v and (y, if noted or) z.

x-, forming an:

chiasto- [> Gk. chiastos, E, on (adj.), arranged diagonally, as of a bandage or incision; in the shape of an X; Gk. chiastos “marked with or characterized by a cross; crossed at right angles;” (WIII);

- chiastobasidial: chiastobasidialis,-e (adj.B), having the nuclear spindles of the basidia at right angles to the longitudinal axis.

decussatim (adv.) in the form of a Roman ten (X); crosswise, transversely (Lewis & Short).

intersected, decussated, divided crosswise or transversely as an X:

decussatus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.

intersecting, decussating, dividing crosswise or transversely as an X:

decussans,-antis (part.B), q.v.

NOTE: In Spanish words, such as place names, the sound of the letter x is interchangeable with that of the letter j, hence in epithets the x and j appear to be interchangeable:

Jalapa, Mexico; Loja, Ecuador:

(Asteraceae): Aster jalapensis Fernald; Hieracium jalapense Standl. & Steyerm.; Perymenium jalapanum Standl. & Steyerm.

(Asteraceae): Baccharis xalapensis Kunth; Bartlettina xalapana (B.L.Turner) B.L.Turner; Eupatorium xalapanum B.L.Turner; Eupatorium xalapense Kunth.

(Asteraceae): Monactis lojaensis H.Rob.; Taraxacum lojoense H.Lindb.

(Asteraceae): Baccharis loxensis Benth.; Cronquistianthus loxensis R.M.King & H.Rob.; Erigeron loxensis Hieron.; Eupatorium loxense Hieron.; Fleischmannia loxensis H.Rob.; Gnaphalium loxense Willd. ex Spreng.;
x: the basic haploid chromosome number of a taxon; n is the hapoid chromosome number of an organism. 2n is the diploid chromosome number of an organism, e.g. basic chromosome number in the Pottiaceae: x = 13. Some species of Pottia may have gametophyte chromosome numbers that can be much higher (usu. multiples of 13); see chromosome, chromosome number.

x (multiplication sign): see noth-, notho-.

-x: for names (nouns) ending in -x, see -ex,-egis, and -ix,-icis;

The presumed declension of Glaux L. is Glaux, nom.sg., gen.sg. Glaucis (s.f.III), dat. sg. Glauci, acc. sg. Glaucem, abl. sg. Glauce [> Gk., glaucos,-e,-on, sea-green].

NOTE: other nouns ending in -x include:

-ex,-egis, q.v., such as grex (group);

-ex,-icis, q.v., such as frutex (fruit);

-ix,-ichis, q.v., such as Acrothrix or generic names ending in -thrix;

-ix, -icis, q.v., such as radix (root);

-ux,-ucis, q.v., such as lux,, gen.sg. lucis, light;

-yx,-ychis, q.v., such as bostryx;

-yx, -ycis, q.v., such as calyx.

-x: some Latin adjectives end in -x:

fallax, gen. sg. fallacis (deceitful, false, treacherous), dat. sg. fallaci, acc. sg. fallacem, abl. sg. fallacy; fugax,-acis (ready to flee, flying, transitory, fleeting).

Also simplex, gen. sg. simplicis, q.v. (simple).



xanth-, xantho-,-xanthus,-a,-um (adj.A): in Gk. comp., yellow [> Gk. xanthos,-E,-on, yellow of various shades, golden or pale yellow; also red-yellow, chestnut, auburn (Liddell & Scott); syn. L. flavus, -a,-um (adj.A), q.v.;

- chloroxanthus, greenish-wellow; xanthacanthus, with yellow spines or thorns; xanthocarpus, with yellow fruits; xanthocephalus, yellow-headed; xanthochymus, with yellow sap or latex; xanthophlebius or xanthoneurus,with yellow veins; xanthophyllus, with yellow leaves; xanthorrhizus, with yellow roots; xanthosphaerus, with yellow spheres or globes; xanthostephanus, with a yellow crown or garland; xanthostylus, with yellow styles; xanthotrichus, with yellow h

 

A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2017

 
 
 
© 1995-2017 Missouri Botanical Garden, All Rights Reserved
P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299
(314) 577-5100

E-mail
Technical Support