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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

with: see see syn-: in Gk. comp., ‘with, together, together with;’

1. in descriptions usually expressed by the ablative case alone without a preposition; see 'provided with;'

i. the ablative of description, usually with nouns and attendant adjectives

in the ablative, alluding to physical characteristics of a certain noun, as 'planta' below:

- planta habitu suffrutescenti, ramis tenuibus, foliis viridibus, plant with suffructescent habit, with thin branches, with green leaves.

NOTE: the habit, branches and leaves do not 'accompany' the plant, but serve to describe it - hence, no prep. 'cum.'

ii. abl. of means (instrument) 'with what, by means of what, by what' without a preposition; note that the ablative of cause comes close to the same meaning - it also does not require a preposition;

- aetate pileus decolorans, with age (because of age) the pileus losing color.

- cellulis exilibus capsula friabilis, with weak cells (because of weak cells) is the capsule liable to break into pieces.

iii. abl. of specification, being used to tell in what specific respect a verb or an adjective is true;

- species floribus pulchris speciosa, a species splendid with beautiful flowers (in or by its beautiful flowers).

- varietas statura magna insignis, a variety noted for its great size (a variety with its great size notable; statura magna = abl. case).

iv. abl. of manner, when an adjective is used with a noun (see 2.ii below);

- MAGNO vigore acervuli erumpentes, with great force the acervuli breaking forth.

- petala MINORE celeritudine post anthesin marcescentia, with less speed after anthesis withering.

2. cum (prep. with abl.) 'together with;' see cum;

i. expressing accompaniment 'with whom or what'; note the accompanying nouns represent discrete persons or things which do not describe another noun, i.e. are not ablatives of description;

- habitat in isdem locis cum No. 16, it grows in the same places with number 16.

- frutex cum ramulis secondariis glabris, shrub with secondary branches glabrous.

- theca aequalis, cum vel absque annulo, theca uniform, with or without an annulus.

- stylus extra rostrum carinae incrassatus et cum eo tortus, stigmate obliquo, style beyond the beak of the keel thickened and together with this twisted, with the stigma oblique.

- cum vel sine petallis, with or without petals.

ii. expressing manner 'how' 'with what'(note the adverbial force here); note that when an adjective is used with the noun that expresses manner, the abl. without 'cum' is used (see 1.iv above);

- cum vigore acervuli erumpentes, acervuli breaking forth with vigor (i.e. vigorously).

- petala cum celeritudine post anthesin marcescentia, petals with speed after anthesis withering (i.e. swiftly).

NOTE: avoidance of 'cum' and the ablative alone may be achieved with other prepositions (+ abl.) and verbs:

- 'context with a weak center' might be rendered 'contextus in centro infirmus,' 'context in the center weak;'

- leaf with a blunt apex = 'folium in apice obtusus.' 'leaf at the apex obtuse.'

NOTE: use of verbs governing an object in the acc. case might be substituted for cum and the ablative alone:

- context with a weak center = 'contextus centrum infirmum praebens' context having a weak center (see praebens,-entis (part.B);

- also habens,-entis (part.B), q.v. 'contextus centrum infirmum habens.'

with respect to: see concerning.


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

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