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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

 
when, at a time when, whenever: quum (conj.), cum (conj.), ubi (adv.);

- ramus cum (=quum) evolutus virescens, a branch when it has been developed becomes green.

- petala longitudine varia, erecta ubi brevia, patentissima ubi elongata, petals in length varying, erect when short, most outspread when elongated (Stearn).

- stipes quum contusus brunnescens, stipe when bruised becoming brown.

- calyx ubi patens papillis dense tectus, calyx when spreading densely covered with papillae.

- fructus nondum evoluta cum folia expansa, the fruit not yet developed when the leaves expanded.

- fructificatio quum perfecte aperta usque ad 10 cm lata, fruiting body when fully open to 10 cm wide.

- seminibus multis evolutis cum fructus expandens, with many seeds developed

when fruit expanding.

- cum atro-brunneus, pileus non expansus, when black-brown, the pileus not expanded.

- planta ubi madida tum patens, plant when moist then spreading.

- foliis ubi veteribus involutis, with leaves, when old, involute.

NOTE: 'cum' here is not the prep., cum + abl. - 'together with,' but a conj., hence governs no case. In classical Latin, when describing the circumstances of a past action the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive are common but apparently not necessary (Simpson 1968).

NOTE: the conj. dum, 'while, whilst, as long as, see 'dum';

- folia dum in gemmis pubescentia sed quum patentia glabra, leaves while in buds pubescent, but when spreading glabrous.

NOTE: time (during or within which) with ablative, expressing a state: aetate 'when old, in age', maturitate 'when mature, 'siccitate 'when dry, in dryness'.

With prepositions: in (+ abl.) statu madido, 'in a wet state', in statu sicco, 'in a dry state'; per (+ acc.) anthesin 'during anthesis.'

NOTE: the ablative absolute (the ablative of attendant circumstance), using the passive past participle:

- flore praenanti, sepala caduca, (when) the flower is fertilized, the sepals caducous.

- folio filamentis circumvoluto, planta lente moriens, (when) the leaf has been wrapped by filaments, the plant slowly dying.

when, at the time when: sub (prep. + abl.): see while.



when(ever) ... then: cum (quum, ubi) ... tum or tunc (then, thereupon);

- quum pileus expansus tum color rubrescens, whenever the pileus has expanded then the color becomes red.

- cum papillae absentes tunc cellulae in aspectu late mamillosae, when the papillae are absent then the cells appear broadly mamillose.

- planta ubi madida illo tempore patens, plant when moist at that time spreading.

when, after, as soon as, after that: postquam (conj.) ... tum or tunc (then, thereupon), or illo tempore 'at that time;'

- calyx postquam patens tum cito marchescens, calyx after spreading then quickly withering.



whence, place from which: unde (adv.).

 

A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2017

 
 
 
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