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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

 
until, up to (a point in time):

1. ad + acc.

- ad aetatem capsula operculata, capsule uperculate until summer.

- ad summam senectutem plantae pilosae, plants pilose until extreme old age.

- flores ad meridiem expansi, flowers unfurled until midday.

2. in + acc.

- ex hoc die in alium diem, from this day until another day.

- ramus ex hieme in aetatem efoliatum, the branch from winter until (into) summer without leaves.

3. dum (conj.) until, up to the time at which;

- operculum dum seta elongata remanens, operculum, until seta elongated, remaining.

- seminibus dum primo vere induratis, seeds indurate until the onset of spring.

- mense novembri dum maius fructificans, fruiting in the month of November until May.

4. donec (conj.), until, up to the time at which;

- genus quondam late diffusum donec peste exterminatum, the genus once widely distributed until by disease exterminated.

- ineunte hieme florens donec hiems exacta, flowering with the onset of winter until winter is passed.

5. quoad (adv.), until, up to the time that;

- capsula integra quoad sporae dimissae, capsule entire until spores discharged.

- mense novembri quoad maius fructificans, fruiting in the month of November until May.

6. usque (adv.), q.v., with limits in time, ab + abl. 'from,' ad + acc. 'to';

- pileus flavus usque ab juventute ad vetustatem, the pileus yellow from youth right up until old age.
until now, thus far: hactenus (adv.), q.v.

 

A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2017

 
 
 
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