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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

Type, kind or sort of thing; the ideal representative of a group, genus, species: typus,-i (s.m.II), abl.sg. typo [> L. typus,-i (s.m.II), a figure on a wall, > Gk. typos, a blow; an outline, sketch; the original pattern, model, type; a type, figure; a system, form of doctrine]; also forma,-ae (s.f.I), q.v. abl. sg. forma; see kind; cf. morph (noun): in Gk. comp., -morpha,-ae (s.f.I), abl.sg. -morpha [ > Gk. morphE (s.f.I), form, shape, figure; Lat. forma,-ae (s.f.I)];

- formae ambae hypharum, the two (i.e. both) types of hyphae (nom. pl.).

- pollinis granula e typo "Stachelpollen", pollen grain from the type "Stachelpollen" (spine-pollen) (Stearn 1984).

- pollinis granula c. 60 um diametro sphaeroidea ad typum "Wabenpollen" nominatum pertinentia, pollen grains about 60 um in diameter to the type named "Wabenpollen" (honey-comb pollen) belonging (Stearn 1984).

- loculi ad typum simplices, non divisi pertinentes, locules belonging to the simple, undivided type.

- zygosporae ad typum I nominatum pertinentes, zygospores belonging to type called I.

- formae ambae hypharum, the two (i.e. both) types of hyphae (nom. pl.).

- typus in vivario Cantabrigiensi depositus, type deposited in the living collection at Cambridge.

Rhodotypos Sieb. & Zucc. (Rosaceae) “with character of a rose” (Fernald 1950).

Note: something of two types may be dimorphic: dimorphus,-a,-um (adj.A) or dimorphicus,-a,-um (adj.A) or biformis,-e (adj.B); see dispar,-paris (adj.B) 'unlike, different, dissimilar, unequal;' dissimilis,-e (adj.B), unlike, dissimilar; inaequabilis,-e, (adj.B), inaequalis,-e (adj.B), unequal.

Note: -oideus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.: resembling:

- gynoecia in ramis longis frullanoiodeis disposita, gynoecia on long Frullania-type branches seated.
Type (taxonomic or categorical); (in taxonomy) “the specimen from which the original description was made (Fernald 1950): typus,-i (s.m.II), acc. sg. typum, dat. & abl.sg. typo, nom. pl. typi, gen. pl. typorum, acc. pl. typos, dat. & abl. pl. typis [> L. typus,-i (s.m.II) ‘a figure, image, as on a wall; in medical language, a form, type, character, as of fevers (Lewis & Short)]; Late Latin typus,-i, from L. & Gk.; L. tyus, ‘image,’ from Gk. typos blow, impression, image, model, type (WIII);

- apotypus: apotype = hypotypus, q.v.; apotypicus,-a,-um (adj.A): varying or departing from a type.

- ecotype: see oecotypus,-i (s.m.II).

- generitypus, typus generis, type-species of a genus.

- genotypus: genotype, the type species of a genus; also the genetic constitution or the totality of the genes of an individual or group. genotypicus,-a,-um (adj.A): pertaining to the genotype.

- holotypus, the one specimen or element used by the author of a name or designated by him/her as nomenclatural type.

- hypotypus: hypotype "a specimen of a species not of the original type series but known by published description, figure, or listing " (WIII), = apotypus, an apotype; hypotypicus,-a,-um (adj.A) imperfectly typical; of or relating to a hypotype; = apotypicus,-a,-um (adj.A).

- isosyntypus, a duplicate of a syntype; it is not cited in a protologue. All duplicates cited by the author are syntypes.

- isotypus, duplicate of the holotype, part of the single gathering made by the collector at one time constituting the holotype.

- lectotypus: lectotype, specimen selected from original material to serve as nomenclatural type when the holotype is missing or not designated.

- logotypus: logotype, a generitype designated subsequent to the publication of a generic name (WIII).

- neotypus, a specimen selected for working purposes as representative when all of original material on which the name of the taxon was based is missing.

- oecotypus,-i (s.m.II), ecotype " a subdivision of an ecospecies that comprises individuals which are interfertile with each other and with members of other ecotypes of the same ecospecies but which maintain their individuality as a distinct group through environmental selection and isolation and that is when morphologically distinct comparable with a taxonomic subspecies" (WIII).

- paratypus, specimen cited with the original description other than the holotype.

- syntypus, one of the specimens used by the author when no holotype was designated or when two or more were simultaneously designated as type; cf. topotypus. (Stearn 1983).

- typotype: topotypus,-i (s.m.II), abl.sg. topotypo, topotype, i.e. specimen from the type-locality agreeing with the type-specimen.

- a typo speciei coloribus pilei pallidioribus atque superficie stipitis omnino alba differt, from the type of the species it differs by the colors of the pileus paler and also by the surface of the stipe altogether white.

- locus (-i (s.m.II) typi (gen. sing. of typus), abl. sg. loco typi: type locality.

- materia (s.f.I) typica (adj.A), abl. sg. materia typica, type material, "a group of equivalent specimens collected at the type locality at one time and used wholly or partially in the identification and description of a new taxonomic entity" (WIII).

- collectio culturarum typicarum, abl. sg. collectione culturarum typicarum, a collection of type specimens; collectio culturarum typicalium, a collection of type specimens.

- descriptio (-onis (s.f.III) typi, abl. sg. descriptione typi, type description; descriptio typica (adj.A), type description; descriptio typicalis (adj.B), type description.

- specimen (-inis (s.n.III) typi (gen.sg. typus, q.v.), abl. sg. specimine typi, type specimen; exemplum typicum, abl. sg. exemplo typico;

- Typus: C. L. Hitchcock & L. S. Martin 7931a (WTU); Type: C. L. Hitchcock & L. S. Martin 7931a (WTU).

NOTE: mono-typic and uni-typic are both correct as forms of ‘typus’ are in both languages.


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

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