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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

tum = tunc (an adv. of time): then, at that time; in the next place, thereupon; next; and also, but also; if so, furthermore;

- hyphae in nodos tumentes tum rumpentes, hyphae swelling into knots, then rupturing.

- legumina nonnulla v. omnia sub terram maturescunt et tunc crassiora sunt saepe carnosula v. dura et indehiscentia (B&H), some legumes or all of them mature under the ground and then they are thicker, often somewhat fleshy or hard and indehiscent.

- Rarius in Europa obvium est. Occurrit quoque (talis typus in hb. Acharii) thallo leproso; tunc transit in varietatem praecedentem (Nyl.), more rarely it is encounted in Europe. It also occurs (of such a kind as the type in Acharius’ herbarium) with a scurfy thallus; and also it passes into the preceding variety.

iam (jam) tum: till now, up to now, up to the present time;

- cum vero ingens numerus specierum a RAIO, MORISONO, MERRETO, TOURNEFORTIO aliisque antea iam sub communi quodam titulo, e. g. Filicis, Musci, Fungi, iam tum consignatarum (Hedw.), in fact a huge number of species, up to the present time established by Ray, Morisonus, Merretus, Tournefort and others before now, under a particular common label, for example Filicis, Musci, Fungi [e.s.p.], were discovered to be daily more and more increased.

a) tum... tum..., first... then...; at one time ... at another time;

- foliis tum tomentosis tum glabris, with the leaves first tomentose, then glabrous.

- in locis aridis terrae interioris tum depressis tum collinis inter gradús 32 et 18 latitudínis australis (F. Mueller), in arid places of the interior territory sometimes low [places, i.e. lowlands], sometimes hilly [i.e. uplands] between 32 and 18 degrees south latitude.

b) postquam (conj.): after, after that, as soon as, when, often with tum or tunc 'then, at that time, thereupon'; see when.

- calyx postquam patens tum cito marchescens, calyx after spreading then quickly withering.

c) "Used in enumerations of characters indicating sequence, as with primum [at first], deinde [next, then], [tum, next], postremo [finally]” (Stearn 1983).

[note typogr. error in Stearn, ‘postremo’ is written as ‘prostremo’] primum ... deinde ... tum ... postremo, first ... next, (then) ...lastly.

- pileo primum pallide viridi tum pisino, denique atrovirenti tincto, with the pileus at first pale green, then pea-green, finally dark-green tinged (Stearn 1983).

- pileus primum planus, deinde cupulatus, tum erosus postremo deliquescens, pileus at first flat, next cup-shaped, then erose, finally deliquescens.

d) when, at a time when, whenever: quum (conj.), cum (conj.), ubi (adv.); whenever: quandoque (adv. and conj.), q.v.; quandocumque (adv. and conj.); + tum or tunc, ‘then,’

- quandoque fructus non evoluti tum sporae eorum abortivae, whenever fruits not developed then their spores abortive.

- quum pileus expansus tum color rubrescens, whenever the pileus has expanded then the color becomes red.

- cum papillae absentes tunc cellulae in aspectu late mamillosae, when the papillae are absent then the cells appear broadly mamillose.

- planta ubi madida tum patens, plant when moist then spreading.

e) the conj. ‘cum’ and ‘quum’ may be used with ‘tum’ or ‘tunc’ to indicate ‘both the one, and the other;’ or ‘not only ... but also;’

- descriptio e speciminibus plurimis quum siccis tum vivis, description from very many specimens not only dried but also living (Stearn 1983).

- folia omnia caduca, cum juvenilia tum matura, all leaves caducous, both the young and the mature.

- [moss] serpentino tractu utplurimum erigitur cum masculus tum femineus (Hedw.), it is raised up [i.e. arises] for the most part in the Serpentine region, not only the male, but also the female [sc. stem or truncus (s.m.II)].


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

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