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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

totus, tota, totum (irregular adj.A): all, as distinguished from a part, all, the whole, the whole of, the entire, of an object which is not divided; of an object composed of its parts;

- thallus totus (supra infraque) confertissime isidioso-rugulosus vel isidio furfuraceo concolore fere totus obtectus, sordide cinereo-virescens (Nyl.), the whole thallus (above and also below) most compactly isidiose-slightly wrinkled or nearly the whole covered with furfuraceous one-colored isidium, dirty ashen gray-greenish.

- (fungus) totus fungus coelo pluvio lubricus, sed stipes tenax, glutinosus (S&A), the entire fungus in rainy weather lubricous [i.e. smooth and slippery], but the stipe is tough, glutinous [i.e. like glue, tacky].

- [Clavaria viscosa; fungus] totus fungus tenacissimus lubricus quum humet, post exsiccationem rigens, fragilis (S&A), the whole fungus extremely tough, lubricous [i.e. smooth and slippery] when wet, after drying out, rigid, fragile.

- nitore tandem amisso totus fungillus subfuscescit (S&A), when the glossiness has finally been lost, the entire fungillus grows almost brownish-black.

- totum capitulum, the entire capitulum; the whole of the capitulum. In plural: whole, complete; every part of, the whole of, in its entirety; with numerals, may be used to emphasize magnitude or precision:

- totis octo floribus albis, with all eight flowers white.

- carpella in ovarium uniloculare coalita, placentis totum parietem obtegentibus (B&H), the carpels unilocular, fused in the ovary, with the placentae covering over the entire wall.

- ovulis oo per totum parietem creberrime dispositis (e carpellis oo compositum, placentis parietalibus confluentibus) (B&H), with the ovules [indeterminate, numerous] very closely arranged over the whole wall (composed of an [indefinite number] of carpels, with the placentae parietal, confluent).

Note: omnis,-e (adj.B) emphasizes the parts forming a totality, all or the whole collectively, the whole body of individuals, with a distributive sense, all severally, all the individuals of a group; in the singular: ‘each and every;’ see omnis,-e (adj.B);

- omnibus speciebus Baderiae similis, similar to (each and every) species of (the genus) Baderia.

- toto Baderiae similis, similar to all of the genus Baderia.

Note: ‘entire’ as in ‘undivided, intact’ = integer,integra,-integrum (adj.A), q.v.
        singular                                plural   
      m.     f.    n.                     m.      f.     n.  
Nom. totus  tota totum                  toti    totae   tota  
Gen.      totius                     totorum   totarum  totorum  
Acc. totum  totam totum                totos    totas   tota  
Dat.        toti                                totis  
Abl. toto   tota  toto                          totis
- herbae in alpestribus totius orbis crescentes, herbs in high places of the whole world growing (totius orbis both in gen. sg.).

- ambitus totius systematis ramificationis, outline of the whole system of branching (Stearn).

- totis floribus albis, with all the flowers white.

- nervilli fere per totam longitudinem sporangiferi, nervilli almost through the entire length sporangiferous.

- folium totum rubrum praeter pilos luteos in venis, the total leaf red except for yellow hairs on the veins.

- cellulis oleosis per totum thallum dispersis, with oil cells scattered throughout the thallus.

- in tota massa 'in the whole (entire) mass', en masse.

Note: these are irregular A adjectives because the genitive sg. ends in -ius and the dative sg. in -i.

Note: a useful preposition + acc. is praeter, q.v.,'except for;'

- totus pileus praeter centrum squamosus, the whole pileus except for the center squamose.

Note: totus,-a,-um (irreg.adj.A):

in sg. the total, entirety (of an object that is not divided);

- totum capitulum pilosum, omni flosculo puberulenti the entire capitulum pilose, with each (and every) floret puberulent.

in pl. 'every part of, the whole of, in its entirety, all;

- totis floribus albis, with all (the totality of) the flowers white. omnis,-e (adj.B):

in sg. each part of a total (of a total that is the sum of its parts);

- inflorescentia capitulata; omne capitulum brevipetiolatum, inflorescence capitulate; (each and) every capitulum (of the whole) short-petiolate.

in pl. (m./f.omnes, n. omnia) all, the whole; each and every one of them all.

- omnibus floribus pilosis, with every one (of all the) the flowers pilose; with every one of the flowers pilose.

NOTE: not integer, integra, integrum (adj.A), ‘entire,’ which usually refers to lack of marginal division, as in a leaf margin; see ‘whole’ (adj.).


ex toto (adv. phrase): wholly, completely, totally, altogether;

- seminibus ex toto abortivis, with seeds totally abortive.

in toto (adv. phrase): upon the whole, generally, in general;

- colore pilei variabili sed in toto nigrescenti, with the color of the pileus variable but in general nigrescent.

in totum (adv. phrase): wholly, entirely, altogether, totally; on the whole, generally, in general;

- paleis lemmatibus in totum longioribus, with the paleas generally longer than the lemmas.

- in sporis in totum maturis, in spores completely mature.


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

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