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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

to (prep.); see toward,towards; see usque;

1. place: ad (prep. + acc.): to, near to, direction toward;

- parallelus ad axem, parallel to the axis.

- ad solem vertere, to turn toward the sun.

- species ad regiones australes diffusa, the species is distributed to southern regions. in (prep. + acc.): into;

- costa in acumen [s.n.III acc.] evanida, costa disappearing into the acumen.

- in loco ad stipitem distali, in a place distal to the stipe.

- lineis parallelus ad axem parallelis, with lines parallel to the axis.

- quoad folia ad Lyoniam costatam, quoad fructus ad L. haitiensem accedit, as to leaves to Lyonia costata, as to fruit to L. haitensis it comes near.

2. indirect object, use dative (to, for):

- species nova Rosae blandae similis, the new species similar to Rosa blanda.

- speciebus omnibus generis tribui Hirtae affinibus, all species of the genus related to the tribe Hirta.

3. ‘to,’ used in English to express continuity of variable characteristics expressed as adjectives, such as "petals white to green" may be rendered:

a. usually with the conjunction "vel" [or] which, although generally expressing a choice between two alternatives, may also join the end members of a cline or range. It is very generally used in descriptions and diagnoses used to indicate the two choices, but everything in between, as a gradation:

- petala alba vel viridia, petals white or green

b. the variability expressed with adverbs such as "plerumque" (usually) or "vulgo" [commonly], or "interdum" [sometimes]:

- petala plerumque alba interdum viridia, petals usually white, sometimes green.

c. (ex prep.) + abl.; note that this construction seems to assume the noun ‘state’ (status (s.m.IV), as in ex statu albo, from a white state; also “A” adjectives ending in -us,-a,-um may form substantive in the neuter, e.g. album,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. albo; “gradual change is often expressed by means of the preposition ex or e, indicative of change of state, with the adjective of the modifying color in the ablative, e.g. pileus ex olivaceo brunneus (pileus brown tinged with olive-green), corolla e roseo alba (corolla rose-tinged white), baccae e viridi rubentes (berries greenish red), folia ex purpureo vinoso viridia (leaves green tinged with vinous purple)” (Stearn 1983).

- floribus ex albo flavis, with the flowers white [from the color white]

- folia ex lanceolato obovata, leaves from lanceolate, obovate.

- spinis apicem versus e puberulo glabrescentibus, with spines toward the apex from puberulous to glabrescent.

4. ‘to,’ used in English to express the conclusion of an action, translated as ‘into’;

a. ad + acc.

- species ad regiones australes diffusa, the species is distributed to (in) southern regions.

- ad solem vertere, to turn toward the sun.

b. in + acc.

- cellulis adaxialibus in poros contractis, with the adaxial pores contracted to (into) pores.

- folium in apicem filiformem adstringens, the leaf narrowing to (into) a filiform apex.

- costa in acumen [s.n.III acc.] evanida, costa disappearing into the acumen.

5. to, up to (with numerals): ad + acc.; see usque;

- species ad 12, regionum calidiorum utriusque orbis incolae, species to 12, an inhabitant of warmer regions of both sides of the globe.

- ovula 6 ad 8, fructu obovato vel oblongo, ovules 6 to 8, with the fruit obovate or oblong.

6. ‘to:’ in (prep.) + acc., toward the thing towards which behavior is directed ‘towards, to, for’ with words expressing power, control over, affecting;

- latex in cutem toxicus, latex toxic toward the skin

- hyphae in hospitem inimicales, hyphae unfriendly toward the host

- spinis in manum ferocibus, with spines savage toward the hand

- indumentum in tactum molle, indumenta soft to the touch.

- latex in saporem dulcis, the latex sweet to the taste.

7. to, in proportion to: pro ratione ad (+ acc.), ‘in proportion to’ (also ex + abl., also genitive with the nouns compared);

- longitudine foliolorum minore pro ratione ad latitudinem, 1:2-3 (non 1:3.5-4.5), with the longitude (length) of the leaflets less in proportion to the latitude (width) 1:2-3 (not 1:3.5-4.5) [i.e. the ratio of length to width lesser].

- amplitudo luminis maior pro ratione ad parietem cellulae, the size of the lumen larger in proportion to the wall of the cell.

- longitudo basis minus pro ratione ex latitudine, the length of the base less in proportion to the width.

- interjuga pro ratione jugorum minora, the interjuga less in proportion [to] the pairs.

8. similar to: similis,-e (adj.B + dat.); related to: affinis,-e (adj.B + dat.);

- species nova Cypripedio canaliculato similis, new species similar to Cypripedium canaliculatum.

- Crepidi nanae affinis, related to Crepis nana.

NOTE: neither of these and related adjectives take any preposition, but express their meaning in regard to their objects by the dative case only. The preposition ‘ad’, ‘to’ + acc. case is not used with these adjectives.

9. to, until, q.v., up to or until a point in time:

a. ad (prep. + acc);

- ad aetatem capsula operculata, capsule uperculate until summer.

b. in (prep. + acc.);

- ex hoc die in alium diem, from this day to (until) another day.

- ramus ex hieme in aetatem efoliatum, the branch from winter to (until) (into) summer without leaves.

10. up to, as far as (expressing limit): usque (adv. & prep. + acc.) q.v., usque ad (prep. + acc.); see ‘ad’(#1.)above, associated with place; see tenus (prep. + abl.), prep. always placed after the noun or pronoun in the ablative);

- amphigastria saepe usque plus quam 0.25 partem longitudinis divisa, amphigastria often to more than 0.25 part of the length divided.

- usque ad apicem, up to the tip

- usque ad Floridam, as far as Florida

- tubus a basi ad medium ampliatus, a medio ad apicem contractus, tube from the base to the middle broadened, from the middle to the tip contracted (Stearn 1983).

- costae apice tenus extendentes, costae extending as far as the apex.
to and fro, backwards and forwards: ultro citroque (adv.), ultro et citro (adv.);

- antheris in filamentis tenuibus suspendentibus, ultro citroque motis, with anthers suspended on slender filaments, moved to and fro.


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

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