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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

Surculus,-i (s.m.II), abl.sg. surculo, nom. pl. surculi, acc. pl. surculos, dat. & abl. pl. surculis; syn. malleolus,-i (s.m.II), q.v.: sucker, sucker-like outgrowth, shoot, a scion, graft, slip, set of a plant for growth, young branch, an adventitious shoot arising from a root or stem at ground level or below; used in reference to upright secondary stems arising from a horizontal primary stem or 'rhizome;' used as in Musa (banana: Musaceae); [as sucker:] “a shoot originating from the roots or lower part of the stem of a plant and usually developing rapidly often at the expense of the plant; also, an accessory propagative shoot” (WIII); cf. turion; see surus,-i (s.m.II); see offset, shoot, sucker;

- surum dicebant, ex quo per deminutionem fit surculus; they called it a surus, from which, by deminution, there may be a surculus [i.e. a sucker, a shoot].

- [Arabis reptans] foliis subrotundis integerrimis hirsutis, surculis reptantibus (DeCandolle), with the leaves somewhat round, completely entire, hirsute, with the shoots [i.e. suckers] reptant [i.e. creeping and rooting].

- surculis erectis divisis, with shoots erect, divided (branched).

- planta robusta, 1 vel 2 surculis erectis proxime ad stipem, plant robust, with 1 or two suckers erect nearest to the stipe.

- planta reproductionibus ab surcculis ex radicibus, aliquando clonem grandem faciens, plant with reproductions from shoots from the roots, sometimes making a large clone.

- herbae caudice ceaspitoso v. ope surculorum perennantes (B&H), herb with a caespitose caudex or [living over from season to season, i.e. perennating or perennial] with the help of suckers.

- folia coriacea, rarius flaccida, orbiculata v. cuneata, in surculis sterilibus rosulata (B&H), leaves leathery, more rarely flaccid, orbiculate or cuneate, in sterile shoots rosulate.

- herbae caudice caespitoso v. ope surculorum perennantes (B&H); herbs with a caespitose caudex or perennating (perennial) by means of shoots.

- folia orbiculata v. cuneata, in surculis sterilibus rosulata (B&H), leaves orbiculate or cuneate, rosulate in the sterile shoots.

- tres esse motus in vite, seu potius in surculo, naturales: unum quo geminet; alterum quo floreat; tertium quo maturescat” (Lewis & Short), there being three natural stages in a vine, or rather in a shoot [i.e. sucker]: one by which it may double [i.e. reproduce]; another by which it may flower; the third by which it may ripen.

NOTE: the plants or stems of mosses and liverworts may be referred to as ‘shoots,’ hence ‘surculi;’ “surculus: the young prostrate stem of a Moss” (Lindley);

- folia orbiculata v. cuneata, in surculis sterilibus rosulata (B&H), leaves orbiculate or cuneate, rosulate in the sterile shoots.

- (liverwort): plantae surculis foliosis 1.0-4.5 mm latis, plants with leafy shoots 1.0-4.5 mm wide.

- Surculus in muscis eft caulis saepissime procumbens, iam ante florescentiam, ut videtur, ramosus, fructusque e caulis ramorumue lateribus, numquam ex apice proferens, qua nota potissimum a trunco distinguitur; hinc Hypni spiniformis caulis, quamuis unico in hoc genere exemplo simplicissimus, surculi nomen propter pedunculos non terminales sed axillares fortitur. Eius modi caulis omnibus Hypnis, Leskiis, Neckeris etc. competit (Bridel), the surculus in mosses is the stem, most often procumbent [laying on the ground], before flowering, apparently, already full of branches, and fruits growing out from the sides of the stem or branches, never out from the apex, by which character it is very easily distinguished from the trunk; therefore the stem of Hypnum spiniforme, although extremely simple [unbranched] in a unique example in this genus, the term of surculus [is said] because the peduncles are not terminal but axillary. The stem of this sort coincides with all Hypnums, Leskias, Neckeras.

[Note: Hypnum spiniforme [= Rhizogonium spiniforme] looks like an acrocarp and is often simple (without branches), but the female inflorescences are lateral, not terminal on the stem.]

- surculi pinnati iterum sunt vel simpliciter pinnati ex: gr: in Hypno filicino; vel bipinnati seu duplicato pinnati ut in Hypno prolifero (Bridel), the surculi are twice pinnate or simply pinnate, for example in Hypnum filicinum, or bipinnate or else doubly pinnate as in Hypnum proliferum.

NOTE: the mosses Hypnum filicinum = Cratoneuron filicinum is pinnately branched; Hypnum proliferum = Hylocomium splendens, is 2-3-pinnate.

Mode of production (in plants): “Shoot-bearing, plantae surculiferae. Throwing out shoots, surculi, from the crown of the root, which may be separated, and will then produce a new plant. Oliva europaea.” (S. Gray). Kinds of stem: “Root-sucker, Surculus. A branch springing from the root, capable of being separated, and of becoming a new individual. Rosa.” (S. Gray).


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

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