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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

 
supra (adv. and prep. with acc.): on the upper side, above, beyond, over; up; cf. superne (adv.): from above, above, upwards, on the upper side;

opp. inferne (adv.): below, beneath, in lower part;

opp. infra (adv.) 'on the underside, beneath, below;

opp. subtus (adv.),‘below, beneath, underneath, in a lower place;’

1. adv. (will not take an object):

NOTE: supra as an adverb implies "on the upper side or part", e.g.: stem in the upper part erect, caulis supra erecta - note there is no noun associated with supra when used as an adverb; the adverb ‘inferne,’ 'in the lower part, below,' is used in the same way: caulis inferne erecta, stem in the lower part erect;

- folia strigulosa, supra plus minusve papillosa, leaves strigulose, above more or less papillose (supra is an adverb, papillosa modifies folia).

- vid. supra (Swartz), see above [i.e. in the preceding text].

- vid. supr. Obs. in Oenothera (Swartz), see above, the observation [i.e. remark] in Oenothera.

- (vid. supr. ob. in M. Acinodendro (Swartz), see above, the observation in M. Acinodendron).

- folia petiolata, supra hispida, inferne subhirsuta (Swartz), leaves petiolate, hispid above, somewhat hirsute below.

- thallus totus (supra infraque) confertissime isidioso-rugulosus vel isidio furfuraceo concolore fere totus obtectus, sordide cinereo-virescens (Nyl.), the whole thallus (above and also below) most compactly isidiose-slightly wrinkled or nearly the whole covered with furfuraceous one-colored isidium, dirty ashen gray-greenish.

- nervis supra obsoletis vel nullis subtus prominulis reticulato-anastomosantibus, with nerves on the upper side inconspicuous or lacking on the lower side standing out slightly and reticulately joining together (Stearn).

- nervo supra profunde impresso, subtus valde prominente, with the nerve above [i.e. on the upper side] deeply impressed, below [i.e. on the under side], strongly prominent.

- stylus apice aequalis, globosus v. demum in discum peltatum intus v. supra stigmatosum expansus (B&H), style at the apex symmetrical, globose or ultimately expanded into a peltate disc inside or on the upper side stigmatose.

- Vide 171, STERIGMA supra, et 157 ENARTHROCARPUM inter Cakilineas (B&H), see 171, STERIGMA above, and 157 ENARTHROCARPUM among the Cakilineae.

2. prep.; note: word will have an object [i.e. noun] of the preposition in the accusative case;

- connectivum supra antheram dilatatum, connective above the anther enlarged.

- lianae supra arbores altius scandentes subepiphyticae, lianas climbing higher up the trees, subepiphytic.

- lobi 3, unguiculati, superne dilatati conniventesque, supra dilatationem nudi v. in acumina crasse subulata producti (B&H), lobes 3, clawed, dilated above and connivent, above the dilation naked or drawn out into thickly subulate acumina.

- stylus supra ovarium abrupte inflexus, the style above the ovary abruptly inflexed.

- stamina saepius definita, intra v. supra v. circa torum in discum saepius expansum inserta (B&H), stamens more frequently definite, inside or above or around the torus more often inserted into an expanded disc.

NOTE: supr. = abbrev. for supra (adv.);

- vid. supra (Swartz), see above [i.e. in the preceding text].

- vid. supr. Obs. in Oenothera (Swartz), see above, the observation [i.e. remark] in Oenothera.

- (vid. supr. obs. in M. Acinodendro (Swartz), see above, the observation in M. Acinodendron).

NOTE: intra (adv.): on the inside, inwardly; opp. of extra (adv.): 'on the outside, externally.'

NOTE: extus (adv.): outside, on the outside; opp. of intus (adv.): 'on the inside, within;' cf. subtus (adv.) 'below, beneath, underneath, in a lower place.'

NOTE: deinsuper (adv.) = desuper (adv.): (downward) from above, from overhead;

- laminis chartaceis atque desuper laevis (nec bullatis), with the lamina chartaceous and also from above smooth (not bullate). supradecompositus,-a,-um (adj.A): supradecompound, i.e. so many times divided that the degree of division is not readily evident; “divided into a multitude of pieces. So much divided that the number and mode of division cannot be precisely ascertained; as the leaves of the Carrot, Fennel, &c.” (Lindley). sursum (adv.): up, upwards (from below), upwardly; “denoting situation or locality, ‘high up, above’” (Lewis & Short); opp. deorsum (adv.), desuper (adv.), 'downwards from above'); see direction; cf. prorsus (adv.): forward, ahead, onward;

- [fungi] differt [var. a], pileo nonnisi levius umbilicato planiusculo et praesertim stipite sursum pileo concolore, sed deorsum villuloso - pulverulento ex olivaceo - nigricante(S&A), the variety a differs only by being more lightly umbilicate, somewhat flat and especially by the stipe upwardly the same color as the pileus, but downwardly villulous -pulverulent, from olivaceous to blackish.

- clava distincta, alba, item recta, deorsum cylindrica, sursum subulata (S&A), the club [fruiting structure] separate, white, also straight, downwardly cylindric, upwards subulate.

- valvula sursum patente, with the valvule spreading upwards [from below].

- antherae valvulis sursum dehiscentes, anthers by valvules from below upwards dehiscing.

- folium lacinia orbiculari vel rotundata, sursum curvata, basim versus angustata, leaf with a flap orbicular or rounded, curved above, toward the base narrowed.

- fronde carnosa a basi cuneata sursum expansa, with a fleshy frond expanded upwards from a cuneate base.

- capsulae valvulis sursum dehiscentes, capsules by valvules from below upwards dehiscing.

- conidiophora synanamorphae macronematica, mononematica, simplicia, erecta, late ampulliformia, sursum in collum tenuis angustata, conidiophores of the synanamorph macronematous, mononematous, simple, erect, broadly ampulliform, narrowed above into a thin neck.

- pinnis in apice sursum curvis, with pinnae in the apex curved upwards.

- caules inferne 4.0-6.0 cm diametro, sursum tenuior, the stem below 4.0-6.0 cm in diameter, upwards thinner.

- folia basilaria pseudo-rosulata, gradatim sursum disperse, basal leaves pseudo-rosulate, gradually dispersed upwards.

sursum, “upwards; as sursum hamulosus = bordered with hooks directed upwards; i.e. towards the point [i.e. apex] of the leaf” (Lindley).

NOTE: in combination with other adverbs:

- sursum versus, upwards (from below); see versum (adv.).

- sursum deorsum, up and down, to and fro.

NOTE: the school motto of Gill College, South Africa, is Sursum Prorsusque (upward and onward).

NOTE: adverbs do not take objects but prepositions do; see 'above.'
supra-: in L. comp. above, higher than, situated or placed above, on, at the top of, on top, beyond, over, above, upon; above, higher in status than;

opp. infra-, q.v., below, on the under side, etc., lower in status than; opp. sub-, under; akin to super-, q.v.; see upon, under-.

 

A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

 
 
 
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