www.mobot.org Research Home | Search | Contact | Site Map  

North America
South America
General Taxonomy
Photo Essays
Training in Latin

Wm. L. Brown Center
Graduate Studies
Research Experiences
  for Undergraduates

Imaging Lab
MBG Press
Climate Change
Catalog Fossil Plants
Image Index
Rare Books

Res Botanica
All Databases
What's New?
People at MO
Visitor's Guide
Jobs & Fellowships
Research Links
Site Map


Browse by Keyword





A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

supra (adv. and prep. with acc.): on the upper side, above, beyond, over; up; cf. superne (adv.): from above, above, upwards, on the upper side;

opp. inferne (adv.): below, beneath, in lower part;

opp. infra (adv.) 'on the underside, beneath, below;

opp. subtus (adv.),‘below, beneath, underneath, in a lower place;’

1. adv. (will not take an object):

NOTE: supra as an adverb implies "on the upper side or part", e.g.: stem in the upper part erect, caulis supra erecta - note there is no noun associated with supra when used as an adverb; the adverb ‘inferne,’ 'in the lower part, below,' is used in the same way: caulis inferne erecta, stem in the lower part erect;

- folia strigulosa, supra plus minusve papillosa, leaves strigulose, above more or less papillose (supra is an adverb, papillosa modifies folia).

- vid. supra (Swartz), see above [i.e. in the preceding text].

- vid. supr. Obs. in Oenothera (Swartz), see above, the observation [i.e. remark] in Oenothera.

- (vid. supr. ob. in M. Acinodendro (Swartz), see above, the observation in M. Acinodendron).

- folia petiolata, supra hispida, inferne subhirsuta (Swartz), leaves petiolate, hispid above, somewhat hirsute below.

- thallus totus (supra infraque) confertissime isidioso-rugulosus vel isidio furfuraceo concolore fere totus obtectus, sordide cinereo-virescens (Nyl.), the whole thallus (above and also below) most compactly isidiose-slightly wrinkled or nearly the whole covered with furfuraceous one-colored isidium, dirty ashen gray-greenish.

- nervis supra obsoletis vel nullis subtus prominulis reticulato-anastomosantibus, with nerves on the upper side inconspicuous or lacking on the lower side standing out slightly and reticulately joining together (Stearn).

- nervo supra profunde impresso, subtus valde prominente, with the nerve above [i.e. on the upper side] deeply impressed, below [i.e. on the under side], strongly prominent.

- stylus apice aequalis, globosus v. demum in discum peltatum intus v. supra stigmatosum expansus (B&H), style at the apex symmetrical, globose or ultimately expanded into a peltate disc inside or on the upper side stigmatose.

- Vide 171, STERIGMA supra, et 157 ENARTHROCARPUM inter Cakilineas (B&H), see 171, STERIGMA above, and 157 ENARTHROCARPUM among the Cakilineae.

2. prep.; note: word will have an object [i.e. noun] of the preposition in the accusative case;

- connectivum supra antheram dilatatum, connective above the anther enlarged.

- lianae supra arbores altius scandentes subepiphyticae, lianas climbing higher up the trees, subepiphytic.

- lobi 3, unguiculati, superne dilatati conniventesque, supra dilatationem nudi v. in acumina crasse subulata producti (B&H), lobes 3, clawed, dilated above and connivent, above the dilation naked or drawn out into thickly subulate acumina.

- stylus supra ovarium abrupte inflexus, the style above the ovary abruptly inflexed.

- stamina saepius definita, intra v. supra v. circa torum in discum saepius expansum inserta (B&H), stamens more frequently definite, inside or above or around the torus more often inserted into an expanded disc.

NOTE: supr. = abbrev. for supra (adv.);

- vid. supra (Swartz), see above [i.e. in the preceding text].

- vid. supr. Obs. in Oenothera (Swartz), see above, the observation [i.e. remark] in Oenothera.

- (vid. supr. obs. in M. Acinodendro (Swartz), see above, the observation in M. Acinodendron).

NOTE: intra (adv.): on the inside, inwardly; opp. of extra (adv.): 'on the outside, externally.'

NOTE: extus (adv.): outside, on the outside; opp. of intus (adv.): 'on the inside, within;' cf. subtus (adv.) 'below, beneath, underneath, in a lower place.'

NOTE: deinsuper (adv.) = desuper (adv.): (downward) from above, from overhead;

- laminis chartaceis atque desuper laevis (nec bullatis), with the lamina chartaceous and also from above smooth (not bullate). supradecompositus,-a,-um (adj.A): supradecompound, i.e. so many times divided that the degree of division is not readily evident; “divided into a multitude of pieces. So much divided that the number and mode of division cannot be precisely ascertained; as the leaves of the Carrot, Fennel, &c.” (Lindley). sursum (adv.): up, upwards (from below), upwardly; “denoting situation or locality, ‘high up, above’” (Lewis & Short); opp. deorsum (adv.), desuper (adv.), 'downwards from above'); see direction; cf. prorsus (adv.): forward, ahead, onward;

- [fungi] differt [var. a], pileo nonnisi levius umbilicato planiusculo et praesertim stipite sursum pileo concolore, sed deorsum villuloso - pulverulento ex olivaceo - nigricante(S&A), the variety a differs only by being more lightly umbilicate, somewhat flat and especially by the stipe upwardly the same color as the pileus, but downwardly villulous -pulverulent, from olivaceous to blackish.

- clava distincta, alba, item recta, deorsum cylindrica, sursum subulata (S&A), the club [fruiting structure] separate, white, also straight, downwardly cylindric, upwards subulate.

- valvula sursum patente, with the valvule spreading upwards [from below].

- antherae valvulis sursum dehiscentes, anthers by valvules from below upwards dehiscing.

- folium lacinia orbiculari vel rotundata, sursum curvata, basim versus angustata, leaf with a flap orbicular or rounded, curved above, toward the base narrowed.

- fronde carnosa a basi cuneata sursum expansa, with a fleshy frond expanded upwards from a cuneate base.

- capsulae valvulis sursum dehiscentes, capsules by valvules from below upwards dehiscing.

- conidiophora synanamorphae macronematica, mononematica, simplicia, erecta, late ampulliformia, sursum in collum tenuis angustata, conidiophores of the synanamorph macronematous, mononematous, simple, erect, broadly ampulliform, narrowed above into a thin neck.

- pinnis in apice sursum curvis, with pinnae in the apex curved upwards.

- caules inferne 4.0-6.0 cm diametro, sursum tenuior, the stem below 4.0-6.0 cm in diameter, upwards thinner.

- folia basilaria pseudo-rosulata, gradatim sursum disperse, basal leaves pseudo-rosulate, gradually dispersed upwards.

sursum, “upwards; as sursum hamulosus = bordered with hooks directed upwards; i.e. towards the point [i.e. apex] of the leaf” (Lindley).

NOTE: in combination with other adverbs:

- sursum versus, upwards (from below); see versum (adv.).

- sursum deorsum, up and down, to and fro.

NOTE: the school motto of Gill College, South Africa, is Sursum Prorsusque (upward and onward).

NOTE: adverbs do not take objects but prepositions do; see 'above.'
supra-: in L. comp. above, higher than, situated or placed above, on, at the top of, on top, beyond, over, above, upon; above, higher in status than;

opp. infra-, q.v., below, on the under side, etc., lower in status than; opp. sub-, under; akin to super-, q.v.; see upon, under-.


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

© 1995-2018 Missouri Botanical Garden, All Rights Reserved
4344 Shaw Blvd.
St. Louis, MO 63110
(314) 577-5100

Technical Support