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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

superior (m.,f.), superius (n.) (adj. compar.): higher, upper, former, preceding, superior (comparative of superus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v., ‘upper, higher;’
           singular                   plural   
        m.f.        n.            m.f.       n.   
Nom. superior    superius     superiores  superiora   
Gen.     superioris              superiorum   
Dat.     superiori               superioribus   
Acc. superiorem  superius     superiores  superiora   
Abl.     superiore               superioribus   
superior (Eng. adj.): “growing above anything. A calyx if ‘half-superior’ when it appears to grow from above the base of an ovary; and absolutely superior when it appears to grow from the top of the ovary. On the contrary, the ovary is superior when it grows above the origin of the calyx” (Lindley). “1. growing or placed above; ; 2. also in a lateral flower on the side next the axis: the posterior or upper lip of a corolla is the superior” (Jackson).

- labio inferiore superius conspicue excedente (F.Mueller), with the lower lip conspicuously exceeding the upper.

- Conspectus fungorum in Lusatiae Superioris agro Niskiensi crescentium, conspectus of the fungi growing in Upper Lausitz in Niskiensis district.

- pedicellis petiolisque glabriusculis aut ad latus superius tomentosis.(DeCandolle), with the pedicels and petioles somewhat hairless or on the upper side tomentose [latus = neuter].

- ad terram Carolinae Superioris Inferiorisque, on the soil of upper (North) and lower (South) Carolina [USA].

- petala quaterna ad latus superius posita, petals four positioned on the upper side

- sepalum superius 7-7.5 mm longum, sepalum inferius 7 mm longum, upper sepal 7-7.5 mm long, lower sepal 7 mm long.

- ovarium superius 3-loculare, ovary superior 3-locular.

- folia superiora, the upper leaves.

- annulus praesens vel nullus, singulari vel duplici, annulus present or none, superiore vel inferiore, with the annulus double or single, superior or inferior.

- sepala 5, concava, imbricata, 2 superiora majora connata (B&H), sepals 5, concave, imbricate the two upper larger, connate.

- ovula in loculis gemina, inferiore pendulo, superiore adscendente.(B&H), ovules twin in the locules, the lower pendulous, the upper ascending.

- ovula in loculis gemina, angulo centrali superposita, horizontalia v. inferiore adscendente micropyle infera, superiore péndulo micropyle supera, (B&H), ovules paired in the locules, [positioned above] [with the angle central, horizontal or the lower ascending with the micropyle inferior, the upper pendulous with the micropyle superior.

- Enumeratio Lichenum a D. Prof. Agassiz ad Lacum Superiorem, anno 1848, lectorum, A Listing of the lichens collected by D. Professor Agassiz at Lake Superior

NOTE: abbr. ‘sup.’ or ‘super.’ = superior; opp. ‘inf.’ or ‘infer.’

- corolla, 5-fida: lacinüs subaequalibus ; sup. 3 ovatis, patulis; infer. 2 conniventibus, subdeflexis (Swartz), the corolla 5-fid: with the lacinia almost equal; the upper 3 ovate, spreading; the lower 2 connivent, somewhat deflexed.

NOTE: an inferior ovary is one that is adnate to the calyx; a superior ovary is an ovary “with the perianth inserted below it on the torus” (Fernald 1950). The torus is the receptacle of a flower; “or of the flowers of a head in the Compositae” (Fernald 1950). Bentham and Hooker use the adjectives ‘superus’ and ‘inferus’ (above and below) for the superior and inferior ovary respectively; “’superior ovary’” when all the floral envelopes are inserted below it, on the torus” (Jackson); see superus,-a,-um (adj.A) and inferus,-a,-um (adj.A);

- ovarium inferum vel semisuperum vel superum, ovary inferior or half-superior or superior (in relation to insertion of sepals, petals and stamens) (Stearn)

- labio supero 8 mm longo, labio infero 10-14 mm longo, with the upper lip 8 mm long, the lower lip 10-14 mm long.


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

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