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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

 
sub + erose, lightly erose, somewhat chewed: suberosus,-a,-um (adj.A).
sub (prep.): ‘under;’ in Gk. = ‘hypo,’ q.v., a preposition with the object in the abl. or acc. case;

abl. with verbs of, or with the idea of rest,

acc. with verbs of motion.

opp. super (prep.), q.v., supra (prep.), q.v. ‘over, above, on top of,’ also both with abl. and acc.; see ‘under;’

1. + abl. position or place, ‘place where’ (object under which a thing is situated, stays or rests) ’under, beneath, below’ [sub aqua, sub terra, under the water, under the earth]; also at the foot of or near something tall or big, such as a mountain [sub montibus, at the foot of the mountains, sub arbore, at the base of the tree], also of places ‘at, by, near, before’ [sub urbe, near the city];

- carpella, saltem sub fructu, distincta in Platystemone, Astrocarpo, et Caylusea (B&H), the carpels, immediately below the fruit, distinct in Platystemon, Astrocarpum and Caylusea.

- involucrum sub flore e foliis 3 verticillatis (v. segmentis folii floralis) compositum (B&H), the involucre under the flower composed of leaves 3-verticillate (or of segments of the floral leaf.

- sub lente valido, under a strong lens.

- sub lente a latere desuper picta, under the lens from the side drawn [looking down] from above.

- sub microscopio, under the microscope.

- sub oculis nudis, under the naked eye.

- opus ubi genus primum a Linneo v. post Linneum nomine signatum est, sub nomine ipso citavimus (B&H), a work where the first genus is designated by Linneus or after Linneus by name, we cite [it] under that very name.

- sub solo habitans, dwelling below the soil.

- costa sub apicem evanida, costa disappearing below the apex.

- sub monte, at the foot of the mountain.

- ad latera frondis, sub marginibus pro more occultae, squamae oriuntur (Steph.), at the sides of the frond, custumarily hidden under the margins, scales arise [3d person pl.].

- costa sub apice evanida, midrib vanished (at a point) below the apex.

- nerviis sub angulo 90* egredientibus, with the nerves going out at an angle of 90 degrees.

- costa sub apice evanescens, costa below the apex vanishing.

2. + abl. time (time when or at which, [during, while an action or process takes place]; immediately [shortly or just] before the action, or immediately [shortly or just] after an action takes place (indicating a close approximation in time);

- sub maturitate, at maturity; sub maturitate conidiorum, at the maturity of the conidia.

- primo spectata sub anno, seen in the first year.

- sub germinatione, at germination.

- sub anthesi, at [during, while] anthesis.

- sub fructificatione, at the time of fruiting.

- sub finem Septembris resurgens, reappearing toward the end of September; reappearing at the end of September.

- HEDYSARUM gyrans (Swartz) [revolving], motus irregularis, interdum omnino cessans; sub die calidíssima immobiles, vespere, licet lente, agitans (Swartz), the motion irregular, sometimes completely ceasing; immobile during a very hot day, during the evening, although slowly, agitating.

4. with acc. place under, below, towards, place to which (indicating object under which thing extends, the verb being usually one of motion, such as ‘reaching, attaining, growing, developing;’

- nervo medio sub apicem attingenti, with the middle nerve reaching to below the apex.

- coloniae sub margines crescentes, colories growing toward the margins.

- sulcus sub dimidium radii attingens, sulcus (furrow) reaching to half of the radius.

- caules gametophyti sub podium sporophyti extendentes, stems of the gametophyte extending to under the foot of the sporophyte. sub-: in L. comp., denotes ‘a being, situated or contained under, a putting or bringing under, or a going in under anything; also a concealing or being concealed behind something (Lewis & Short); on the ventral or lower side of; opp. super-, q.v., ‘situated or placed above, on, on the dorsal or upper side of;’ supra-, q.v., on the upper side, above;’

1. almost, somewhat, scarcely, not completely, a little; see weakly, somewhat; a being or doing anything in a lower or inferior degree; rather, slightly; opp. prefix such as per-, ‘thoroughly, completely;’

- subacutus, somewhat acute; subalbidus, somewhat whitish; subalpinus, subalpine, growing below the alpine region marked by the timber line; subasper,-aspera,-asperum, somehat rough, roughish; subbasifixus, attached just before the base; subbilocularis, almost bilocular, the partition not complete; subbrevis, somewhat shore; subcavus, somewhat hollow; subcordatus, with rounded basal lobes separated by a shallow notch; subdebilis, somewhat lame; subdificilis, somewhat difficult; subdorsalis, situated nearly on the dorsal surface; subdulcis, sweetish, somewhat sweet; subglobosus, almost spherical; subinnoxius, somewhat harmless; subnudus, almost naked; subobscurus, somewhat obscure; subpetiolatus, somewhat petiolate; subtenuis, somewhat thin.

2. in space: under or below,

- subapicalis,-e (adj.B): ending just before the apex, subterminal; subarcticus, below the artic circle; subhymenialis,-e (adj.B): below the hymenium; submedianus,-a,-um (adj.A), below the middle, suboralis,-e (adj.B), below the mouth; subepidermalis,-e (adj.B), q.v.: below the epidermis; see numerous examples below.

3. a being placed or ranked under (subcurator); in taxonomy or classification,constituting a less inclusive category or a division of a more inclusive category or rank; see classification. The Code of Nomenclature (Vienna 2006) discusses secondary ranks of taxa under Article 4 as follows:



   kingdom (regnum)   > (subregnum);  
   division or phylum 
    (divisio, phylum) > subdivisio; subphylum,  
   class   (classis)  > subclassis  abbreviation: subcl. [see Article 5, Vienna 2006) 
   order   (ordo)     > subordo                   subord.  
   family  (familia)  > subfamilia                subfam. 
   tribe   (tribus)   > subtribus                 subtr. 
   genus   (genus)    > subgenus                  subgen. 
   section (sectio)   > subsectio                 subsect. 
   series  (series)   > subseries                 subser. 
   species (species)  > subspecies                subsp. 
   variety (varietas) > subvarietas               subvar. 
   form    (forma)    > subforma                  subf. 
NOTE: all taxon names above the rank of family are plural nouns. Their initial letter is capitalized (Code of Nomenclature Art. 16; 2006)

Lewis and Short:

a. the b remains unchanged before vowels and before b, d, j, o, n, s, t, v.

b. before m and r it is often, but not always assimilated (i.e. subm- and summ-; subr- and surr-.

c. before the remaining consonants c, f, g, p, it is regularly assimilated (subc- > succ-; subf- > suff- (e.g. subfrutescens > suffrutescens, somewhat shrubby; subg- > sugg-; subp- > supp-); e.g. Rubus suppar (from subpar).

d. before some words commencing with c, p, t, it assumes the form sus, by the rejection of the b from a collateral form subs, e.g. suscipio, suscito, suspendo, sustineo, sustuli, sustolo (Lewis & Short)

Before s, with a following consonant, there remains merely su (suspicio, suspicor, suspiro; but substerno, substituo (Lewis & Short).

NOTE: there is no need to separate the prefix 'sub-' from the following word element by a hyphen: subbilocularis, not sub-bilocularis; subbasifixus, not sub-basifixus.

Opposed to the prefix per-, perincrassatus, very thickened; also the superlative, incrassatissimus, very thickened.

NOTE: sub- as a prefix may be used in epithets to show affinity, as when it is used with the names of epithets to show a close approximation of the species named with another one, as Viola nephrophylla X V. subaffinis is a hybrid that is 'nearly Viola affinis.' It may also suggest a similarity with another species, e.g. Rosa subincana (= similar to Rosa incana).
sub-: in L. comp., denotes ‘a being, situated or contained under, a putting or bringing under, or a going in under anything; also a concealing or being concealed behind something (Lewis & Short); on the ventral or lower side of; opp. super-, q.v., ‘situated or placed above, on, on the dorsal or upper side of;’ supra-, q.v., on the upper side, above;’

1. almost, somewhat, not completely, a little; see weakly, somewhat; a being or doing anything in a lower or inferior degree; rather, slightly; opp. prefix such as per-, ‘thoroughly, completely;’

- subacutus, somewhat acute; subalbidus, somewhat whitish; subalpinus, subalpine, growing below the alpine region marked by the timber line; subasper,-aspera,-asperum, somehat rough, roughish; subbasifixus, attached just before the base; subbilocularis, almost bilocular, the partition not complete; subbrevis, somewhat shore; subcavus, somewhat hollow; subcordatus, with rounded basal lobes separated by a shallow notch; subdebilis, somewhat lame; subdificilis, somewhat difficult; subdorsalis, situated nearly on the dorsal surface; subdulcis, sweetish, somewhat sweet; subglobosus, almost spherical; subinnoxius, somewhat harmless; subnudus, almost naked; subobscurus, somewhat obscure; subpetiolatus, somewhat petiolate; subtenuis, somewhat thin.

2. in space: under or below,

- subapicalis,-e (adj.B): ending just before the apex, subterminal; subarcticus, below the artic circle; subhymenialis,-e (adj.B): below the hymenium; submedianus,-a,-um (adj.A), below the middle, suboralis,-e (adj.B), below the mouth; subepidermalis,-e (adj.B), q.v.: below the epidermis; see numerous examples below.

3. a being placed or ranked under (subcurator); in taxonomy or classification,constituting a less inclusive category or a division of a more inclusive category or rank; see classification. The Code of Nomenclature (Vienna 2006) discusses secondary ranks of taxa under Article 4 as follows:

   kingdom (regnum)   > (subregnum); 
   division or phylum
    (divisio, phylum) > subdivisio; subphylum, 
   class   (classis)  > subclassis  abbreviation: subcl. [see Article 5, Vienna 2006)
   order   (ordo)     > subordo                   subord. 
   family  (familia)  > subfamilia                subfam.
   tribe   (tribus)   > subtribus                 subtr.
   genus   (genus)    > subgenus                  subgen.
   section (sectio)   > subsectio                 subsect.
   series  (series)   > subseries                 subser.
   species (species)  > subspecies                subsp.
   variety (varietas) > subvarietas               subvar.
   form    (forma)    > subforma                  subf.
 
Lewis and Short:

a. the b remains unchanged before vowels and before b, d, j, o, n, s, t, v.

b. before m and r it is often, but not always assimilated (i.e. subm- and summ-; subr- and surr-.

c. before the remaining consonants c, f, g, p, it is regularly assimilated (subc- > succ-; subf- > suff- (e.g. subfrutescens > suffrutescens, somewhat shrubby; subg- > sugg-; subp- > supp-); e.g. Rubus suppar (from subpar).

d. before some words commencing with c, p, t, it assumes the form sus, by the rejection of the b from a collateral form subs, e.g. suscipio, suscito, suspendo, sustineo, sustuli, sustolo (Lewis & Short)

Before s, with a following consonant, there remains merely su (suspicio, suspicor, suspiro; but substerno, substituo (Lewis & Short).

NOTE: there is no need to separate the prefix 'sub-' from the following word element by a hyphen: subbilocularis, not sub-bilocularis; subbasifixus, not sub-basifixus.

Opposed to the prefix per-, perincrassatus, very thickened; also the superlative, incrassatissimus, very thickened.

NOTE: sub- as a prefix may be used in epithets to show affinity, as when it is used with the names of epithets to show a close approximation of the species named with another one, as Viola nephrophylla X V. subaffinis is a hybrid that is 'nearly Viola affinis.' It may also suggest a similarity with another species, e.g. Rosa subincana (= similar to Rosa incana).

 

A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2017

 
 
 
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