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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

Stone (of a fruit), “a hard body found in certain fruits, and produced by the ossification of the endocarp or lining of the fruit” (Lindley); “Stone Fruit: a drupe such as a plum or peach” (Lindley): putamen,-inis (s.n.III), q.v., acc. sg. putamen, abl. sg. putamine, nom. & acc. pl. putamina, gen. pl. putaminum, dat. & abl. pl. putaminibus; pyrena,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. pyrena, the pyrene, the stone or pit of a drupe or drupelet, as in the fruit of the huckleberry; a small, hard nutlet; nucleus,-i (s.m.II), q.v., abl. sg. nucleo, also nuculeus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. nuculeo, “applied to fruits resembling a nut, the hard, uneatable kernel or stone of fruits” (Lewis & Short); see endocarp, putamen,-inis (s.n.II), pyrene;

- putamen compressum 7 mm. longum 4 mm. latum 2 mm. crassum rugulosum, a ventre sulco lato profundo in longitudinem exaratum, stone compressed 7 mm. long 4 mm. wide 2 mm. thick somewhat rugose, on the ventral side by a broad deep groove lengthwise furrowed (Stearn).

- putaminis cavitas rarissime recta, saepius incurva v. hippocrepica; processu ad faciem interiorem plus minus hemisphaerico, peltato v. laminaeformi intra cavitatem intruso (B&H), the cavity of the stone very rarely straight, more often incurved or horse-shoe- (U-) shaped; with a process on the interior face more or less hemisphaeric, peltate or laminiform intruded within the cavity.

- putamen a ventre sulvo lato profundo in longitudinem exaratum, stone on the ventral side by a furrow broad deep lengthwise ploughed out (Stearn).

- putamen dorso carinatum, ad faciem latum planum intus haud intrusum (B&H), the stone carinate on the back, not inserted on the wide, flat face within.

- putamen ad faciem concavum, processu intruso hemisphaerico, loculum vacuum intus saepe lamina verticali subdivisum relinquente (B&H), the stone concave on the face, with an inserted, hemisphaeric process, the empty locule inside often subdivided by a relictual vertical lamina.

- Drupa parva, globosa, indehiscens, pyrenis 5 chartaceis v. duris, 1-2-spermis.(B&H), drup small, globose, indehiscent, with 5 pyrenes papery or hard, 1-2-seeded.

- Drupa 1-4-pyrena, integra v. 2-4-loba, pyrenis 1-spermis v. 2-oo-spermis et inter semina spurie septatis (B&H), drupe with 1-4 pyrenes, entire or 2-4-lobed, with the pyrenes 1-seeded or 2-[indeterminate]-seeded and between the seeds falsely septate.

- Fructus drupaceus, indehiscens intus 2-5-pyrenus, v. putamine osseo v. chartaceo, v. pseudo-capsularis, epicarpio interdum in valvas 2-4 secedente pyrenas nudante, pyrenis 2-5 osseis liberis v. connatis v. ab axi centrali persistente solutis evalvibus 1-spermis. (B&H), the fruit drupaceous, indehiscent, inside with 2-5 pyrenes, or with a boney stone or papery, or pseudo-capsular, with the epicarpium somtimes splitting apart into valves 2-4, uncovering the pyrenes, with pyrenes 2-5, bony free or connate or set free from the persisting central axis, without valves, 1-seeded.
Stone, rock (generally stones are detached, rocks fixed): calx, gen. sg. calcis (s.f. or m.III), abl. sg,. calce, nom. & acc. pl. calces, lime, chalk or limestone; “a small stone used in gaming, a counter” (Lewis & Short); cautes,-is (s.f.III); also cautis, -is (s.f.III), abl. sg. caute, gen. pl. cautium, “a rough, pointed rock;” calculus,-i (s.m.II), a small stone, a pebble, collectively ‘gravel;’ cos, gen. sg. cotis (s.f.III), abl. sg. cote, ‘any hard stone, flint-stone;’ lapis,-idis (s.m.III), q.v., abl. sg. lapide, stone, often cut or modified; lith-, q.v., litho-: in Gk. comp., stone-; pumex,-icis (s.m.III), q.v., abl. sg. pumice, a pumice-stone, “used for smoothing books” (Lewis & Short), soft stone, prorous rock of any kind; saxum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. saxo, abl. pl. saxis, a large, rough stone; a detached piece of rock; scrupus,-i (s.m.II), abl.sg. scrupo, a sharp (broken) stone or rock; silex,-icis (s.m.III), abl. sg. silice, gen. pl. silicum, “any hard stone found in fields, a pebble-stone, a flint, flint-stone” (Lewis & Short); in general, a rock; in Greek lithos (s.m.II), q.v., a stone; a precious stone; see gravel, pebble, rock;

NOTE: petra (s.f.I), a rock, a ledge or shelf of rock; a rock, i.e., a rocky peak or ridge, “Properly, petra is a fixed rock, petros is a stone” (Liddell & Scott)], hence petra = the sense of Lat. rupes,-is and scopulus,-i; and petros = saxum,-i (s.n.II);

- ad rupes graniticas erraticas ubique, everywhere on erratic granitic rocks.

- habitat ad lapides rupesque irriguas, it grows on both wet stones and rocks.

- Ad saxa sparsa limitis supremi vigent Rivulariae, Ljngbyae, plures Confervae, ad rupes majores Bryopsis mjura, Anadynomene, Dasycladus, et Laurenciae plures, on scattered stones of the uppermost boundary [of the sea] flourish Rivularia, Lyngbya, many Confervae, on the larger rocks, Bryopsis myura, Anadynomene, Dasycladus and many Laurenciae.

- Ad saxa rupesque profundius demersas et hinc luce magis fracto expósitas proveniunt Cystoseira barbata, C. crinita, C. selaginoides etc., on stones and rocks more deeply submerged and for this reason exposed to more broken light appear Cystoseira barbata, C. crinita, C. selaginoides etc.

- Hab. ad saxa et in scrobiculis aqua vix superfusis, in caepites minutos collecta, it dwells on stones and in small depressions scarcely poured over by water, gathered together in minute clumps.

- Hab. ad saxa trabesque ligneos saepe emersos, undarumque spuma irrigatos it dwells on stones and woody planks, often half-submerged and irrigated by the foam of the waves.

- in saxis spumatis, on foam-covered rocks.

- Hab. ad rupes et saxa separata sinuum minorum, vehementiori mari expositorum rarius, it dwells on rocks and separated stone of the lesser bays, more rarely [of those bays] exposed to a more turbulent sea.

- Hab. in sinubus tranquillioribus ad saxa utriusque maris frequenter, it frequently grows on stones in the more quiet bays of each [of the two] sea[s] [i.e. Mediterranean and Adriatic].
Stone, small; pebble: calculus,-i (s.m.II), a small stone, a pebble; collectively ‘gravel;’ glarea,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. glarea 'gravel'; lapillus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. lapillo 'a little stone, pebble;’ axulum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. saxulo: a little rock or stone; scrupulus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. scrupulo 'small stone;' see pebble.

Stone, very small or tiny: lapillulus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. lapillulo.

Stone, boundary: lapis terminalis (adj.B).

Stone, small; pebble: calculus,-i (s.m.II), a small stone, a pebble; collectively ‘gravel;’ glarea,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. glarea 'gravel'; lapillus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. lapillo 'a little stone, pebble;’ axulum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. saxulo: a little rock or stone; scrupulus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. scrupulo 'small stone;' see pebble.

Stone, very small or tiny: lapillulus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. lapillulo. Saxifraga L., “Name from saxum, a stone, and frangere, to break; the name early applied through the doctrine of signatures, to European species bearing granular bulblets, which were supposed to dissolve urinary concretions” (Fernald 1950); “Growing in rock crevices this herb was supposed to be capable of breaking rocks. Hence, by deduction, it was accorded a medicinal quality of breaking up stone in the bladder” (Stearn 1996).

acidic stone, siliceous stone: saxum,-i (s.n.II) siliceum (adj.A), abl. sg. saxo siliceo. Silicicola,-ae (s.c.I), abl. sg. silicicola: dwelling on sicileous (i.e. acidic) stones or rocks.

dioritic stone: saxum,-i (s.n.II) dioriticum (adj.A), abl. sg. saxo dioritico; see dioritic.

granitic stone: saxum,-i (s.n.II) graniticum (adj.A), abl. sg. saxo granitico;

- in saxis graniticis, on granitic stones.

gypsaceus,-a,-um (adj.A): characterized by gypsum;

- in saxis gypsaceis detexit, discovered on gypsaceous stones.

Lapillus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. lapillo: a small stone, a pebble, a small, rounded stone, especially one worn smooth by the action of water or wind; dim. lapillulus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. lapillulo, a very little or tiny stone.

Limestone: saxum,-i (s.n.II) calcareum (adj.A), abl. sg. saxo calcareo; calx, gen.sg. calcis (s.f.III), abl. sg. calce, ‘lime, limestone.’

Pumice-stone, sand-stone: lapis,-idis (s.m.III) bibulus (adj. A) 'fond of drinking, absorbant,' abl. sg. lapide bibulo.

Rudus,-eris (s.n.III), abl. sg. rudere: broken fragments of stone, plaster, etc., stoney rubbish, as from old buildings.

Sand-stone: saxum (s.n.II) arenaceum (adj.A); lapis (-idis (s.m.III) arenarius (adj.A), abl. sg. lapide arenario.

Schist-stone: lapis,-idis (s.m.III) schistos (adj.A), abl. sg. lapide schisto; lapis schistaceus (adj.A): schist, that easily cleaves or cracks, fissile, schistose, a name given to a kind of red oxide of iron by Pliny.

- ad lapidem schistum, on schistose (fissile) stone.
stone-bearing: saxifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.A); saxiger,-gera,-gerum (adj.A);

- semina saxifera, stone-bearing seeds.
stone-colored: petraceus,-a,-um (adj.A); schistaceus,-a,-um (adj.A), relating to schistaceous rocks, slaty, slate-gray.
stone, found or dwelling among rocks or: lithophilus,-a,-um (adj.A); petraeus,-a,-um (adj.A), petrensis,-e (adj.B); petricola,-ae (s.c.I); petrophilus,-a,-um (adj.A); saxatilis,-e (adj.B), saxicola,-ae (s.c.I), a dweller among stones; rupicola,-ae (s.c.I), abl.sg. rupicola: rock- or cliff-dweller.
stone, of or relating to: lapidarius,-a,-um (adj.A).
stone-; -stone; -lith; -lithic: - in Gk. comp. lith-, litho-; -lithus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. -litho, on analogy with coccolith; -lithicus,-a,-um (adj.A);

- coccolithus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. coccolitho; cystolithus,-i (s.m.II), q.v., abl.sg. cystolitho.

- Pisolithus, a fungus (Sclerodermatales).

- Lithops, with the appearance of stone; Lithospermum L. > Gk. lithos, stone + sperma, seed, from the hard nutlets (Fernald 1950).

- lithophilus, loving stones; lithospermus, with seeds hard as stone;

- endolithicus, endolithic, growing embedded in stone; epilithicus,-a,-um (adj.A): epilithic, growing on the surface of stone, roof-tiles, etc. - in Gk. comp. petr-, petro-; -petrus,-a,-um (adj.A), -petricus,-a,-um (adj. A): in Gk. comp. of or associated with rocks; “In Gk. compounds can refer either to rock forming cliffs, ledges (petra) or pieces of rock (petros)” (Stearn 1996);

- epipetricus, epipetric, epipetrous, growing on rocks, adherent to rocks or stones.

- Petrocallis (s.f.III), > Gk. petros, rock + kallis, beauty; “from the habitat and the beauty of the flowers” (Stearn 1996); Petrocoptis (s.f.III), > Gk. petros, rock + copto, to break; “these plants grow in cracks and broken crevices of rock” (Stearn 1996).

- in L. comp. sax-, saxi-;

- saxicola,-ae (s.c.I).

- Saxifraga.
stone-breaking: saxifragus,-a,-um (adj.A);

- undae maris saxifragae, the stone-breaking waves of the sea.
stone-hard, made of stone: lapideus,-a,-um (adj.A), saxeus,-a,-um (adj.A), saxialis,-e (adj.B);

- drupa (nobis non visa) exsucca, putamine lapideo 3-gono attenuato 3-loculari canalibus resiniferis percurso, (B&H), drupe (not seen by us) without juice, with a stoney stone, 3-angled, attenuate, 3-locular, run throughout with a resiniferous canal.

- murus saxialis, a stone wall.

stone-quarry, of or belonging to: lautumnius,-a,-um (adj.A).
stone-born, born from stone: saxigenus,-a,-um (adj.A);

- semen saxigenum, a seed born of stone.
stone-hard: lapideus,-a,-um (adj.A): stone-hard, made of stone; petrifactus,-a,-um (adj.A), rock, made hard like rock.
Stone-fruit: see drupe.
Stone-quarry: lapicidinae,-arum (pl.f.1.), abl. pl. lapicidinis; lautumniae,-arum (pl.f.I), abl. pl. lautumniis; see ‘mine; pit;’

Calcaria,-ae (s.f.I), a lime-quarry; a lime-kiln or lime-works (Glare). [limekiln (Eng. noun): “a kiln or furnace for reducing limestone or shells to lime by burning” (WIII); see lime].

calcariarius,-a,-um (adj.A): of or connected with a lime-quarry or lime-kiln (Glare).

calcarensis,-e (adj.B), calcariensis,-e (adj.B): of or connected with a lime-quarry, dwelling or inhabiting lime-quarries.

Columnar,-aris (s.n.III), abl. sg. columnare: a stone-quarry-, marble-quarry.

Saxetum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. saxeto: a stony place; “a place from which pieces of rock or stone are obtained, quarry, stone-working” (Glare).

stone-quarry, of or belonging to: calcariarius,-a,-um (adj.A), of or connected with a lime-quarry or lime-kiln (Glare); lautumnius,-a,-um (adj.A).


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2023

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