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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

Specimen (botanical); cf. ‘example;’

Exemplar,-aris (s.n.III), abl. sg. exemplare: exemplar (Eng. noun), a typical example; a specimen; a transcript, copy [> L. an image, likeness, impression; a pattern, model, exemplar; original, an example; a model > L. exemplum, q.v. + -aris,-e];

- baccae exemplaribus nostris nuculam crassam intus suberosam continent, embryone 0. (B&H), the berries, in our examples, contain a thick nutlet that is withered [i.e. shriveled up] inside, with no embryo.

- exempla majora P. eduli haud adeo absimilia desuper apparent: a qua tamen admodum diversa est haec species (S&A), the larger specimens appear not so much unlike P. edulis: from which, however, this species is completely different.

- exemplaria imperfecta tantum nobis suppetunt difficillime scrutata (B&H), only imperfect examples are available to us, studied with the utmost difficulty.

Exemplum.-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. exemplo, nom. & acc.pl. exempla, dat.& abl.pl. exemplis; example, specimen;

- [fungi] stipes in exemplis nostris peridio nudiusculo expallescente multo squamosior (S&A), the stipe in our specimens with an almost naked peridium, becoming very pale, [the stipe] much more scaly.

- exemplum valde imperfectum foliis ademptis a nobis visum (B&H), the specimen seen by us strongly [i.e. very] imperfect, with the leaves taken away [i.e. deprived of leaves].

- exempla juniora pallida, maturescentia dein per fuligineum colorem in nigrum abeunt, younger specimens pale, ripening ones finally through a sooty color passing into black.

Specimen,-inis (s.n.III), acc. sg. specimen, abl.sg. specimine, nom. & acc.pl. specimina, gen.pl. speciminum, dat.& abl.pl. speciminibus [> L. specimen,-inis (s.n.III), “that by which a thing is seen, known, or recognized; a mark, token, proof, example, indication, evidence, sign; a pattern, model, example, ideal” (Lewis & Short)];

- partes florum a numero normali ternario saepe aberrant in Cissampelideae et hinc inde in speciebus v. speciminibus paucis generum aliorum (B&H), the parts of the flowers often deviate from the normal number in fours in the Cissampelideae and here and there in species or in a few exampless of other genera.

- specimen originarium in herbario auctoris prope ... collectum, original specimen in the herbarium of the author near ... collected.

- specimina in herbariis asservata non raro aliis speciebus commixta sunt, specimens in herbaria preserved not rarely with other species are mixed (Stearn)

- exemplaria mea in herbario meo asservata, my specimens in my herbarium preserved (Stearn).

- in speciminibus cultis, in cultivated specimens.

- cum exemplaribus Europaeis ad amussim convenit, with European specimens it agrees precisely; cf. exsiccata, herbarium (Stearn).

- in exemplis junioribus, in younger specimens.

- specimen typi (gen.sg. typus, q.v.), abl. sg. specimine typi, type specimen; exemplum typicum, abl. sg. exemplo typico; exemplum typicale, abl. sg. exemplo typicali, type specimen.

- superficies ceterum, in exemplis exsiccatis rugis subparallelis distincta (S&A), the surface otherwise, in dried out specimens with somewhat parallel wrinkles is distinct.

- pedunculi [feminei] (specimine fructífero), elongati, uniflori (B&H), the female peduncles (in a fruit-bearing specimen).

- folia integerrima, serrata v. in eodem specimine incisa (B&H), the leaves completely entire, serrate or incised in the same specimen.

- e speciminibus Dillenii J. multiflora Huds. est eadem as J. connivens (Lindberg), according to the specimens of Dillenius, J. multiflora Huds. is the same as J. connivens.

- [lichen] subtus in speciminibus magnis nonnihil nervoso-rugosus (Nyl.), beneath, in large specimens, somewhat veined-rugose [i.e. wrinkled].

- speciem staminodii praesentia abnormem et forsan in proprium genus transmovendam solum ex adnotationibus tempore detectionis adeptis divulgavi, quum omnia ejus specimina in itinere amitterentur (F. Mueller), I have published a species abnormal by the presence of a staminodium and perhaps to be transferred into a special genus merely from notes obtained at the time of discovery, when all the specimens of it may have been lost on the journey.


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

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