www.mobot.org Research Home | Search | Contact | Site Map  

North America
South America
General Taxonomy
Photo Essays
Training in Latin

Wm. L. Brown Center
Graduate Studies
Research Experiences
  for Undergraduates

Imaging Lab
MBG Press
Climate Change
Catalog Fossil Plants
Image Index
Rare Books

Res Botanica
All Databases
What's New?
People at MO
Visitor's Guide
Jobs & Fellowships
Research Links
Site Map


Browse by Keyword





A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

Perianth: perianthium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. perianthio, nom. & acc. pl. perianthia, dat. & abl. pl. perianthiis;; see note on bryophtes below; see perigon;

1. the sepals and the petals together, “the calyx and corolla combined; that is to say, when they look so much alike that they cannot be readily distinguished, as in a Hyacinth” (Lindley); “the floral envelopes, calyx or corolla, or both” (Jackson); “the floral envelope, consisting of the calyx and corolla (when present), whatever their form” (Fernald 1950); a ‘segment’ is one of the divisions of the perianth, such as a sepal or petal;

2. (in Hepaticae) the inflated envelope surrounding the fertilized archegonium, the Colesule or vaginule” (Jackson); (in bryophytes) “organ of foliar origin enclosing the archegonia in most leafy liverworts” (Magill 1990); (in liverworts) “a tube surrounding a developing sporophyte, or present merely as a low ring around the archegonia; derived through the fusion of 2-3 leaves or, subsequent to fertilization, from thallus tissue in the Metzgeriales” (Paton).

"Applied by Linnaeus and his contemporaries to the calyx exclusive of the corolla, but by Mirbel, Robert Brown and later authors to the perigon, i.e. the floral envelope outside the stamens when not differentiated into calyx and corolla, and applied in Hepaticae to the colesule (q.v.), i.e. the inflated envelope around the archegonium" (Stearn); the calyx is all of the sepals; see calyx;

- filamentis perigonium duplo superantibus, ima basi inter se et cum perigonio coalitis, with filaments twice exceeding the perigon, at the very base between themselves and with the perigon united (Stearn).

- perianthium quadripartitum, persistens, perianth (calyx) 4-parted, persistent.

- perianthium infundibulare sex-partitum corollinum viridulum extus pilosum, perianth (perigon) funnel-shaped 6-parted corolla-like greenish on the outside pilose.

- perianthia basi nuda (i.e. a bractea remota) foliis caulinis subaequilonga pyriformia, tota longitudine acute 5-carinata, laevissima, apice rotundato obsolete rostellata, perianths (colesules) naked at base (i.e. at a distance from the bract) about as long a the stem-leaves, for the whole length acutely 5-keeled, quite smooth, at the rounded apex weakly beaked (Stearn).

- sepala 8 lin. longa ut pétala tria ; perianthium igitur non septempartitum, quale in R. Br. verm. Schrift, m. p. 127 descriptum. (F. Mueller), the sepals 8 lines long, as the petals, three; the perianth consequently not seven-parted, of the sort described in R. Br. verm. Schrift, m. p. 127.

- flores 3-ni, intermedius hermaphroditus perianthio fructífero immutato, 2 laterales abortivi, perianthio demum in alam reticulatam orbicularem expanso (B&H), the flowers in threes, the intermediate one with the fruit-bearing perianth unchanged, the 2 lateral [flowers] abortive, with the perianth ultimately expanded into a reticulate, orbicular wing.

- perianthii segmenta 5, 2 exteriora paullo majora, ovata, concava ; 3 interiora obovata, plana, membranacea, post anthesin immutata (B&H), the segments of the perianth 5, the 2 outer somewhat larger, ovate, concave; the 3 inner obovate, flat, membranaceous, unchanged after anthesis.

- perianthiis radiatis subglobosis circa 10-fidis, albidis apice, cohaerentibus, with perianths radiate subglobose around 10-parted, white in the apex cohering.

- os perianthii lobulatum, dentibus longioribus, , ad 3-4 cellulis longis, praeditum, mouth of the perianth lobulate, provided with the teeth longer, to 3-4 cells long.

- perianthium cum androecio post anthesin caducissimum stylo diu persistente (B&H), the perianth with the androecium after anthesis very easily deciduous, with the style persisting for a long time.

- perianthium hypocraterimorphum, lobis patentibus rigidis coloratis (B&H), the perianth salver-shaped, with the lobes spreading, rigid, colored.

- [Cyperaceae] perianthium perfectum 0 (nisi in Oreobulo), sed in floribus [hermaphroditicis] generum nonnullorum adsunt setae v. squamellae 6 v. pauciores rarius plures hypogynae dictae, sed semper extra stamina affixae saepeque sub-2-seriatae, quae verisimiliter perianthio homologae (B&H), a perfect perianth none (except in Oreobolus), but in [hermaphroditic] flowers of some genera the setae or squamellae are 6 or fewer, more rarely many, called hypogenous, but always attached beyond the stamens and often almost 2-seriate [i.e. in 2 rows], and which are very likely homologous to a perianth.

NOTE: Boissier seems to differentiate between perigonial leaves as opposed to the ‘generative’ or ‘genital’ petals or the stamens and pistils, both petals and phylla consituting the perianth:

- [PHALANGIUM BAETICUM] perigonii phyllis oblongis obtusis breviter acuminatis trinerviis albis apice viridescentibus, genitalibus petalis aequalibus (Boissier), with the leaves of the perigonium oblong, obtuse, shortly acuminate, with three nerves, white, at the apex greenish, equal with the generative petals.

NOTE: Swartz differentiated the calyx and its perianth from the corolla:

- CAL. [calyx] Perianthium monophyllum, tubulosum, 3 - dentatum : laciniis aequalibus, erectis, acutis, the perianth monophyllous [i.e. with one leaf], tubulose, 3-dentate; with the laciniae equal, erect, acute.

COR. [corolla] monopetala, tubulosa. Tubus cylindraceus, brevis. Limbus 3-partitus; laciniis subaequalibus, oblongis (Swartz), monopetalous [with one petal], tubulose. The tube cylindric, short. The limb in 3 parts; with the laciniae nearly equal, oblong.

- Omnes Species Boerhaaviae perianthio instructae, (cui corolla insidet,) angulato, ore integro, persistente (Swartz), all species of Boerhaavia are provided with a perianth, (on which the corolla sits), angulate, with the mouth entire, persistent.

- CAL. Perianthium duplex. Inferum 6-phyIlum. Folíola opposita, inaequalia, integra: duo interiora minora, germen amplectentia, decidua, colorata. Superum 2-4-phyllum : Folióla lanceolata, acuta, persistentia.

COR. monopetala. Tubus longissimus, cylindricus, striatus, limbum versus ventricosus. Limbus sexfidus: lacinae• longae reflexae, contortae, margine revolutae (Swartz).

Calyx. The perianth double. The inner 6-leaved. The leaflets opposite, not equal, entire: the inner two smaller, enfolding the ovary, deciduous, colored. The upper 2-4-leaved: the leaflets lanceolate, acute, persistent.

Corolla with a single petal. The tube very long, cylindric, striate, toward the limb ventricose. The limb divided into sixes: the laciniae long, reflexed, contorted, revolute at the margin.

- CAL. Perianthium 4-phyllum : Folióla linearía, obtusa, aequalia, patentia, persistentia, albida. COR. nulla (Swartz), Calyx. Perianth 4-leaved. The leaflets linear, obtuse, equal, spreading, persistent, whitish. Corolla. none.

NOTE: in bryophytes see epigonianthus,-i (s.m.II), hypogonianthis,-i (s.m.II).

Bractea (s.f.I) involucralis (adj.B), abl. sg. bractea involucrali: involucral bract, (in bryophytes): “a sheath of foliar origin, derived by a fusion of the bracts surrounding a perianth” (Magill 1990); cf. involucral scales.

Floral envelope, “the calyx and corolla, one or both” (Lindley); envelope, a surrounding part: involucrum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. involucro, 'involucre, the whorl of bracts subtending a flower or flower cluster;' floral envelope: the perianth or its analogues (Jackson).

Involucre, q.v., “a ring or rings of bracts surrounding several flowers; but note that sometimes it is used for a single flower: involucrum,-i (s.n.II), abl.sg. involucro.

Perichaetium, “W. J. Hooker’s name for the perianth in Hepaticae” (Jackson).

Pseudoperianth, (in bryophytes) “tissue of thalline origin surrounding the archegonial cluster, calyptra and subsequent sporophyte; e.g. Pallavicinia, Marchantia” (Magill 1990): pseudoperianthium,-ii (s.n.II), abl.sg. pseudoperianthio; cf. involucre.

NOTE: calyx, gen.sg. calycis (s.m.III), q.v. was once used in mosses and liverworts for the perianth.

NOTE: hypogynium, “the perianth-like structure subtending the ovary in Scleria and some other Cyperaceae” (Fernald 1950): hypogynium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. hypogynio, nom.& acc. pl. hypogynia, dat. & abl.pl. hypogyniis.


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

© 1995-2018 Missouri Botanical Garden, All Rights Reserved
4344 Shaw Blvd.
St. Louis, MO 63110
(314) 577-5100

Technical Support