www.mobot.org Research Home | Search | Contact | Site Map  

North America
South America
General Taxonomy
Photo Essays
Training in Latin

Wm. L. Brown Center
Graduate Studies
Research Experiences
  for Undergraduates

Imaging Lab
MBG Press
Climate Change
Catalog Fossil Plants
Image Index
Rare Books

Res Botanica
All Databases
What's New?
People at MO
Visitor's Guide
Jobs & Fellowships
Research Links
Site Map


Browse by Keyword





A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

Palea, Pale, Palet, “membranous scales resembling chaff. The inner scales of the flower in Grasses” (Lindley); “the tiny upper bract which with the lemma incloses the flower in Grasses” (Fernald 1950); “a chaffy scale such as often subtends the fruit in Compositae” (Fernald 1950); 1. the inner bract of a grass floret, the upper bract that, with the lemma encloses the flower in grasses; 2. generally, the glumes associated with the grass-flower; 3. the scales constituting the ramentum on ferns (Jackson): palea,-ae (s.f.I), abl.sg. palea, nom. pl. paleae, acc. pl. paleas, dat.& abl. pl. paleis [> L. palea,-ae (s.f.I) chaff, ‘the outer envelopes of cereal grains’ (Jackson)]; see carph-, carpho-; -carpha,-ae (s.f.I); -carphus,-a,-um (adj.A): paleae; chaff; bracts, in pl. husks, chaff;” see chaff; see lemma, lodicule;

- stipes omnino paleis vestitus, the stipe entirely covered with scales (paleae).

- paleae maximae 2 cm. longae, margine pallido setiferae, largest scales (paleae) 2 cm. long, on the pale margin setiferous.

- paleae minores superficiei abaxialis irregulares, smaller scales (paleae) of the abaxial surface irregular.

- rhizoma paleis adpressis onustum; sori squamis circumdati, rhizome laden with adpressed scales (pales); sori surrounded by scales.

- rhizoma paleis brunneis tenuibus onustum, rhizome laden with brown thin scales (paleae).

- [Dipsaceae] receptaculum in generibus capituliferis convexum v. saepius oblongum v. elongatum, bracteis (paleis) flores singulos subtendentibus undique v. in ambitu onustum, v. undique dense pilosum (B&H), the receptacle in capituliferous genera convex or more often oblong or elongate, with bracts (paleae) subtending individual flowers everywhere or [the receptacle] filled on the periphery or everywhere densely pilose.

- [Dipsacus] Involucri bracteae saepius herbaceae paleaeque receptaculi rigide subulato-acuminatae v. spinescentes (B&H), the bracts of the involucre more often herbaceous and the paleae of the receptacle rigidly subulate-acuminate or spinescent.

- [Scabiosa] receptaculi paleae breves v. angustissimae v. abortivae (B&H), the pales of the receptacle short or very narrow or abortive.

- bracteis involucri gradatim in paleas receptaculi abeuntibus (B&H), with the bracts of the involucre gradually changing into the paleae of the receptacle.

- [Bidens] Rec. [=receptaculum] paleaceum. Paleae oblongae- acutae, membranaceae compressae, calyce longiores, post florescentiam rígidae patulae (Swartz), receptacle paleaceous [i.e. bearing paleae]. The paleae oblong-acute, membranaceous, compressed, longer than the calyx, after flowering stiff, outspread.

- Recept. paleaceum, Paleae apice fornicatae, flosculos includentes, dorso carinatae (Swartz), the receptacle bearing paleae. The paleae at the apex vaulted over, enclosing the florets, keeled on the back.


- palea inferiore apice bifida dorso aristam geniculalam spicula duplo longiorem gerente, (Boissier), with the lower palea bearing at the bifid apex on the back a geniculate awn two times longer than the spikelet.

- paleis fere omnino hyalinis parte inferiore hirsutis acutissimis bene distincta (Boissier), well separated by the paleae almostcompletely hyaline, hirsute in the lower part, very acute.

- palea 0, lodiculis 4 (v. palea 2-partita lodiculis 2 ) (B&H), palea none, with the lodicules 4 (or palea 2-parted with the lodicules 2).

- palea 0 nisi pro palea glumam summam 1-nervem v. carinatam habes (B&H), palea none unless you take the highest glume, 1-nerved or carinate, for a palea.

- palea floris inferioris masculi maxima (B&H), the palea of the lower flower male flower very large.

- palea 0 nisi glumis simillima (B&H), palea none unless they are very similar to the glumes.

- glumae 6 (v. 5 et palea) 1-nerves v. carinatae (B&H), glumes 6 (or 5 and the palea), 1-nerved or keeled.

- haec organa caeterum in nullo alio ordine distincte observantur, nisi forte paleam cum squamis hypogynis exterioribus Cyperacearum e tribu Hypolytrearum comparas, v. paleam cum perianthio exteriore lodiculas cum interiore Eriocauli (B&H), these organs otherwise are distinctly observed in no other order, except perhaps the palea with the outer hypogynous scales of the Cyperaceae, compared with the tribe Hypolytreae, or the palea with the outer perianth, the lodicules with the inner of Eriocaulon.

- palea denique quoad venationem cum bractea intra spatham 1-floram Iridearum e tribù Ixiearum comparanda, homologia tamen caeterum minime clara (B&H), and finally the palea, should be compared as to the venation with the bract within the 1-flowered spathe of the irideae from the tribe Ixieae, yet otherwise the homology is not at all clear.

graminoids: [note: a palea in grasses is a type of glume, q.v.]

- [Gramineae (B&H)]:

flores hermaphroditi v. unisexuales, in spicas parvas spiculas dictas dispositi, flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, arranged in small spikes called spikelets,

singuli ad axillam bracteae parvae glumam dictae solitarii, sessiles v. subsessiles, individuals in the axil of small bracts called a glume, solitary.

Glumae in spicula secus rhachillam (i.e. spiculae rhachin) alternae, distiche rarissime subternatim imbricatae,the glumes on the spikelet along the rhachilla (i.e. the rhachis of the spikelet), alternate, distichously, very rarely nearly ternately imbricate,

inferiores 2, rarius 3-oo v. rarissime una sola vacuae, the lower 2, more rarely 3-[numerous] or very rarely one alone, empty,

l-oo sequentes florentes (paleae inferiòrès auct. plur.) florem foventes, the 1-[numerous] following are flowering (the lower [i.e. inferior] paleae of various authors) enfolding the flower,

interdum 1-oo summae minores vacuaeque (flores tabescentes auct. plur.), sometimes the 1-[numerous] highest [glumes] also empty (the tabescent [i.e. aborted] flowers of various authors).

Perianthium perfectùm 0, sed in glumae axilla ad basin axis floralis palea, saepius adest (palea superior auct. plur.) rhachillam spiculae spectans, 2-nervis v. 2-carinata, integra v. 2-dentata, rarius 2-partita, nunc glùmae aequilonga, nunc saepius minor, interdum minuta v. omnino evanida et supra paleam infra stamina adsunt; perfect perianth none, but in the axil of the glume at the base of the floral axis there is more often a palea (the upper [i.e. superior] palea of many authors) facing the rhachilla of the spikelet, [palea] 2-nerved or 2-carinate [i.e. keeled], entire or 2-dentate, more rarely 2-parted, somtimes the same length as the glume, sometimes more often smaller, sometimes minute or completely vanishing, and present above the palea below the stamens,

saepius lodiculae 2 v. 3, squamellas parvae hyalinae v. carnosulae, quarum 2 liberae lateralesque v. pone axin a rhachilla spiculae aversae et plus minus connatae, tertia dum adsit lateralibus aequalis v. minor; more often 2 or three lodicules, small hyaline or somewhat fleshy bractlet [i.e. diminutive scale], 2 of which are free and lateral or behind the axis on the other side from the rhachilla of the spikelet, and more or less fused, when a third may be present it is equal to the lateral ones or smaller.

Florigluma,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. florigluma: the flowering glume in grasses (Jackson).

Gluma florens,-entis (part.B), gluma fertilis (adj.B), gluma floralis (adj.B): “fertile glume, floral glume, flowering glume, the glume in grasses which includes a flower, the palea” (Jackson).

Gluma florens,-entis (part.B), gluma fertilis (adj.B), gluma floralis (adj.B): “fertile glume, floral, glume, flowering glume, the glume in grasses which includes a flower, the palea” (Jackson).

Gluma fructifera (adj.A), gluma fructificans,-antis (part.B): the fruiting glume, “the fertile glume at the time of maturity” (Jackson).

Glumellula,-ae (s.f.I): a glumellule, [“obs.] “The hypogynous scale in the flower of a Grass” (Lindley); “1. = palea; 2. = lodicule” (Jackson).

Spathella,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. spathella: “(obsol.) the paleae and glumes of Grasses; the glumes only” (Lindley).

Spathellula,-ae (s.f.I): “(obsol.) the paleae of Grasses” (Lindley).

Strangulum,-i (s.n.II), abl.sg. strangulo: “(obso.) the paleae of Grasses” (Lindley).

NOTE: the palea may also refer to one of the chaffy scales on the receptacle subtending the disk flowers in the heads of many composite plants, as in the Dandelion. on the receptacle of many Compositae." In Grasses, "... each lemma normally subtending and opposite to a usually 1- or 2-nerved or -keeled prophyllum, the palea, this embracing the flower" (Fernald 1950); see lodicule.

NOTE: the glumella,-ae (s.f.I), q.v., “that part of the flower of a Grass now called the palea” (Lindley).

NOTE: the palea is also called the "fertile lemma." The lower lemma is also called the "flowering glume." Together, there is only one lemma and one palea, subtended by two glumes, the lower and upper glume.


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

© 1995-2018 Missouri Botanical Garden, All Rights Reserved
4344 Shaw Blvd.
St. Louis, MO 63110
(314) 577-5100

Technical Support