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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

 
lanceolate: lanceolatus,-a,-um (adj.A); lance-shaped, narrow and tapered from the base (narrower than ovate); “narrowly elliptical, tapering to each end” (Lindley); “shaped like a lance-head, several times longer than wide, broadest toward the base and narrowed to the apex” (Fernald 1950); a term of varied application:

lanceolatus 'armed with a little lance or point', as used by all authors represents a comparatively narrow shape with curved sides tapering to a pointed end;

in Linnaeus's sense, a shape broadest at the middle and tapering to each end, typified by Plantago lanceolata (with length to breadth roughly 6 to 1) i.e. very narrowly elliptic;

in the sense of A. P. de Candolle, Lindley and many German authors, a shape broadest at the middle, tapering to each end with length to breadth about 3 to 1, i.e. narrowly elliptic;

in the sense of Bentham, A. Gray and most English-speaking authors from 1865 onwards, a shape broadest below the middle with length to breadth about 3 to 1. For discussion, see Alphonse de Candolle, Phytographie, 198-200 (1880) [Stearn 1983] [> L. lanceola, dim. of lancea,-ae s.f.I, lance].

- carpella demum samaroidea (stylo nempe persistente in alam lanceolatam dilatato) (B&H), the carpels eventually samara-like (with the style certainly persistent, dilated into a lanceolate wing).

- siliqua lineari-lanceolata, compressissima, valvis planis (B&H), the silique linear-lanceolate, very compressed, with the valves flat.

- folia basi vaginantia, alterna, lanceolato - ovata, acuminata (Swartz), leaves sheathing at the base, alternate, lanceolate-ovate, acuminate.

- dentibus calycinis lanceolato-subulatis (Swartz), with the calyx teeth lanceolate-subulate.

- elytriculi marginales florum, neutri, integerrimi , plano-lanceolati ; centrales, monoclini, tubulati : ore 5-fido (Necker), the marginal florets of the flower, neuter [i.e. sexless], completely entire, flattened-lanceolate; the central monoclinous [i.e. perfect], tubulate; with the mouth 5-divided.

- segmentis petiolulatis ovali-lanceolatis integris aut vix dentatis (DeCandolle), with the segments petiolulate, ovali-lanceolate, entire or scarcely dentate.

- foliorum segmentis ovato-lanceolatis integrrs (DeCandolle), with the segments of the leaflets ovate-lanceolate, entire.

- sepalis oblongo-lanceolatis mucronatis extus sericeis. (DeCandolle), with the sepals oblong-lanceolate, mucronate, externally silken-haired.

- foliorum segmentis glabris oblongis cnneiformibus acute 3-fidis, summis indivisis lanceolatis (DeCandolle), with the segments of the leaflets glabrous oblong, cuneiform, acutely 3-divided, with the topmost ones undivided, lanceolate.

lanceolate-hastate, “a hastate leaf whose principal lobe is lanceolate” (Lindley): lanceolato-hastatus,-a,-um (adj.A).

lanceolate-sagittate, “a sagittate leaf, whose principal form is lanceolate” (Lindley): lanceolato-sagittatus,-a,-um (adj.A).

oblanceolate, i.e. reversed lanceolate, the broadest part above the middle.

 

A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2017

 
 
 
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