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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

Glume; “the exterior series of the scales which constitute the flower of a Grass” (Lindley); “the chaffy two-ranked members of the inflorescence of grasses and similar plants” (Jackson); “a chaff-like bract; specifically one of the two empty chaffy bracts at the base of the spikelet in the Grasses” (Fernald 1950); gluma,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. gluma, nom. pl. glumae, acc. pl. glumas, dat. & abl. pl. glumis [> L. a hull or husk, esp. of wheat or corn]; see chaff, lemma, palea; see scale;

- [Poa] glumae membranaceae, carinatae, exaristatae, 2 inferiores vacuae, persistentes, 1-3-nerves, florentibus vulgo breviores; florentes obtusae v. rarius acutae, 5=rarius 7-nerves, nervis saepius apice conniventibus; palea gluma parum brevior (B&H), the glumes membranaceous, keeled, lacking an arista, the 2 lower empty, persistent, 1-3-nerved, commonly shorter than the flowering ones; the flowering glumes obtus or more rarely acute, 5- more rarely 7-nerved, with the nerves more frequently connivent at the apex; the palea somewhat shorter the the glume.

- glumae aequales similes concavae uninerves dorso rotundatae vel carinatae, primo erectae tandem divergentes, glumes equal alike concave one-nerved on the back rounded or keeled, at first erect at length divergent (Stearn 1983).

- glumis glabris, dorso carinatis, margine membranaceis, apice obtusis, with glumes glabrous, on the back carinate, on the margine membranaceous, at the apex obtuse.

- glumae 2, acutae, gluma I 2.5—3 mm longa, gluma II (3-) 3.8—4.5 mm longa, glumes 2, acute, with the first glume 2.5-3 mm long, the second glume (3-) 3.8-4.5 mm long.

- setis glumarum superiorum 1.35-6.5 mm et setis lemmatum strictis differt, it differs by the setae of the upper glumes 1.35-6.5 mm and the setae of the lemmas straight.

- gluma I 7—10 mm longa, gluma II 10—13 mm longa, first glume 7-10 mm long, second glume 10-13 mm long.

- gluma I 4-6 mm, 3- 5-nervis, gluma II 6-8 mm, 7-9-nervis, glume I 4-6 mm with 3-5 nerves, glume II 6-8 mm, with 7-9 nerves.

- [Festuca] Glumae 2 inferiores vacuae, sub articulatione persistentes, parum v. valde inaequales, acutae, carinatae, extima 1-nervis, secunda saepius 3-nervis; florentes angustae, membranaceae v. paleaceae, acutae v. in aristam productae rarius obtusae, dorso rotundatae, nervis saepius 5 tenuibus interdum vix conspicuis, costa parum prominula v. superne tantum cariniformi; superiores rarius vacuae (B&H), glumes 2, the lower empty, persistent under the articulation, somewhat or strongly unequal, acute, keeled, the outermost 1-nerved, the second more often 3-nerved; the flowering glumes narrow, membranaceous or paleaceous, acute or elongated into a bristle, more rarely obtuse, rounded on the back, with the nerves more frequently 5 thin, sometimes scarcely conspicuous, with the midrib somewhat prominent or only above shaped like a keel; the upper more rarely empty.

- filamentum unicum, in quacunque spica inter glumas fuperiores cum pistillo, brevissimum. Antherae lineares (Swartz), the filament one only, in [whatever] spice among the upper glumes with a pistil, very short. The anthers linear.

- [Cyperus compressus] Spicae distiche imbricatae, glumis compressis, carinatis, margine membranaceis, ovatis, nec mucronatis (Swartz), the spikes distichously imbricate, with the glumes compressed, keeled, membranaceous at the margin, ovate, not mucronate.

NOTE: gluma,-ae (s.f.I) is a Latin word ('husk,' feminine, first decl.) but lemma,-atis (s.n.III)is a Greek work (neuter, third decl.)

NOTE: this is not, as one might expect, a Greek neuter noun with a plural glumata, but a Latin first declension feminine noun.

First glume; Gluma prima (adj.A), gluma proximalis (adj.B), gluma inferna.

Second glume: gluma secunda (adj.A), gluma distalis (adj.B), gluma superna.

- gluma prima 0.8--1.8 mm longa, gluma secunda 1.3--2 mm longa; lemma 1.7--2.3(--2.7) mm longum.

- gluma inferna ca. 7 mm longa, ca. 1 mm lata, anguste triangulari-lanceolata, uninervis nisi in medinervo ciliata, lower [i.e. first] glume ca. 7 mm long, ca. 1 mm wide, narrowly triangular-lanceolate, with one nerve, except ciliate on the median nerve.

- gluma superna ca. 8 mm longa, ca. 2 mm lata, lanceolata, trinervia, ad nervos ciliata, ceteris laevis, lower glume ca. 7 mm long, ca. 1 mm wide, narrowly triangular-lanceolate, one-nerved except ciliate on the midnerve.. Upper glume ca 8 mm long, ca. 2 mm wide, lanceolate, trinerved, ciliate on the nerves, with the rest smooth.

NOTE: Sphenopholis Scribn., a North American perennial grass, 'from Gk. sphen, a wedge, and pholis, scale, referring to the broadly obovate or cuneate second glume' (Fernald 1950).

NOTE: a palea, q.v., in a grass, is a type of glume.

Barren or Empty Glume, “glumes which subtend a spikelet, and do not include a flower” (Jackson): gluma vacua (adj.A).

Florigluma,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. florigluma: the flowering glume in grasses (Jackson).

Gluma florens,-entis (part.B), gluma fertilis (adj.B), gluma floralis (adj.B): “fertile glume, floral, glume, flowering glume, the glume in grasses which includes a flower, the palea” (Jackson).

Gluma fructifera (adj.A), gluma fructificans,-antis (part.B): the fruiting glume, “the fertile glume at the time of maturity” (Jackson).

Gluma sterilis (adj.B): “a glume which subtends other glumes or has no flower” (Jackson).

Spathella,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. spathella: “(obsol.) the paleae and glumes of Grasses; the glumes only” (Lindley).


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

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