www.mobot.org Research Home | Search | Contact | Site Map  

North America
South America
General Taxonomy
Photo Essays
Training in Latin

Wm. L. Brown Center
Graduate Studies
Research Experiences
  for Undergraduates

Imaging Lab
MBG Press
Climate Change
Catalog Fossil Plants
Image Index
Rare Books

Res Botanica
All Databases
What's New?
People at MO
Visitor's Guide
Jobs & Fellowships
Research Links
Site Map


Browse by Keyword





A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

Fruit, “that part of a plant which consists of the ripened carpels and the parts adhering them” (Lindley); “1. strictly, the pericarp and its seeds, the fertilized and developed ovary; 2. widely, the matured pericarp and its contents, with any external part which is an integral portion of it” (Jackson); “the seed-bearing product of a plant, simple, compound, or aggregated, of whatever form” (Fernald 1950): fructus,-us (s.m.IV), dat. sg. fructui, abl. sg. fructu, nom. & acc. pl. fructus, gen. pl. fructuum, dat. & abl. pl. fructibus; frux, frugis (s.f.III), nom. pl. fruges, is rarely used in bot. L., although in class. L. fructus seems to have referred chiefly to tree-fruits, as frux to those growing on the ground, as peas and beans, and frumentum to cereals, as wheat and barley, all basically meaning "produce for enjoyment" from fruor "enjoy" (Stearn); the capsule (sporophyte) in mosses and liverworts; see ‘capsular fruit (algae):’
fructus,-us (s.m.IV): 
     singular       plural            
         m. (and f.)                            
Nom.  fructus       fructus         
 Gen. fructus       fructuum      
Acc.  fructum       fructus      
 Dat. fructui       fructibus     
Abl.  fructu        fructibus   

frux, gen. sg. frugis (s.f.III) 
     singular       plural            
         m. (and f.)  
Nom.  frux          fruges         
Gen.  frugis        frugum      
Acc.  frugem        fruges      
 Dat. frugi         frugibus     
Abl.  fruge         frugibus   
- fructus nunc baccatus indehiscensque, nunc capsularis, supra medium circumscisse dehiscens pericarpii parte superiore decidua, vel septicide bivalvis, valvis integris bifidisve, fruit sometimes baccate and indehiscent, sometimes capsular, above the middle transversely dehiscent with the upper part of the pericarp deciduous, or septicidally 2-valved, with the valves entire or 2-fid.

- fructus varius, superus vel plus minus inferus, nudus vel calycis tubo persistente inclusus, drupaceus pomaceus follicularis vel ex achaeniis drupisve indefinitis toro sicco vel carnoso impositis compositus, fruit varied, superior or more or less inferior, naked or by the persistent tube of the calyx covered, drupaceous pomaceous follicular or from achenes or drupes of indefinite number on a dry or fleshy torus placed made up (Stearn).

- fructibus odorem spargentibus, with fruits giving out a scent (Stearn).

- fructus sepalis concrescentibus reliquias stigmatis gerentibus subtentus, fruit subtended by the grown-together sepals bearing the remnants of the stigma.

- pedicellus sub fructo clavatus, the pedicel beneath the fruit clavate.

- pedicellis fructu triplo brevioribus (Boissier), with the pedicels three times shorter than the fruit.

- fructus ignotus, fruit unknown.

- fructus tri-queter, angulis alatis, substipitatus (DeCandolle), the truit three-angled, with the angles winged, somewhat stalked.

- genus a Pachira imprimis lana fructus [=gen.sg.] differt (B&H), the genus primarily differs from Pachira by the woolly hairs of the fruit.

- in malis aliisque fructibus mucidis cellaribus, frequentior (S&A), on apples and other moldy fruits in cellars, more frequent.

- fructus magnitudine cerasi minoris, aetate corrugati nec distincte angulati, crasso-septati (F. Mueller), the fruit with the size of a smaller cherry, with age, corrugated, not distinctly angled, thickly septate [i.e. partitioned].

NOTE: fruct.: abbrev. fructus,-us (s.m.IV);

- species distinctissima sed fruct. igo. (DeCandolle), a very distinctive species but the fruit is unknown [fructus (sg.) ignotus (adj.A) or fructus (pl.) ignoti].

NOTE: frutex,-icis (s.m.III), q.v., abl. sg. frutice: ‘shrub, bush.’

Accessory fruit: fructus accessorius, abl.sg. fruct accessorio; anthocarpium,-ii (s.n.II), abl.sg. anthocarpio; see diclesium.

Aggregate fruit: fructus aggregatus (part.A); see multiple fruit.

Citrus fruit: see hesperidium.

Fruit: (in bryophytes) “archaic term for the capsule, or, more loosely, the sporophyte” (Magill 1990).

Fruit-bearer: “Potter’s term for Carpophore” (Jackson); see carpophore.

Key-fruit: samara,-ae (s.f.I), q.v.

Regma,-atis (s.n.III), abl.sg. regmate: regma, a fruit with elastically dehiscing segments or cocci as in Euphorbia.

without fruit: acarpicus,-a,-um (adj.A), acarpus,-a,-um (adj.A).

fruit, growing on, fructicolous: carpogenus,-a,-um (adj.A); fructicola,-ae (s.c.I), abl. sg. fructicola.

Spurious fruit: fructus spurius (adj.A): “certain kinds of inflorescence which grow up with the fruit, and form one body with it, as a Pine cone” (Lindley).

Stone, of a fruit: see putamen,-inis (s.n.III).
Fruit: see accessory fruit, aggregate fruit, multiple fruit; see ‘CAPSULAR FRUIT (ALGAE).’
fruit-bearing: fructifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.A), q.v.; fructiger,-gera,-gerum (adj.A), fructuosus,-a,-um (adj.A); frugiparens,-entis (adj.B), frugiparus,-a,-um (adj.A): fruit-bearing;

- racemi breves, 3-- 7-flori, in statu frugifero non vel parce elongati, racemes short, 3-7-flowered, in fruiting state not or somewhat elongate.

- calyx fructifer saepissime auctus (B&H), fertile calyx most often enlarged.

- pedicellis quadrangulis apice incrassatis bracteolam aequantibus fructiferis erectis (Boissier), with the pedicells quadrangular, thickened at the apex, equally the bracteole, the fruit-bearing ones erect.

- pedicellis fructiferis erectis bractea duplo longioribus (DeCandolle), with the fruitbearing pedicels erect, two times longer than the bract.

- rhachis scrobiculis calyces fructigeros foventibus insculpta, rachis sculptured with pits holding tightly the fruiting calyces (Stearn).

bearing fruit, fruiting: fructificans,-antis (part.B), q.v.
Fruit-body, fructification: fructificatio,-onis (s.f.III), q.v., abl. sg. fructificatione; receptaculum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. receptaculo;

- fructificatio resupinata, juvenilis tenuis citrino-viridis, maturitate subgelatinosa lutea, fructification resupinate, when young thin citron-green, at maturity almost gelatinous (Stearn).
Fruit-dot: the sorus of Ferns; see sorus.
Fruit-garden, orchard: pomarium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. pomario; see orchard.
Fruit, growing on, fructicolous, living on fruit: carpogenus,-a,-um (adj.A); fructicola,-ae (s.c.I), abl. sg. fructicola.


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

© 1995-2018 Missouri Botanical Garden, All Rights Reserved
4344 Shaw Blvd.
St. Louis, MO 63110
(314) 577-5100

Technical Support