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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

echinatus,-a,-um (adj.A): echinate, armed with numerous rigid hairs or straight prickles or spines; “furnished with numerous rigid hairs, or straight prickles; as the fruit of Castanea vesca” (Lindley); “provided with prickles” (Fernald 1950); “covered with prickles like a hedgehog” (Stearn 1996) [> L. echinus,-i (s.m.II) 'hedgehog; sea-urchin,' hence 'prickly husk of sweet chestnut' (Stearn) [> Gk. echinos (s.m.II), “the urchin, hedgehog; the sea-urchin; the shell of the sea-urchin, often used as a cup, hence Lat. echinus,-i (s.m.II), a pot, jug, pitcher” (Liddell & Scott); > L. echinus,-i (s.m.II), same as Gk. echinos]; cf. hispidus,-a,-um (adj.A), covered with coarse rigid erect hairs or bristles harsh to the touch; cf. muricatus,-a,-um (adj.A), rough with short hard points like the shell of Murex; see bristly; see hedgehog;

- fructus depressus, muricatus echinatus v. setosus (B&H), fruit depressed, muricate, echinate or setose [i.e. bristly].

- siliqua globosa, hispidissima et subechinata (B&H), silique globose, very hispid and nearly echinate.

- MEOTSA, (Alsodeia echinocarpa), paullulum differt capsula setis flexuosis intertextis densissime molliterque echinata (B&H), Meotra, differs a little by the capsule very densely and weakly echinate with flexuose interwoven bristles.

- achenia compressa v. subglobosa, laevia v. varie striata, costata, rugosa v. echinata.(B&H), achenes compressed or subglobose, smooth or variously striate, costate, rugose or echinate.

- siliqua globosa, hispidissima et subechinata (B&H), silique globose, very hispid and somewhat echinate.

- differt capsula setis flexuosis intertextis densissime molliterque echinata (B&H), it differs by the capsule with bristles flexuose, interwoven, very densely and softly echinate.

- capsula dense echinato-setosa v. rarius nuda (B&H), capsule densely echinate-bristly or more rarely naked.

- fructus coriaceus v. sublignosus, undique tuberculatus v. echinatus (B&H), fruit leathery or nearly woody, everywhere tuberculate or echinate.

- capsula subglobosa, tuberculoso-muricata v. setis longissimis molliter plumosis echinata (B&H), capsule nearly globose, tuberculose-muricate or echinate with very long softly plumose bristles.

- carpella matura distincta v. abortu solitaria, setis longis mollibus saepius echinato-tomentosa (B&H), mature carpels separated or solitary by abortion, with bristles long soft more often echinate-tomentose.

- fructus depressus, muricatus echinatus v. setosus (B&H), fruit depressed, muricate-echinate or bristled.

- capsula globosa, setis longis rigidis echinata (B&H), capsule globose, echinate with bristles long, rigid.

- capsula crasso-coriacea v. lignosa, dense echinata setosa v. velutina (B&H), capsule thick-leathery or woody, densely echinate, bristled or velvety.

- siliqua globosa, hispidissima et subechinata (B&H), the silique globose, very hispid, almost echinate.

Echinacea,-ae (s.f.I), “name from the Greek echinos, sea-urchin, from the sharp-pointed pales” (Fernald 1950);

Echinochloa,-ae (s.f.I), > Gk. echinos, sea-urchin, + chloa, grass, “in allusion to the bristling awns” (Fernald 1950);

Echinocystis [-is?] (s.f.III) > Gk. echinos, a hedgehog, + cystis, a bladder “from the prickly fruit” (Fernald 1950);

Echinodorus,-i (s.m.II), > Gk. echinus, rough husk + doros, a leathern bottle “applied to the ovary, which is in most species armed with the persistent style, forming a sort of prickly head of fruit” (Fernald (1950); “referring to the spiny achenes” (Stearn 1996);

Echinopanax,-acis (s.m.III), a very prickly shrub, > Gk. echinos, a hedgehog + Panax, q.v., the generic name for American ginseng. “The stems are densely covered with spines. Araliaceae” (Stearn 1996);

Echinops, Globe-thistle, > Gk. echinos, hedgehog + ops, appearance, “from the bristly nature of the armed foliage or perhaps of the spreading individual involucres in the dense spherical glomerules” (Fernald 1950);

Echinopsis (s.f.III), Sea-urchin Cactus > Gk. echinos, a sea-urchin (also hedgehog) + opsis, resemblance; “from the resemblance of these round, spiny cacti to a sea-urchin. Cactaceae” (Stearn 1996);

Echinopteris,-idis (s.f.III); Malpighiaceae] Cocci lappulaceo-echinati (B&H), the cocci [i.e. berries] bur-like-echinaceous; Fructus 3-coccus, coccis indehiscentibus, dorso pluriseriatim lappulaceo-echinatis (B&H), fruit 3-berried, with the berries indehiscent, lappulaceous-echinate in many rows on the back.

Gardenia echinata.

NOTE: there appears to be an intergradation from hispidus, echinatus, muricatus, to tuberculatus. Echinate also seems to imply bristles (setae);

- fructus echinatus v. setosus (B&H), the fruit echinate or setose (i.e. bristly].

NOTE: there is also a relationship between echinate and lappaceus,-a,-um (adj.A) or lappulaceus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘bur-like’ “having the appearance of a lappa or bur; that is to say, of a round body covered with small hooks” (Lindley);

[VERBENA lappulacea] seminibus echinatis (Swartz), with the seeds echinate.


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

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