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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

 
commutatus,-a,-um (part.A), commutabilis,-e (adj.B): changed, (inter)changed, (ex)changed, altered, shifted; replaced, substituted; rearranged; changeable, variable; “changed or changing; used for a species close to one already known” (Stearn 1996) [> L. commuto,-avi,-atum, 1.: to alter wholly, change entirely; to exchange something with another, to change, interchange, replace, substitute]; note that in some examples there is the degree or sense of a confusion between two closely related species, i.e. ‘confused with,’ and the suggestion that the differences are minimal or not worth recognizing; cf. mutatus,-a,-um (part.A), changed, altered, transformed, mutated;

Gerundive: commutandus, commutanda, commutandum (adj.A): ‘to be changed or altered; to be equated [i.e. interchanged or substituted] with’

- [algae] deorsum involvuntur et aliquando ita cylindricae apparent, cum frondibus C. tomentosi tamen numquam commutandae. (Agardh), they are downwardly involute and thus they appear sometimes cylindric, yet they never should be interchangable with the leaves of C. tomentosum.

- (alga) a Turnero cum F. crinito conjuncta; var. B. cum F. concatenato L. a Wulfenio Espero cet. commutata, a Turnero ad C. granulatam relata (Agardh), by Turner conjointed with F. crinitum; the var. [beta] with F. concatenatum L. interchanged by Wulfenius, Esperus, etc., by Turner related to C. granulata.

- [Polytrichum formosum] A Pol. communi, quocum saepe commutatum est, theca ochracea pentagona vel hexagona obsolete apophysata longiore et operculo conico haud planiusculo mucronato differt (C.Mueller), from Polytrichum communis, with which it is often interchanged, it differs by the ochraceous, pentagonel or hexagonal, weakly apophysate, longer theca and by the conic, not nearly flat, mucronate operculum.

- Bryo turbinato, quocum saepe commutatum, simillimum, sed thecae serius maturae forma distat (C. Mueller), to Bryum turbinatum, with which it is often interchanged, it is very similar, but it is distant by the shape of the theca matured more late [i.e. later].

- A Dicrano turfaceo saepe commutato habitu jam valde refugit (C. Mueller), from Dicranum turfaceum often substituted, it in fact strongly escapes by the habit.

- A Dicrano introflexo, quocum commutatum in herbariis vidimus, statura alta gracillima interrupte innovante, foliis elamellosis longe distat (C. Mueller), from Dicranum introflexum, with which we have seen it interchanged in herbaria, it is far distant by the tall, very slender, interruptedly innovating stature, by the bladeless leaves.

- species distinctissima et forsan in genus proprium commutanda ? (DeCandolle), a very distinct species and perhaps it should be changed into a special genus.

Aconitum commutatum; Andreaea commutata; Capparis commutata; Cratoneuron commutatum (Hedw.) Roth, probably referring to variability in appearance due to calcareous deposition; Grewia commutata; Hymenostylium commutatum.

Aster commutatus, “changed” (Fernald 1950), a species not much different from A. ericoides; Bromus commutatus, “variable” (Fernald 1950), a species “perhaps not specifically separable from B. racemosus” (Fernald 1950); Panicum commutatum, “changeable” (Fernald 1950).

 

A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2017

 
 
 
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