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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

Caudex,-icis (s.m.III), abl. sg. caudice, nom.& acc. pl. caudices, dat. & abl.pl. caudicibus [> L., etymology in doubt]; see corm (3):

1. “the axis of a plant, consisting of stem and root” (Lindley); the main axis including both stem and root of a plant.

2. the stem or trunk of a tree;

3. “the woody base of a perennial plant” (WIII); “the persistent base of an [otherwise annual] herbaceous stem” (Fernald 1950).

rhizome, by some = the caudex: rhizome: “the rootstock or dorsiventral stem, of root-like appearance, prostrate on or under ground, sending off rootlets, the apex progressively sending up stems or leaves; in a recent (2015, May 22) treatment of ‘caudex’ (Wikipedia): “a caudex of a plant is a stem, but the term is also used to mean a rootstock and particularly a basal stem structure from which new growth arises.

4. (in pteridophytes) “an erect, trunk-like rhizome found in arborescent and subarborescent ferns, such as Cyathea and some species of Diplazium” (Lellinger); the stem of a palm or tree fern, covered with persistent leaf bases or marked with their scars. Caudex indicates an old part of the stem with leaves from previous seasons that have died and from whence new branches arise on old stems at the base of the plant rather than from the stem apex; in the strict sense of the term, meaning a stem, "caudex" is most often used with plants that have a different stem morphology from the typical angiosperm dicotyledon stem, examples of this include palms, ferns, and cycads; cf. sobol, 'a sprout, shoot, offshoot, sucker;' a shoot, especially from the ground’ (Jackson); cf. trunk; see stock; cf. stirps (s.f.III);

NOTE: use of caudex for ‘tree trunk’ is based on its classical use; see note below.

2. - [Peziza pitya] constanter nobis nonnisi in caudicibus, ramis acubusque languidis emortuisve Pini piceae dejectis (S&A), strictly with us only on fallen trunks, branches and needles withered or dead of Pinus picea.

2. - [fungus] in caudicibus annosis muscosis quercinis et fagineis (S&A), on aged mossy oaken trunks and beechen [trunks].

2. - [Theophrasta americana] caulis frutescens, erectus a medio ad apicem foliosus (caudicis instar frondosi) (Swartz), fruiting stem erect, leaf-bearing from the middle to the apex, frondose like the stem of a [broad-leaf] tree.

2. - folia apicem versus caudicis elongata, leaves toward the apex of the trunk elongate.

2. - constanter nobis nonnisi in caudicibus, ramis acubusque languidis emortuisve Pini piceae dejectis (S&A), constantly by us only on the fallen stems, branches and needles, withered or dead, of Pinus picea.

3. - herbae annuae radice fibrosa, v. perennantes caudice lignoso (B&H), annual herbs with a fibrous root or perennial [herbs] with a woody caudex.

3. - rhizoma interdum in caudicem erectum infra folia brevissimum v. rarius elongatum ramosumque productum, rhizome sometimes drawn out into a very short erect caudex below the leaves or more rarely an elongated and branched (caudex).

3. - pedunculi proxime ex caudicibus orientes, peduncles arising immediately from the caudices.

3. - [Ranunculaceae] herbae annuae, v. caudice radiciformi v. cespitoso v. ope stolonum perennantes, rarius suffruticosae v. lignoso-scandentes (B&H), annual herbs, or with a rootlike caudex or caespitose or perennial by means of stolons, more rarely a subshrub or woody-climbing.

3. - plantae nunc epiphyticae caudice (v. rhizomate aerio) arboribus v. saxis mediantibus radicibus adventitiis saepe carnosulis adhaerente (B&H), plants sometimes epiphytic by a caudex (or with an aerial rhizome) often adhering to trees or stones by intermediating adventitious roots often somewhat fleshy.

3. - herbae epiphyticae v. rarius terrestres, erectae v. caudice cauliformi repente radicante arboribus v. saxis affixa (B&H), herbs epiphytic or very rarely terrestrial, erect or by a stem-like caudex in a creeping manner rooting [sending out aerial roots] attached to trees or stones.

4. - caudice simplici vel ramoso basibus foliorum veterum vestito, with the caudex simple or branched with the bases of old leaves clothed.

4. - in horto botanico in Palmi caudice, in the botanical garden on the trunk of a Palm.

4. - [moss] Patria. In umbrosis argillaceis ad radices palmarum Jamaicae. Lectus quoque in caudice alto Arecae oleraceae (Mueller), native place. in shady clay [places, sc. locis] on the roots of the palms of Jamaica. Collected also on the tall trunk of Areca oleracea.

4. [Palmeae] (B&H): radix primaria cito evanida, caudice base radiculas plurimas cylindraceas simplices v. ramosas epigaeas v. hypogaeas emittente. Caudex gracilis v. robustus, elatus mediocris v. humilis, non raro soboliferus, simplex, rarissime dichotome ramosus, erectus v. ope uncorum longissime scandens, annulatus v. cicatricatus, inermis v. aculeis saepius nigris compressis armatus (B&H), the primary root quickly vanishing, with the caudex at the base sending out many cylindric, unbranched or branched, supra- or subterranean radicles. The caudex slender or robust, high, medium-sized or low, not rarely bearing suckers [offshoots, soboles], simple [i.e. unbranched] vary rarely dichotomously branched, erect or very high-climbing by means of hooks [i.e. barbs], marked with rings or scars, unarmed or armed with (more often black) compressed aculeae.

- palmae humiles v. elatae, caudice annulato saepe basibus foliorum tecto (B&H), palms low or high, with the caudex ringed, often covered with the bases of the leaves.

- palmae caudice solitario decumbente, annulato, petiolorum basibus onusto (B&H), palms with the caudex solitary, decumbent, ringed, laden with the bases of the petioles.

- palmae armatae, caudice elato solitario saepius medio ventricoso, annulato, dense aculeato vel spinoso (B&H), palmes armed, with the caudex high, solitary, more often ventricose [i.e. swollen out] in the middle, marked with rings, densely aculeate or spiny.

- palmae gregarieae, ubique aculeatae, aculeis rectis v. hamatis, decumbentes vel scandentes, caudicibus fasciculatis flexuosis annulatis (B&H), gregarious palms, aculeate all over, with the aculeae straight or hooked, [palms] decumbent or climbing, with the caudices fascicled, flexuose, marked with rings.

- palmae caudice robusto cylindraceo ventricoso v. pyriformi simplici v. dichotome ramoso cicatricato (B&H), palms with the caudex robust, cylindric, ventricose [i.e. swollen] or pear-shaped, undivided or dichotomously branched, covered with scars.

- palma elata, caudice robusto annulato medio v. altius incrassato, interdum apicem versus furcato v. pauci-ramoso (B&H), a tall palm, with the caudex robust, marked with rings, thickened in the middle or higher, sometimes forked toward the apex or few-branched.

- palmae caudice gracili elato v. mediocri obscure annulato, annulis v. internodiis interdum spinis conicis armatis (B&H), palms with the caudex slender, high or middle height, obscurely ringed, with the rings or internodes sometimes defended by conical spines.

Caudex repens, abl.sg. caudice repente: “(obsol.) a creeping stem; what is now called a rhizome” (Lindley) = rhizome (Jackson).

Caudex descendens, abl. sg. caudice descendente: “the root” (Lindley; Jackson), lit. ‘descending stem.’

Caudex radicis (gen.sg. radix,-icis (s.f.III)); “(obsol.) the extreme point of the root” (Lindley); “the root-tip” (Jackson).

caudici-continuus (adj.A): “(obsol.) continuous with the stem; occasionally said of leaves which have no articulation with the stem” (Lindley); “continuous with the stem, used of those leaves which have no articulation with the stem” (Jackson).

cormophyllaceus,-a,-um (adj.A) [> Gk. phyllon, a leaf + L. -aceus,-a,-um (adj.A)], cormophyllaceous, “used by E. Newman for those Ferns whose fronds are attached to the caudex” (Jackson).

multicipital, “with many heads, referring to the crown of a single root or to several caudices” (Fernald 1950);

- caudex multiceps, gen.sg. caudicis multicipitis, abl. sg. caudice multicipiti; caudex with multiple heads from which branches arise.

Stock: “1. a synonym of race,” q.v.; see stirps (s.f.III), q.v., gen.sg. stirpis; 2. the stem which receives the scion in grafting; 3. a caudex or rhizome which emits roots” (Jackson);

NOTE: classically 'the trunk of a tree, the stock, stem; a block of wood split into planks, leaves or tablets;' using tablets on which to write, the word has become 'codex': an account book, a ledger and hence, a code of laws; Codex Theodosianus, Codex Justinianus.


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

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