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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

 
CAPSULAR FRUIT (ALGAE): (fructus,-us (s.m.IV) capsularis, abl. sg. fructu capsulari): Agardh: the fruit of algae forming capsules:

Capsulae sunt fructus Floridearum, q u i, plerumque externi, intra pericarpium varie formatum sporas magno numero collectos continent. Fructus capsularis sequentes modificationes in generibus diversis Floridearum offert.

The fruits of the Florideae are capsules, [which fruits] usually are external, collected within a variously formed pericarpium, they contain spores in great number.

ln Ceramieis constat pericarpio hyalino subgelatinoso, intra quod sporae oblongae» numerosae laxius nidulantur ( = Favellaè).

In the Ceramieae [it is] composed of a hyaline nearly gelatinous pericarpium, within which more loosely nestle [i.e. are embedded] numerous, oblong spores (= the Favellae).

Favellae aut nudae obveniunt (Callithamnia pleraque), aut ramulis tenuioribus cinctae (Ceramium, Microcladia, Spjridia, Ptilota) aut involucro proprio tectae (Griffithsià); plerumque in axillis vel ad ramulos sessiles sunt, rarius in ramulo proprio terminales Wrangelia, Griffithsiae plurimae.

The favellae either occur naked (many Callithamnia), or occur surrounded by thinner branches (Caramium, Microcladia, Spyridia,Ptilota) or covered by a special involucre (Griffithsia); they are usually in the axils or on sessile branchlets, more rarely terminal on a special branch (Wrangelia, many Griffithsiae).

In Cryptonemeis capsulae a fructu Ceramiorum parum diversae mihi videntur; sunt sporae numerosae in glomerulum arcte congestae, pericarpio hyalino sed arctius includente circumdatae; has Favellidia appellavi.

In the Cryptonemeae, the capsules seem to me different from the fruit of the Cermaia; the spores are numerous, closely gathered together into a glomerule, surrounded by a hyaline pericarpium but more tightly enclosed, these I have called Favellidia.

Favellidia nunc nuda, seu ramulis parum tegentibus cincta sunt (Gloiocladeae)', nunc intra stratum periphericum frondis nidulantia et externe vix conspicua, secedentibus filis periphericis denique elabentia (Nemostomeae); nunc intra stratum proprium locis peculiaribus externe evolutunt nata (Spongiocarpeae); nunc intra stratum cellularum exteriorum formata, et membrana tenacissima cincta non nisi illa dilacerata (?) libera [Gasterocarpeae); vel denique intra protuberantiam externam plus minus insignem provenientia, aut nuda et poro terminali erumpentia (Grateloupia), aut reticulo proprio circumdante inclusa (Gigartina).

The Favellidia are sometimes naked, or surrounded by somewhat concealing branchlets (Gloiocladeae), sometimes embedded within a peripheral layer of the frond and externally are scarcely conspicuous, by separating peripheral filaments finally falling away (Nemostomeae); sometimes when they are originated within a special layer they evolve externally in particular places (Spongiocarpeae); sometimes formed within an outer layer of cells, and, surrounded by a very tough membrane, not liberated except when that is (perhaps) torn apart (Gasterocarpeae); or, finally emerging forth within an external more or less conspicuous protuberance, or naked and bursting out by a terminal pore (Grateloupia), or enclosed within a surrounding special reticulum [i.e. network] (Gigartina).

In Sphaerococcoideis et Delesserieis est fructus capsularis subsphaericus (aut hemisphaericus) et intra pericarpium cellulosum, distentione vel dilaceratione denique apertura, sporas oblongas ' in glomerulum arcte congestas e placenta centrali egredientes fovens; capsulas has Coccidia nominavi.

In Sphaerococcoideae and Delesserieae there is a nearly spheric (or hemispheric) capsular fruit, and within the cellulose pericarp, finally opened by distension or being torn apart, enclosing oblong spores tightly congested into a glomerule issuing from the central placenta; I have called these capsules Coccidia.

In Rhodomeleis et Chondrieis denique sunt Keramidia plerumque ovata aut urceolata, rarius subsphaerica (Rytiphloea), intra pericarpium celluloso-membranaceum apice poro regulari pertusum, sporas pyriformes ad placentam basalem afiìxas gerentia.

In the Rhodomeleae and Chondrieae finally are the Keramidia, usually ovate or urceolate, more rarely nearly sphaerical, bearing within a cellulose [i.e. spongy]- membranaceous pericarpium perforated at the apex by a regular [i.e. special, customary] pore, the pear-shaped spores attached to the basal placenta.

Favellae et Favellidia eo modo formari videntur, ut cellulae fructigerae circumdantes peculiari impulsu perductae plexum producunt cellularum minutissimarum,quae sensim in glomerulum singulum arctissime conglobantur, quaeque singulae sporam singulam morphosi endochromatis formatam producunt.

The Favellae and Favellidia seem to be formed in the same way, thus surrounding the fruit-bearing cells, guided by a special force, they bring forth a network of very minute cells, which gradually are very tightly massed together into a single glomerule, each one of which alone produces a single spore formed by a morphosis [manner of development] of the endochrome.

Haec autem illarum origo non nisi in juvenilibus observanda, raro in fructu maturo perspicua (Wrangelia): an revera semper eadem? [sic]

However this origin of those things is not to be observed except in juveniles, it is rarely evident in mature fruit (Wrangelia): or perhaps it is really always the same [origin].

(In Gasterocarpeis praecipue Favellidium transformatione singulae cellulae, cujus endochroma in sporas numerosas abiisset, ortum fuisse, facile crederes).

(In the Gasterocarpeae especially you could have easily believed the favellidium may have originated by the transformation of a single cell when in fact its endochrome would have had transformed into numerous cells).

Cellulae Favellas vel Favellidia ita constituentes raro ex singula cellula vel placenta provenire videntur (Chrysymenia,Wrangelia? [sic]) saepius productum omnium cellularum circumjacentium crediderim; matura Favellidia potius in strato frondium nidulantia et libera, quam certo puncto affixa, rarissime placentae adhuc adhaerentia {Chrysymenia, Grateloupia) mihi visa sunt.

The cells thus constituting the Favellae or Favellidia, seem to rarely come forth from a single cell or placenta (Chrysymenia, perhaps Wrangelia) more often I might have believed it an extension of all the surrounding cells; in reality the mature Favellidia had seemed to me more embedded in a layer of the fronds and free, rather than attached at a certain point, very rarely still adhering to the placenta.

Sporae Coccidiorum ex endochromate cellularum, in fila clavato-articulata a placenta singula centrali egredientia coordinatarum, formantur; origo itaque Favellidiis subsimilis, at placenta Coccidiorum normaliter singula et in fructu maturo adhuc detegenda; sporae minus arcte cohaerent suntque eam ob causam pericarpio communi inclusae.

The spores of the Coccidia are formed from the endochrome of the cells, coordinated [i.e. arranged together] into clavate-jointed filaments issuing from a single central placenta; the origin, therefore, is somewhat similar to the Favellidia, but the placenta of the Coccidia is normally single and to this point to be detected in the mature fruit; the spores are less closely coherent [i.e. pressed together] and are, for this reason, enclosed in a common pericarp.

Sporae Keramidiorum origine non magnopere diversa gaudent; loco autem filorum multiarticulatorum Coccidii, sunt fila sporifera in Keramidiis ad terminale articulum reducta; hinc perisporae magis pyriformes et invicem omnino liberae.

The spores of the Keramidia are provided with an origin not very much different; on the other hand, at the place of the multi-articulated filaments of a Coccidium, the spore-bearing filaments on the Kermamidia are reduced to a terminal joint; from this place the perispores more pyriform and are in turn completely free.

Cujuscumque itaque generis sint capsulae, sporae semper ex integro endochromate formatae sunt, et singulae sporae perisporio proprio inclusae; maturitate e perisporiis erumpunt, unde sporae ipsae nulla vera membrana cinctae videntur. (Agardh).

And thus, whatsoever the capsules of a genus may be, the spores are always formed from a perfect endochrome; and the individual spores enclosed in a characteristic perispore; with maturity, they burst forth from the perispores, for which reason the spores themselves appear bounded by no true membrane.

 

A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2017

 
 
 
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